Al-Misbah (Ar/En)

المصباح (عربي/إنجليزي)

Word Definition
ائتكال corrosion.
ائتلاف alliance: a union of persons or countries for a special purpose; coalition, association. harmony: pleasing mixture of musical sounds, colours, etc.; agreement (in feelings, ideas, etc.).
ائتلف harmonize, conform, agree: (or be compatible or in tune) with.
ائتمان trust, credit.
ائتماني fiduciary.
ائتمن (على سر) confide: (with in) to trust sb. with one’s secrets or private troubles: Never confide in a stranger.
آب (شهر) august: the eighth month of the year.
آب return: to go back; come back; arrive back: She returned home by a different road. She returned at midnight.
آت forthcoming, coming.
آثار effects.
آثار قديمة antiquity: very ancient things (ruins, stone figures, etc.): We spent our holiday visiting the antiquities of Upper Egypt remains. what is left: esp. from former ages: They found the remains of an ancient castle. The remains of a fire showed where he had camped.
الآثار الأدبية الإغريقية واللاتينية المشهورة classics: the best writings of ancient Greece and Rome.
آثر favour, favor: to support; show a liking for one (person or thing) more than another: I favour the idea of hiring a car instead of buying one Parents sometimes favour their youngest child. prefer: to like better: I prefer apples to oranges (I like them better than oranges). I could go but I prefer to stay.
آثم sinner: sb. who sins. wrongdoer: sb. who does wrong; sb. who breaks the law.
آجر remunerate: to pay sb. for some service given.
آجر brick: baked clay for building: The walls were made of brick. tile: a thin flat piece of baked clay, for covering roofs or floors.
آجن stale, eutrophic.
آح (بياض البيض) albumen: egg white.
آذى damage: to harm: the storm damaged the crops. My car was badly damaged in the accident. harm: to hurt; damage: Smoking harms your health. hurt: to cause harm or pain to (sb.’s body): He hurt his leg at footfall. This bad tooth is hurting (me). to cause pain: to (sb.’s mind): Your refusal hurt his feelings. Unkindness hurts. injure: to hurt or wound: She was slightly injured in a motor accident. The injured (people) were taken to hospital. wrong: to treat or blame unfairly.
آذى شعورا offend: to displease; hurt the feelings of: Your rude letter offended him.
آر (وحدة مساحة = 100 متر مربع) are.
آزر help: to back up, support.
آزوت nitrogen, azote.
آس myrtle.
آفة (عطب جسدي) lesion.
آكل eater.
آكلة canker, cancrum.
آلف tame: to domesticate.
آلم ache: to have a continuous pain: My ear aches. grieve: to feel very sad (because of loss, etc.); to make sb. sad: The girl was grieving because her friend had gone away. His bad behaviour grieved his mother. hurt: to cause harm or pain to (sb.’s body): This bad tooth is hurting (me). to cause pain: to (sb.’s mind): Your refusal hurt his feelings. Unkindness hurts. hurt sb’s feelings: to make sb. unhappy (through unkindness, etc.): If you refuse his help, you’ll hurt his feelings. pain: to cause pain to sb.: He pained his mother by his rudeness.
آلم ألما شديدا smart: to feel a sharp stinging pain: My eyes smarted from the smoke.
آلي automatic: (of actions) done without thought: Our breathing is automatic. mechanical: concerning machines or machinery: mechanical engineering.
آلية (تركيبة تشغيل) mechanism: mechanical device.
آلية (كآلية الساعة) clockwork: the way of working a machine by metal wheels fitting into each other, as in a clock: My son has a clockwork train.
آمر commander, commandant.
آمن بـ believe in: to have faith in; trust the value of: Every Christian believes in God. I believe in having 8 hours sleep each night.. hold: to believe: He holds very strange ideas.
آمين amen: word used at the end of a prayer, meaning "let it be so".
آنف الذكر above-mentioned.
آهل inhabited, populated.
آونس (28.35غ-أفوارديبوا) ounce.
آوى accommodate: to have space for; provide rooms for: This classroom accomodates 10 boys. Hotels accomodate foreign visitors. house: to put in a house; find a place or space for: If you bring workers here, you must house them.
أب (تستعمل للمناداة والتحبب) dad, daddy: a child’s word for father. father: a male parent.
أب godfather: sb. (not the parent) who promises (at a Christian child’s naming ceremony) to help the child to grow up as a good and religious person and to look after it, if the parents cannot.
أب foster-parent, (-father, -mother): sb. who acts as father, etc. to a foster-child.
أباجورة lampshade: a cover for a lamp, to soften or direct its light.
أباح permit: to allow: Smoking is not permitted.
أباد annihilate: to destroy completely. eradicate: to destroy completely or put an end to (sth. bad): We must try to eradicate crime in the cities. exterminate: to destroy completely sth. (rats, disease, etc.) that is harmful kill off. to kill: till few or none remain: The icy weather killed off my roses.
إبادة annihilation.
إباضة ovulation.
إبالة bale.
أبان indicate, show, demonstrate.
ابتاع buy, bought: to obtain sth. by giving money: I bought this car for $700. It is best to buy when prices are low. purchase: to buy.
ابتداء beginning, commencement, starting.
ابتدائي elementary: simple; suitable for beginners; concerning the easiest parts of a subject: an elementary school; elementary science. initial: first; at the beginning: The initial letter of the word ‘start’ is ‘s’. My initial attempt to swim across the river ended in failure. primary: first: a primary school. (a school at the first, lowest level).
ابتداع contrivance, device, contraption.
ابتدع create: to make sth. new: Writers create characters for their stories.
أبتر truncate, clipped, curtailed.
ابتز extort: to obtain sth. (a promise, money, etc.) by force, or fear of force; blackmail.
ابتزاز blackmail: a demand for money from sb. for keeping sth. secret.
ابتسامة smile: a smiling look.
ابتسامة عريضة grin: a broad smile.
ابتسامة متكلفة أو بلهاء simper: a foolish smile.
ابتسم smile: draw up the corners of one’s mouth, as an expression of friendliness or amusement.
ابتسم ابتسامة عريضة grin: smile broadly, showing one’s teeth.
ابتسم ابتهاجا beam: smile happily.
ابتعاث emission, emanation, emittance, evolution.
الابتعاثية (بالنسبة إلى الجسم الأسود) emissivity.
ابتعاد departure.
ابتعد stand, stood: (with aside, away, back etc.) to move: He stood aside to let me pass.
ابتغى wish: to want: Do you wish to go with us? You may, if you wish (it).
ابتكر invent: to make sth. that is completely new: Alexander Bell invented the telephone.
ابتلال wetness.
ابتلع devour: to eat hungrily and completely. swallow: to take (food, drink, etc.) down one’s throat.
ابتلع بسرعة gulp: to swallow quickly.
ابتلى afflict: to cause pain or trouble to: He is afflicted with bad health. inflict: to cause sb. to suffer sth. unpleasant (such as a wound, punishment, unwanted company, etc.): He inflicts his problems on all of us.
ابتهاج gaiety: light-heartedness; cheerfulness.
ابتهال prayer: the words (formal or informal) with which one prays: Have you said your prayers?.
ابتهج buck up: to become or make more cheerful: The good news bucked me up. cheer up: to make or become happier: Cheer up! The news isn’t too bad. rejoice: to be joyful.
ابتهل إلى implore: to beg (sb. to do sth.). pray: to talk to God, either silently or aloud; ask God: It is time to pray. Let us pray for God’s help.
أبجدي alphabetical: of, belonging to, or in the order of, the alphabet: Alphabetical signs are used in some calculations. This is an alphabetical list of names.
الأبجدية alphabet: all the letters used for writing a language, in order: The English alphabet runs from A to Z.
أبح (صوت) husky: (of the voice) rough and hard to hear, because the throat is dry or tired.
إبحار navigation.
أبحر sail: (of a sailing boat; of any ship with sails or engine; of people in it) move over water; start a journey: We sailed to America. The steamship sailed at midday. set sail: to sail away: We left harbour and set sail for our fishing grounds.
أبحر في navigate: to sail through: This narrow river is hard to navigate.
أبد infinity: endless space or time or number: If you divide ten by three, you can go on to infinity.
أبدا ever: (esp. in a negative sentence or a question) at any time: Nobody ever writes to me. far from: not at all: I’m far from pleased with the result. never: not at any time: I’ve never met him. Never before have I heard such a terrible noise!. none: (esp. with a comparative word) not at all: He was none the worse for his fall (His fall did not harm him at all). not a bit: not in any way: I’m not a bit surprised.. nothing: not at all: He looks nothing like his brother.
إبداع creation: creating. ingenuity: being ingenious: The prisoner’s ingenuity enabled him to make his escape.
إبداعي imaginative: showing active imagination: imaginative writing; an imaginative child. original: new and unusual; interestingly different: an original way of doing sth.; an original mind.
إبدال replacement: putting (sth. or sb.) in the place of (sth. or sb. else): My worn shoes are badly in need of replacement. replacement: sth. or sb. that takes the place of (sth. or sb. else): The teapot is broken, we must buy a replacement.
أبدى display: to show publicly: He never displays his real feelings. Shops display their goods in their windows.
أبدى استعداده لـ offer: to say that one will give sth. (money, a prize, a reward, etc.) to anyone who fulfils certain conditions: The police offered $1000 to anyone who could lead them to the murderer.
أبدى الامتعاض أو السخرية بتعبير الوجه make faces at sb.: to twist one’s face rudely at sb..
أبدى شكه في query: to question sth. doubtful: He queried my right to be present at the meeting.
أبدى ملاحظة observe: to point out; say: he observed that we should have to hurry.
أبدع create: to make sth. new: Writers create characters for their stories.
أبدي eternal: lasting for ever. perpetual: continual; never ceasing: the perpetual movement of the sea.
أبر pollinate.
أبرأ heal: to make (a wound) healthy.
إبرة needle: a fine steel pin, pointed at one end and having a small hole at the other; it is used with thread for sewing; a moving needle-like pointer on the face of certain instruments (compass, speedometer, etc.).
إبرة الحاكي أو الغرامفون needle: a short needle-like object that draws the sound from a gramophone record. stylus.
إبرة طبية needle/syringe: the hollow needle-like end of an instrument for putting medicine under the skin.
أبرز bring out: to cause to appear: The sunshine brought out the flowers. produce: to bring sth. out: he produced a knife from his pocket; show (a ticket, proof, etc.) so as to satisfy sb..
أبرز (أكد أو شدد على) emphasize, stress.
إبراز egestion, excretion.
إبراق telegraphy, keying.
أبرد (أرسل بالبريد) mail.
أبرش spotted, speckled.
أبرشية parish: an area of land with its own church; the same area, treated as the smallest division of local government in England.
أبرق concrete.
أبرق (لمع) flash.
أبرم (أضجر) bore.
إبري acicular, needle-shaped, acerate, acerose.
إبريسم silk.
إبريق jug, pitcher: a pot for liquids, with a handle (for pouring liquids into glasses, etc.). kettle: a metal pot (with a handle and a pipe for pouring) in which water is boiled. pot: a round container (of clay, metal or glass) for any special purpose: a coffee pot (a pot from which coffee is poured into cups); a pot of coffee (a pot full of hot coffee.
إبريق الشاي teapot: a pot in which tea leaves are mixed with boiling water.
إبريل April: the fourth month of the year.
إبزيم buckle: a fastener, esp. for a shoe or a band round the waist.
إبصار eyesight: the power of seeing.
أبصر see: to notice with one’s eyes; use one’s eyes effectively: Did you see what happened? I never saw him coming. Cats can see in the dark. set eyes on: (usu. with not or never) to see: I’ve never set eyes on her before today.
أبصر (عن بعد) sight: to see (sb. or sth.) in the distance: After six days at sea, we sighted an island.
إبط armpit: the hollow under the arm at the shoulder.
أبطأ delay: to wait; waste time: Don’t delay. Act now!. slow: (usu. with down or up) to lessen speed: The train slowed down. Its driver slowed it down.
إبطاء retardation, slowing down, idling.
إبطال abolition: abolishing. cancellation: cancelling.
أبطل abolish: to bring to an end; stop (a custom, rule, etc.): Those laws should be abolished. cancel: to stop sth. that was planned: The match was cancelled because of rain. nullify: to make of no use or value: If you drink alcohol, it will nullify the effects of your medicine. repeal: to end the effect of (a law). revoke: to take back (an official order, decision, etc.).
أبعاد proportions: to size; measurements in general: house of suitable proportions for his large family. dimensions.
إبعاد removal: removing.
أبعد expel: to drive away from a group: He was expelled from school for stealing. oust: to drive or push (sb.) out, from a position of power, etc.: The ruler was ousted by the army. remove: to take away; take off: Please remove your books from the table.
أبعد banish: to drive sb. out of his country, as a punishment. exile: to send sb. out of his own country, as a punishment.
أبعد farther: at or to a greater distance: I was too tired to go farther. further: (of distance) farther: I’m too tired to go any further.
الأبعد extreme: farthest; right at the end: He sat at the extreme end of the row. farthest: at or to the greatest distance: I kicked the ball to the farthest corner of the field. furthest: farthest; most distant.
أبعد (من) beyond: to the farther side of: This bus doesn’t go beyond the station.
أبغض detest: to hate violently. dislike: not to like: I dislike big cities. She dislikes being spoken to in that way.
أبقى (في عمل أو وظيفة) keep on: to continue to employ sb.: I kept him on although he was too ill to work.
أبقى (على حاله) keep: to cause (sb. or sth.) to remain in a certain state: Keep that child quiet! Don’t keep me waiting!.
أبقى (في وضع معين) hold: to put or keep (sth.) in a certain position (with nails, paste, rope or any pressure or support): The rubber ring held him up in the water. A nail held the picture on the wall.
أبقى (على حياته) spare: to show mercy to: He begged the murderers to spare him (or to spare his life).
أبقع spotted, mottled, speckled, piebald.
إبكار (في النشأة أو النضج) precocity.
أبكم dumb: unable to speak: Animals are dumb.
إبلاغ notification, information, communication.
إبلال recovery: becoming well again; getting back to a former good condition: a slow recovery.
أبلغ notify: to tell formally: I notified the police that my car had been stolen.
أبلغ بالإشارة signal: to make a signal; express sth. by signal: He signalled to me that all was well by blowing a whistle.
أبلغ عن inform against sb.: to tell the police secretly that sb. has done wrong, although it does not concern oneself personally (we report or complain to the police when we are personally concerned).
أبله crazy: mad; foolish; like a fool; silly. idiot: a person with a very weak mind, usually from birth; a foolish person: Idiot! You’ve dropped my book!. moron: a person with very limited brain power that is never likely to develop; a foolish person. sheepish: feeling foolish and uncomfortable, not knowing how to behave in the company of others: My son gave me a sheepish smile when he saw me reading his school report (which was not at all good). silly. foolish: stupid, lacking in understanding: stupid mistakes; a stupid person.
أبلى wear: to damage by use or by rubbing: Water and wind can wear away rock. I have worn my shoes out (worn them till they are no longer fit for use). She wore herself out (tired herself completely with hand work).
إبليس Satan: the spirit of evil; the Devil the great spirit of evil.
ابن boy: a son, esp. young: Both my boys are keen on sports. son: one’s male child.
ابن الأخ أو الأخت nephew: the son of one’s brother or sister.
ابن أو بنت العم أو العمة أو الخال أو الخالة cousin: a child of one’s uncle or aunt.
ابن أو ابنة في العماد godson, goddaughter: a child to whom one acts as godfather or godmother.
ابن آوى jackal: a dog-like wild animal.
ابن بلد countryman: (countrymen) (usu. fellow countryman) a person of the same nation as another. native: sb. who is born in a certain place: He’s a native of Burma but he now lives in London.
ابن الحفيد إلخ great grandson: (in family relationships) three further from oneself: My great grandson is the son of one of my children’s children.
ابن زنى bastard: one whose parents were not married.
ابن مقرض ferret.
أبنة bud, eye.
ابنة daughter: female child.
ابنة الأخ أو الأخت niece: the daughter of one’s brother or sister.
ابنة أخ أو أخت الزوج أو الزوجة niece: the daughter of one’s wife’s or husband’s brother or sister.
أبه لـ heed: to pay attention to (a warning, advice, etc.).
إبهام (غموض) ambiguity, vagueness.
إبهام (اليد) thumb, pollex.
أبهة splendour, splendor: grand appearance; glory; sth. very fine: the splendour of the sunset; the splendours of Moscow.
أبهج buck up: to become or make more cheerful: The good news bucked me up. cheer: to give comfort or courage to sb.: The good news cheered me. delight: to please greatly: I’m delighted to see you. exhilarate: to cheer greatly; make sb. feel fresh and strong and gay: We heard some exhilarating news. Mountain air always exhilarates me. liven: (with up) to make more lively: He sang a song to liven up the party. tickle: to amuse: His story tickled me.
الأبهر aorta.
أبهم obscure: to make obscure; block (a view): The sun was obscured by clouds.
أبو الجد greatgrandfather.
أبو جعران scarab: an insect with a hard skin (a kind of beetle) that was considered holy in ancient Egypt.
أبو الحناء (طائر صغير مغرد) robin: a small brown bird with an orange-red breast which is common in Britain.
أبو مقص (حشرة) earwig: a small insect with a pair of pointed, curving pieces on its tail.
أبو الهول sphinx: a stone figure with a lion’s body and a human head (esp. the Sphinx at Giza in Egypt, which has the head of an ancient ruler).
أبى decline: to refuse: He declined my offer. He declined to come with me. refuse: to say "no" to (sb.) when one is asked to do sth., or when one is offered sth.: He refused to help. I begged him, but he still refused. He refused the money. reject: to refuse (an offer, a plan, etc.). spurn: to refuse as useless or bad; to kick away: They spurned our offer of friendship.
أبي proud: having strong self-respect: He is poor but he is too proud to ask anyone for money.
أبيض fair: light in colour; (of people) having yellow hair: Most Norwegians are fair. Most English girls have a fair skin. white: of no colour; the ‘colour’ of snow or of this paper. white: (of people) having light-coloured skin and of European descent.
ابيض whiten: to make or become white.
ابيضاض الدم leukemia.
إتاء harvest.
إتآم (ولادة التوائم) twinning.
إتاحية availability.
إتاوة (ريع) royalty.
اتباع following.
اتبع (طريقا) follow: to go along (a road): Follow the road until you come to the hotel.
اتجار غير مشروع لابتزاز المال (نصبة) racket: a dishonest business for getting money: He runs various rackets in the city.
اتجاه attitude: a way of thinking or behaving: What is your attitude to employing female teachers?. bearings: direction, where one is in relation to other places: He lost his bearings in the desert and wandered about helplessly. Let me get my bearings and I’ll find the right road course. direction: the way that sb. or sth. goes: He went in the wrong direction. line: a course; a direction: One road follows the line of the river; the other follows the coastline. track: the course that is taken when one is tracking, the course that is being followed in any planned action: I think she’s on the right track. trend: the general direction of a change: a trend towards greater freedom for women. way: a direction: Which is the way to London? I’ve lost my way. It’s a long way away (it’s far away). Please lead the way (Please go in front).
الاتجاه المعاكس reverse: (of a machine) going backwards: He put his car into reverse.
اتجاهي directional.
اتجر trade: to buy and sell: He trades in electrical goods. Countries trade with their neighbours.
اتجه مباشرة إلى make a beeline for: to go straight and quickly to.
اتحاد association: a group with a common purpose: the motor traders’ association. federation: any group of clubs, etc. that form such a union: the National Federation of Music Societies. union: joining into one; sth. joined into one: Great Britain was formed by the union of England, Wales and Scotland.
اتحاد شركات combine: a group of companies combining for some purpose.
اتحادي unionist: a union supporter.
اتحد band together: to unite for a special purpose: We banded together to build a village hall. combine: to join together: Our schools combined to form a town team. join: to meet and mix with: Streams join to form a river.
اتخذ adopt: to accept and use (an idea, a custom, etc.): Some English words, like ‘football’ have been adopted by other languages.
اتخذ إجراءات take action: to act: The police took swift action to catch the thief.
اتخذ الترتيبات اللازمة arrange: to plan: We arranged a meeting.
اتخذ قرارا take the plunge: to make a daring or important decision.
اتخذت مسارا متعرجا (السفينة) tack: (of a sailing boat) to sail against the wind by making regular changes of direction.
أتخم (الأسواق) glut.
أتربة (فتات معدني عديم القيمة) dirt.
اتزان balance: steadiness; the position when opposite forces are equal: You must keep (or not lose) your balance when you ride a bicycle. poise: calm self-control.
اتساع expanse, extension.
اتساع breadth: distance from side to side: The length of this box is twice its breadth.. width: distance from side to side.
اتساعية (قابلية الامتداد) dilatability, expansibility.
اتساق harmony, coherence, consistency.
اتسع broaden: to make or become broader. widen: to make or become wider.
اتسع لـ accommodate: to have space for: This classroom accomodates 10 boys. hold: to contain or be able to contain: This box holds all my clothes. This tin will hold 10 litres of petrol. seat: to provide a seat for: This hall seats 500 people.
اتصال connection: a join or joining: a telephone connection. contact: meeting; touching: Our army made contact with the enemy. Some diseases are passed on by human contact. intercourse: dealings with other people: We have too little social intercourse with our neighbours. liaison: keeping in touch, meeting to hear each other’s news and opinions: We need more liaison between teachers and students.
اتصال هاتفي ring: a call on the telephone: give me a ring when you reach home.
اتصالات بعادية telecommunications.
اتصل join: to meet and mix with: This road joins the main road. Streams join to form a river.
اتصل بـ communicate: to send and receive messages, ideas and news: Ships communicate with each other by radio. We communicate by letter with absent friends. concern: be about sth.; relate to: The rules of the club concern all members. connect: (of a bus, train, etc.) to arrive in time for sb. to catch another leaving from the same place: Try to catch a bus that connects with that train. contact: to speak or send a message to sb.: If you want to contact me, telephone this number. link up: to come together; meet by arrangement: The trains link up with the boat service to the island.
اتصل هاتفيا dial: (with a modern telephone) to call a certain number by moving a dial with one’s finger: To call the police, dial 999. ring up: to call (sb.) on a telephone: My brother rang (or rang up or rang me or rang me up) last night.
اتضح clear: to make or become clear; free from anything that gets in the way: The sky is clearing. dawn: (with on) to become clear to: It suddenly dawned on me that I was being deceived.
أتعب tire: to cause (sb.) to tire: The small print tired his eyes. I’m tired of paying your debts.
اتفاق agreement: the state of agreeing: Doctors are in agreement that smoking harms the health. settlement: an agreement; the act of settling a quarrel or debt, etc.: After an hour’s talk, the two sides reached a settlement.
اتفاقا by chance:: We didn’t plan to meet but we met by chance in a shop.
اتفاقي random: not planned, not regular: random visits to the city.
اتفاقية agreement: an arrangement (spoken or written) between two persons or groups. contract: a firm written agreement: a contract to supply goods; a contract to build sth. at a certain price.
اتفق get on: (also get along) to agree; be friendly; not quarrel: I get on with him. We get along well together. go with: to match; be suitable with: Riding boots don’t go with a swimsuit.
اتفق أن chance: happen by chance: I chanced to meet him in the street. happen: to be or do sth. by chance: The day you came happened to be my birthday. I happened to see it in the newspaper.
اتفق في الرأي مع (تماما) see eye to eye: to agree completely (with sb.). agree: to have the same opinion: I agree with your ideas about music.
اتقاء avoidance, parrying.
اتقاد burning, combustion.
اتقاد glow: a warm look; a warm feeling.
إتقان perfection: being faultless.
اتقد smoulder, smolder: to burn slowly, without flames.
أتقن master: to gain control of; learn thoroughly: You can master any subject if you work hard enough. perfect: to make faultless: I spent 6 months in Paris to perfect my French.
اتكأ lean: to rest the weight of (sth. or oneself): The old lady leant on his arm. recline: to lie down or lie back, so as to rest: He was reclining comfortably in an armchair.
اتكال reliance: to trust: Don’t place too much reliance on his promises.
اتكل على bank on: to depend on (sth. that one hopes to get): I’m banking on your help to finish this quickly. trust: (with in) to have faith: You must trust in God. rely: (with on) to depend on; trust: You can rely on her not to be late.
إتلاف destruction: the act of destroying.
أتلف blast: to destroy through heat, cold etc.. damage: to harm: The storm damaged the crop: My car was badly damaged in the accident. destroy: break to pieces; ruin. eat, (ate, eaten): to destroy as if by eating: The acid was eating away the metal. ruin: to destroy; damage seriously: Storms ruined the crops.
أتم accomplish: to finish (work, etc.) successfully; fulfil (sth. planned): The change to a different form of government was accomplished without fighting or opposition. be through (with): to have finished: Are you through with that book yet? No, I’ll be through soon. finish off, finish up: to finish completely: The boys have finished off (or up) the cake. go through, (go over): (with with) to complete: If you start a course, you must go through with it.
إتمام completion: to finish; completing: The work will be paid for on completion. performance: (an act of) performing: Our team’s performance has been very good this year.
أتمت (شغل أو صير آليا) automate, automatize.
أتمتة automation.
اتهام accusation, accusing: charge (against a criminal, etc.) a claim that sb. has done wrong: He was held on a charge of murder.
اتهم accuse: to say that sb. has done wrong: He accused me of stealing his watch. be had up: to be charged in court: He was had up for dangerous driving. charge: to say that sb. has done wrong: The police charged me with dangerous driving.
أتول (جزيرة مرجانية حلقية) atoll.
أتون furnace: an enclosed fire for heating water, a place for heating materials to make steel, glass, etc.. kiln: a place where bricks or pots are baked.
أتى come, came: to move towards or with the speaker: Come with me! He came running into the room. come, came: to move to or with the person addressed: I’ll come to you soon. Shall I come with you?. arrive:: Has he come yet? Evening came. Your turn will come turn up. to arrive:: There was no match, as the other team never turned up.
أتى بـ bring, brought: to carry sth., cause sb. to come to the place where the speaker is: Bring me a chair. Bring your brother to me. fetch: to go for sth. or sb. and bring it back; go and get: I always fetch my children from school.
أتى على (طعام، إلخ) finish off, finish up: to finish completely: The boys have finished off (or up) the cake. swallow up: to cause (sth.) to disappear: His family’s needs swallow up all his earnings.
أتى من come from: (of things) to be obtained from: Rubber comes from a tree.
أتيحت له الفرصة get, (got, gotten): (with to) to succeed in; have the chance to: How did you get to hear about this? At last I’ve gotten to go to Europe.
أثاث furnishings: articles of furniture and other articles in a house, such as a bath, curtains, etc. furniture, tables, beds, chairs and other movable but solid articles for a house.
أثار aggravate: to make sb. angry: That noise aggravates me. agitate: (often passive) to make sb. anxious: She was agitated when her husband didn’t come home from work. arouse, to excite: to give sb. strong feelings (of joy, anger, hope, etc.): The news excited him. It was exciting news. It excited his interest. Our players were wildly excited by their success. incite: to cause or lead (sb.) to a strong feeling or violent action. instigate: to cause (sth. bad or sb. to do sth. bad) by urging it: Two workers instigated all the trouble at the factory. provoke: to annoy sb. (usu. on purpose) so as to make him do sth.: If you provoke the dog, he may bite you. cause: (laughter, violence, interest, etc.). raise: to bring up (a point, a question, etc.) for attention: The matter of his pay was not raised at the meeting. rouse: to stir (sb., or his feelings): His cruelty roused their anger. stimulate: to excite; make the mind or body more active or awake stir. to excite:: Poetry should stir one’s imagination.
أثار irritate: to cause discomfort to the body: Smoke irritates the throat.
أثار الاستياء displease: to annoy.
أثار الاشمئزاز disgust: (of sth. shameful or nasty) to give sb. a strong feeling of dislike: Her rude behaviour disgusted him. There was a disgusting smell in the kitchen.
أثار الأعصاب get on sb.’s nerves: to destroy sb.’s peace of mind; make sb. excitedly anxious or angry. irritate: to annoy.
أثار اهتمام أو فضول intrigue: (of sth. strange that cannot easily be explained); to interest (sb.) greatly.
أثار الشغب agitate: to make noisy public demands: He agitated for a change in the marriage laws.
أثار ضجة أو جلبة clamour, clamor: to make a loud noise, esp. in complaining or demanding sth.: The prisoners clamoured to be let out.
أثار الغضب anger: to make (sb.) angry.
أثار المشاعر والعواطف thrill: to give a thrill to; excite: a thrilling film. touch: to have a sad effect on; to concern: Her sad story touched my heart. It was a touching story (It stirred my feelings). affect: to move the feelings of: The news affected him greatly.
أثار جلبة بدون داع fuss: to behave in a nervous, restless or anxious way about small things: Don’t fuss, we’re sure to catch our train.
إثارة excitement: (an act of) being excited; a cause of being excited. irritation: annoyance; sth. that irritates. provocation: the act of provoking. sensation: a feeling, esp. one of great interest or excitement; sth. that causes such a feeling: His wonderful jump caused a sensation in the crowd. stir: a stirring movement; excitement: Give that paint a stir. The appearance of the great actor caused a stir in the theatre.
إثبات proof: the act of discovering the worth of sth. or whether sth. is true: A soldier’s courage is put to the proof in battle.
أثبت confirm: to say or show that sth. (which lacked proof or certainty) is certain or true: A medical examination confirmed his fear that he was suffering from a chest disease. prove: to be shown to be: Their efforts proved (to be) successful.
أثث furnish: to supply with furniture and floor and window coverings: They furnished the house.
أثخن ضربا maul: to hurt by rough handling: He was badly mauled by the lion.
أثر (في) affect: to have an effect on: Bad food affects our health. move the feelings of:: The news affected him greatly; Food affects our health govern. rule; control. impress: to have a strong effect on (sb.); fill (sb.) with admiration: His honesty impressed me. influence: to have an effect on (a person, his character, beliefs, actions, a course of events, etc.): His choice of work was influenced by his father’s advice. move: to stir the feelings of: This sad story moved her deeply.
أثر act: to have an effect: Acid acts on some metals.
أثر (في النفس) touch: to have a sad effect on; to concern: Her sad story touched my heart. It was a touching story (It stirred my feelings).
أثر effect: to result: His troubles had a bad effect on his health. Scientists study the causes and effects of a disease, the feeling that sth. gives to those who see or hear it: The colours of the sunset produced a wonderful effect. impression: an effect on the mind: I formed a bad impression of his work. She made a good impression on me. influence: sb. or sth. that has an effect on sb. or sth. else; effect. mark: any sign that one object has been touched by another: a dirty mark on the wall; a footmark in the sand. relic: sth. that has been left behind from a past time: relics of the war, like ruined buildings and old guns; relics of the ancient Egyptian kings. tinge: a slight sign or amount: a tinge of colour; a tinge of sadness in her voice. tint: a shade of a colour: Sunglasses have a dark tint. trace: a sign or mark that shows where sth. had been: There were traces of blood on the floor. trail: a track left by sb. or sth.: The storm left a trail of destruction. The police were on his trail (were following signs, in search of him). vestige: a slight mark, track, etc., remaining of sth. that is now gone or has been destroyed. wake: the track on the water by a ship.
أثر (الجرح المندمل) scar: a mark that is left on the skin by an old wound.
أثر أدبي فني فذ classic: sth., esp. a book, of lasting quality, that will always be valued: Gulliver’s Travels is a classic.
أثر الإصبع fingermark: any dirty mark that is left by a finger.
أثر أقدام footprint: a footmark.
أثر أقدام العجلات track: a set of footmarks; the line left by a wheel: We followed their tracks through the snow.
أثر أو علامة القدم footmark: the mark left by a foot or shoe: a muddy footmark; the footmarks of a dog.
أثر دولاب في الأرض اللينة rut: a deep track that is left by a wheel in soft ground: cart ruts.
إثراء enrichment.
أثري antique: (an object, esp. furniture) made long ago and therefore valuable: This is an antique clock.
إثغار dentition, teething.
إثقال weighting.
أثقل weigh down: to draw down or press down, with a heavy load: The branches were weighed down by the mass of fruit.
أثقل مما يجب (أو أسمن) over weight: too heavy.
أثلج snow.
أثم sin: to be guilty of sin; do wrong.
إثم guilt: the fact that one has done wrong; a feeling of blame for what one has done wrong: His guilt was proved in court. sin: (used by people of certain religions) evil behaviour that is against God’s laws: Telling lies is a sin. Stealing is both a sin and a crime. wrong: (a) wrong action, a crime; an injustice: If you do no wrong, you will not be punished. You do him wrong (You are unfair to him) when you call him lazy. wrongdoing: (a) wrong or unlawful action.
إثمار fructification, fruition, fruitage.
أثمر (للأرض والنباتات) bear, (bore, borne): to produce: Some trees bear no fruit. yield: (of land or plants) to produce (fruit, crops, grain, etc.): These nuts yield a valuable oil. These fields yield good crops of corn.
اثنا عشر dozen, dozen: a set of twelve: I wanted a dozen eggs. They cost 20 pence a dozen. I’ll take 3 dozen of them. twelve: the number 12 (roman numerals XII).
أثناء by: during: We travelled by night. during: at some point in the time of: Someone stole my car during the night. in the course of: during: In the course of the morning I had seven visitors.
اثنان couple: two: There were a couple of children in the park. pair: two things of the same kind: A pair of silver ornaments. two: the number 2 (roman numerals II).
أثنى (على) praise: to say that one admires: They praised his courage.
الإثنين (يوم) Monday: the second day of the week.
أثير (سيال افتراضي يملأ الفضاء) aether, ether.
أثير favourite, favorite: sb. or sth. that one especially likes: Swimming is my favourite sport, sb. that one favours too much, or unfairly: The teacher’s favourite always gets good marks.
أثير (إنسان) darling: a much loved person.
إثيل (شق عضوي أحادي المكافئ) ethyl.
أثيلة (معالجة بالكحول الإثيلي) ethylation.
إثيلين ethylene.
أثيم sinful: evil; being or doing sth. that is a sin; shameful, bad: a sinful waste of money. vicious: nasty-tempered; fierce: a vicious dog.
أج blaze, deflagrate.
أجاب answer: to speak or write in return: Answer me (my question, my letter). Why don’t you answer when I call?. reply: to answer; respond; act in answer; show an effect, as a result of sb.’s words or actions: I invited him to help, but he did not respond.
إجابة reply, answer, response.
أجاج brackish: (of water) slightly salty.
أجاد excel: to do very well: He excels at football.
إجادة mastery, proficiency, skill.
إجارة lease, rent.
أجاز allow: to let (sb.) do sth.; permit: We’re not allowed to smoke here. license: to permit officially; give a licence to: In Britain, a shop must be licensed to sell alcoholic drinks. Is your car licensed?. sanction: to (give) permission: The government sanctioned the inquiry into the car industry.
إجازة holiday: a period of rest from work; (often pl.) a period when schools are closed: The doctor said that I needed a week’s holiday. The summer holidays have begun. leave: holiday from official service: The soldier went home on leave. He had six weeks’ leave. licence, license: an official written permission: a driving licence.
إجاص pear: a fruit like an apple, but fatter at one end than at the other.
إجبار compulsion: the act of forcing sb. to do sth.: He says he signed the statement only under compulsion.
إجباري compulsory: which must be done; which one is forced to do: History is a compulsory subject in most schools.
أجبر compel: to force: Hunger compelled him to steal. force: to make sb. do sth. that he does not want to do: I forced him to pay what he owed. Hunger forced him to steal. make: (with an object and a verb) to cause (or to force) to do sth.: His stories make me laugh. They made him beg for mercy. oblige: (usu. passive) to force sb. to do sth.: As the bus did not come, we were obliged to walk.
اجتاح invade: (of an army) to enter by force and attack (a country); (of visitors) crowd into a place, like a foreign army; (of strangers, officials, loose animals, etc.) enter a private place without invitation, like an enemy: Napoleon invaded Russia. overrun: (of an army on foreign land, of sth. harmful, etc.) to spread over an area: The farm was overrun by rats. storm: to take (a defended place) by a violent attack.
اجتاز cover: to travel a certain distance: We covered 300 miles in a day. pass: to be successful (in); satisfy; be satisfied with: I took the examination and passed (it) easily. pull through: to struggle successfully through illness or trouble.
اجتاز بنجاح come through, get through, pass through: to pass successfully (an exam, a dangerous or difficult position, etc.).
اجتاز تجربة go through: (also go over) to suffer: No one knows what (troubles) I’ve been through.
اجتاز قفزا jump: to spring over or across sth.: The horse easily jumped the fence.
اجتث eradicate: to destroy completely or put an end to (sth. bad): We must try to eradicate crime in the cities.
اجتثاث eradication, uprooting.
اجتذاب attraction.
اجتذب attract: to draw the attention of: Football attracts large crowds.
اجترار rumination.
اجتراف erosion.
اجتراف خلفي wash: movement of water caused by a moving boat.
اجترف (اكتسح) sweep.
اجتز clip, cut off, shear.
اجتزأ curtail, cut short.
اجتزاز clipping, shearing.
اجتفاء (إزالة الجفاء) scorification.
اجتماع gathering, meeting:: a business meeting; a political meeting.
اجتماع حاشد mass meeting: very large public gathering (usu. to talk about a serious matter of public interest). rally: a gathering of people from a wide area: a rally of Boy Scouts.
اجتماع الشمل (جمع) reunion: a gathering of a group of people who have become scattered: a family reunion; a reunion of college friends.
اجتماعي social: concerning human society in general: Governments provide social services, concerning personal relationships and friendliness: social gathering.
اجتماعي النزعة sociable: fond of company; ready to be friendly.
اجتمع meet: to hold a gathering: The Scouts meet every Thursday evening.
اجتمع rally: to gather (in support of sb.): The party rallied round its leader.
اجتمع بـ meet: to come together from different directions: I met him in the street. We met (each other) by chance. Our eyes met, and I saw fear in his. Six roads meet at the town square.
اجتناب avoidance, evasion, keeping clear of.
اجتهاد diligence, endeavor.
اجتياح invasion: (an act of) entering by force and attacking; entering a private place without invitation; crowding into a place like a foreign army: a naval invasion of the enemy’s chief ports; an invasion of flies.
أجدب (مجدب) barren, arid.
أجر hire out: to lend sth. to sb. for payment: He hired me his horse (or he hired out his horse to me). lease: to give or take possession of (sth.) by lease: I’ve leased this flat from the owner. let: (also see lease) to rent sth. to sb.: We’ve let the top floor of our house for $10 a week. rent: to allow (sth.) to be used on payment of rent: I rented my house to a friend while I was working abroad.
أجل adjourn: (of meetings) to stop, break off, until another time. delay: to leave until later: I delayed my visit until the rain stopped. postpone: to delay (a planned event or action): The match was postponed (till next Saturday) because of rain. put off: to delay: We have put off the meeting till tomorrow. suspend: to stop or set aside for a short time, hang: I shall suspend judgement until I know all the facts.
أجر pay: money that is given for regular work or services: My son gets more pay than I do. reward: sth. that is given in return for some special effort, help, etc.: He gave his son a bicycle as a reward for his success at school. A reward of $50 was offered to whoever could find the jewels. wage: rate of pay for a workman: an hourly wage; a daily wage. wages: money earned regularly (usu. weekly, compared with a salary that is paid monthly): His wages are $78 a week. He gives half his wages to his wife.
إجراء measure: (esp. pl.) action that is taken to deal with trouble or to prevent it: Our safety measures included fitting a new lock. step: one of a set of actions that have a certain purpose: If you want to learn cooking, the first step is to find a teacher. The government took urgent steps to end the disorder. transaction: a piece of business; a deal.
إجراء الحساب calculation: calculating.
إجراء وقائي safeguard: a device, condition, quality etc. that protects against possible trouble: A lock is a safeguard against thieves.
إجراءات proceedings: what happens at a meeting or ceremony: The day’s proceedings were reported in the newspapers.
إجراءات أمنية safety measures.
إجرائي executive: giving effect to plans or orders: Executive duties.
الإجرام crime: such acts in general: The police try to prevent crime.
أجرام سماوية celestial bodies.
إجرامي criminal, concerned with crime:: Criminal law, against the law; very bad or shameful: a criminal act; a criminal way of thinking.
آجرة brick: a block of baked clay for building.
أجرة fee: payment for a special skilled service: school fees; a doctor’s fee. charge: the amount of money asked for doing sth., for supplying sth., etc.: What is your charge for this work?. hire: the act of hiring: Is this boat for hire?. pay: money that is given for regular work or services: My son gets more pay than I do. rent: regular payment for the continuous use of a building or piece of land or television set, etc. The rent for this office is $50 a week. wage: rate of pay for a workman: an hourly wage; a daily wage.
أجرة البريد postage: the cost of posting sth.: What’s the postage on an air letter to Australia?.
أجرة السفر fare: the cost of a journey: How much was the train fare? My fares come to $3 a week.
أجرد bare: (of hills, fields) with nothing growing. bleak: cold and comfortless; without shelter; uninviting: The weather in December was bleak and unpleasant. The future of this company will be very bleak if we don’t stop losing money.. leafless: without leaves.
أجرد (لا شعر فيه) bald, hairless, glabrous.
أجرى (قام بـ) perform, carry out, do, transact.
أجرى حسابا calculate: work out with numbers: We calculated the cost of our holiday.
أجرى عملية جراحية operate: (of a doctor) to treat sb.’s body for disease or damage, by cutting, etc. (not by giving medicine): They operated on his broken foot.
أجرى قرعة draw lots: to pick sth. by lot: We drew lots to see who should start the game.
أجرى مالا على allow: to give regularly: My father allows me $50 a year.
أجرى مقابلة مع interview: to question (sb.) at an interview: He was interviewed for a place at the college.
أجزع agitate: (often passive) to make sb. anxious: She was agitated when her husband didn’t come home from work.
أجسام ساقطة falling bodies.
أجش harsh: (of sounds) rough. hoarse: (of the voice) rough and not clear, esp. after shouting too much; (of a person) having a hoarse voice.
أجل term: a fixed period, esp. one (of several months) when a school is at work: a term of imprisonment; the summer term.
أجل yes: a word that shows agreement: Is this yours? "Yes, it is" "Don’t you like her?" "Yes, I do".
أجل honour: to feel and show respect for: Do you honour other people’s opinions?. look up to: to respect and admire (sb.) as a leader or as an example: He looks up to his elder brother.
إجلاء evacuation.
إجلال esteem, good opinion, honour: to respect; a sign or cause of respect: The general was held in great honour by his countrymen. He was an honour to his country. The party was held in his honour.
أجلس seat, set.
أجلى evacuate: to empty; leave: Everybody evacuated the town when the army approached.
أجم (عديم القرون) polled, pollard.
إجماد hardening, solidification.
إجماع unanimity.
إجماعي unanimous: with everyone agreeing: The unanimous opinion of the meeting was to vote immediately. She was elected unanimously.
إجمال summation, summing up.
إجمالا on the whole: considering everything; general view: On the whole, he behaved quite well.
إجمالي broad: general; not covering small points: The broad idea is to train more teachers. gross: (of figures or amounts) whole, before subtracting anything; the opposite of: Your gross pay is the amount before tax is paid.
الإجمالي total: a complete amount, when all is added together: a total of $53.
أجمة bush: wild open country, not farmed: For two days they drove through the bush. clump: a group of trees or plants. thicket: a mass of bushes or small trees, growing close together.
أجمل sum: (with up) to add all the points (of a speech, of a court case, etc.) together and express them in a short form. summarize: to sum up, esp. in writing.
أجمل outline: to make an outline of (facts, a plan, etc.).
الأجمية malaria.
أجنبي alien: a foreign person: All aliens need work permits. foreign: not belonging to one’s own country: foreign languages. foreigner: a native of another country. stranger: sb. who is not known: Dogs guard their masters’ houses against strangers. That man is a stranger to me.
أجنة chisel.
إجهاد exertion: the use of effort: He was tired after all his exertions at digging in the garden. overwork: doing too much: They were suffering from overwork. strain: straining; too much effort of mind or body: The rope broke under strain. The nervous strain of city life was too much for him.
إجهادات متوازنة balanced stresses.
إجهاض abortion, miscarriage.
أجهد الفكر puzzle: to be confused; think very hard: I was puzzling over my accounts.
أجهد النفس exert: to put into use, with an effort: If you exert all your strength, you can lift that rock. He was too lazy to exert himself.
أجهزة apparatus, instruments, appliances, rigs, gears.
أجهزة tackle: equipment: fishing tackle.
أجهزة التحكم (في آلة) controls: the means by which one works a machine.
أفضل better: of a higher quality; more satisfying; more suitable: He’s a better driver than I am.
الأجود best: the best part; anything that is best: Winter is coming; the best of the year is over. In choosing clothes, she always buys the best.
أجود صنف first-class, first-rate: of the best quality: He is a first-class photographer.
أجوف hollow: having an empty space inside; not solid: a hollow tree.
أجيال الحواسيب computer generations.
أجيج blaze, deflagration.
أجير apprentice: sb. learning a trade from a master, by special agreement, and earning very little money: an apprentice electrician.
أحادي solo: (usu. attrib.) (of a performer or his action) alone: a solo drummer; a solo flight around the world. mono-, uni-, single.
أحاط enclose: to shut in; put a wall round: My garden was enclosed by a wire fence. surround: to be (or go) all round: The enemy forces surrounded the town. envelop: wrap round; cover completely: The house was quickly enveloped in flames.
أحافير fossils.
أحال transform, change, transmute, turn.
أحال إلى refer: to send (sth.) to sb. else for attention: I referred the matter to my lawyer.
إحالة reference, cross reference.
أحب fancy: to have a desire for: I fancy something to eat. like: to be fond of; enjoy be pleased by: Do you like him? I like swimming. We don’t like your manners. love: (in human relationships) to be very fond of: The mother loved her children, (in other cases) find pleasure in; like very much: I love swimming. We should love to meet her. please: to choose; wish: You may do as you please.
أحب إلى درجة العبادة idolize: to admire greatly.
أحبط foil: to prevent (sb.) from succeeding in (some plan), esp. by a trick or a clever move: The thief was foiled in his attempt to enter the house. frustrate: to prevent the success of sth. (a plan, an attempt, etc.). upset: to confuse; put into disorder (plans, calculations, ideas, one’s stomach, etc.).
إحباط frustration.
أحبولة net, web.
احتاج require, need: to want; lack; not have (sth. that one ought to have): I need some help. These shoes need repair (or need repairing or need to be repaired). want: to need: These plants want water (or watering).
احتاط anticipate: to see what is going to happen and do what is necessary: Anticipating the big rise in the price of cars, he decided to buy one at once.
احتاط (للمستقبل) provide: to make preparation (for or against): We provide for the future (or against accidents).
احتال cheat: to deceive; get sth. dishonestly from sb.: Some men cheat at cards. That lawyer cheated me out of $15. wangle: to get or arrange (sth.) by clever or improper means: He wangled a job for his son.
احتال على trick: to deceive: The police tricked him into making a confession.
احتباس retention, detainment, trapping.
احتبس detain: to prevent sb. from leaving. withhold: to hold back; refuse to give (money support, news, etc.): His name has been withheld for legal reasons.
احتج protest: to declare (the opposite of what one is blamed for): He protested that the accident was not his fault.
احتج على protest: to complain: All people should protest against unfairness.
احتجاب occultation.
احتجاج protest: complaint.
احتجاج بضجة outcry: a loud angry complaint by the general public: When the plans for the new road were announced, there was a general outcry.
احتجاز retention.
احتجز detain: to prevent sb. from leaving. intern: to imprison (sb.) in time of war or serious public disorder because he is regarded as a public danger.
احتدام deflagration, blazing, flaring up.
احتذى (بـ) copy: to make sth. just like sth. else; act the same as sb. else: Do not copy your neighbour’s answers in an examination. I copied John and bought a car like his. model: to make like a particular example: Her dress was modelled on her mother’s.
احتراز caution: taking care; avoiding danger or mistakes: Learners should drive a car with caution. precaution: cautionness.
احتراق combustion: the action of burning (esp. that of petrol, oil, etc.), which gives power to an engine.
احتراقية (قابلية الاحتراق) combustibility.
احترام esteem: good opinion. regard: to respect; concern: He has little regard for the truth. respect: to honour; consideration: Thieves have no respect for the law. He paid his respects (his respectful greetings) to my father.
احترام الذات self-respect: to respect for one’s own good character; a desire not to be ashamed of oneself.
احترس beware: (not used as a main verb except as an order) to be on guard against sth.; be careful: Beware of the dog! You must beware of thieves. Beware!.
احترق burn, (burnt, burned): to be on fire; be lit; be able to be lit: The fire burnt brightly. Wet wood will not burn.
احترق من غير لهب smoulder, smolder: to burn slowly, without flames: The fire smouldered because the wood was wet.
احترم honour: to feel and show respect for: Do you honour other people’s opinions?. look up to: to respect and admire (sb.) as a leader or as an example: He looks up to his elder brother. respect: to honour (a person); treat (sb.’s feelings or possessions, etc.) with consideration: Children should respect their parents.
احتساب computation.
احتسب foresee: to see what will probably happen: I foresee that we shall soon need a new car. reckon: to consider: He is reckoned (to be) the best football player in the country.
احتسب مقدما anticipate: to see what is going to happen and do what is necessary: Anticipating the big rise in the price of cars, he decided to buy one at once.
احتسى sip: to drink, taking very little at a time: The tea was so hot that I could only sip it slowly.
احتشد crowd: to form a crowd; fill with a crowd: The boys crowded round the teacher. They crowded into the hall. gather: to come together: His friends gathered round him. huddle: to crowd together, for warmth or shelter: We all huddled under the tree till the rain was over. rally: to gather (in support of sb.): The party rallied round its leader. swarm: to move or gather in large numbers: Bees swarm round their queen. People swarmed on to the field after the match. throng: to crowd.
احتضان embrace: the act of embracing.
احتضن embrace: to hold (sb.) in one’s arms, as a sign of love or of friendship.
احتفاظ retention: keeping.
الاحتفاظية retentivity.
احتفال celebration: a party or other form of rejoicing for a special event: The end of the war was a time of public and private celebrations. ceremony: a set of solemn religious acts; things done (often by custom) at a special event: a marriage ceremony. festival: a day of rejoicing: Easter Sunday and Christmas Day are religious festival, a special gathering for the performance of plays, music, etc: a Shakespeare Festival. festivity: rejoicing, (usu. with a feast): Marriage festivities. function: a social event. procession: a number of people (or vehicles) going slowly behind each other in a ceremonial manner.
احتفال تهتكي orgy: a time of wildly improper and uncontrolled behaviour (in regard to drink or food or sex or wasteful spending).
احتفالي formal: following customs; not careless; ceremonial: a formal dinner.
احتفظ بـ reserve: to keep (sth.) for sb.’s use; arrange for a place to be kept: This chair is reserved for my father’s use. These seats are reserved for your party. I’ve reserved two rooms in the hotel. keep: to be in charge of: Who keeps the key of the store?. hold: continue to possess: You can keep this book till next week. retain: to keep; not to let go: Some metals retain heat longer than others.
احتفظ برباطة جأشه keep one’s head: to remain calm and act wisely: When the house caught fire, he kept his head and saved his family.
احتفظ بموقفه hold one’s own: to keep one’s position or strength; not let sb. get control of one: The other team were stronger, but we held our own against them.
احتفل بـ celebrate: to mark an event by a feast or ceremony: I shall celebrate my 21st birthday tomorrow. observe: to honour (a custom, a feast day, etc.).
احتفى بـ welcome: to receive with pleasure: We welcomed our guests at the door.
احتقار contempt: to complete lack of respect for what one considers bad or foolish. disdain: to disrespect for sb. or sth. that one considers worthless. scorn: a bitter feeling of disrespect: Their lack of courage filled him with scorn.
احتقان congestion, engorgement.
احتقر despise: to consider worthless; have a very low opinion of: I despise anyone who hurts a child. scorn: to treat as worthless; refuse (sth. that one considers worthless): She scorned his love. He scorned my offer of help.
احتك بـ rub: to cause pain by rubbing: Her shoes rubbed so she took them off.
احتكار monopoly: the right (which no one else may share) to supply certain goods or services: The postal service is a government monopoly.
احتكاك contact: meeting; touching: Our army made contact with the enemy. Some diseases are passed on by human contact. friction: rubbing (usu. unwanted): Oil prevents friction in machinery, continued quarrelling (between two people or groups).
احتكاكي frictional.
احتكر monopolize: to have the only control of (sth.), and not let anyone share: No player should be allowed to monopolize the ball.
احتل occupy: to hold (an enemy’s land or town) in time of war, hold (official position).
احتلال occupation.
احتمى shelter, take refuge.
احتمال chance: possibility. We have no chance of winning. expectation: (the act of) expecting; what one expects: His exam results fulfilled my expectations. In expectation of guests, she prepared a special meal. likelihood: probability. outlook: the general look of the probable future: The outlook for tomorrow’s weather is dry and sunny. patience: being patient. possibility: a chance: Is there a possibility of rain?. probability: likelihood; a probable chance: In all probability (most probably) he’ll win the race. prospect: to hope, probability: We have no prospect of success.
احتمال النجاح والخسارة odds: the chances in favour of (or against) sth.: The odds are ten to one against his winning the race. Our men were fighting against heavy odds (They were much weaker than the enemy, so their chances were small).
احتمالية التأين probability of ionization.
احتمل bear, (bore, borne): (usu. with can) to suffer without complaining (sth. that hurts or displeases): I can’t bear that woman. He bore the pain bravely. stand: to bear; suffer without complaint: How can you stand that noise? I can’t stand that man! (I dislike him very much). support: to bear the weight of; hold up: A table is supported by its legs. That branch will not support your weight.
احتواء inclusion: the act of including.
احتوى على contain: to have as part of itself: This drink contains too little sugar. This story contains many difficult words, (of a box, building, etc.). hold: to be wholly or partly filled with: This box contains money. include: to contain; consider as one of a group: Our class includes three foreign boys.
احتياط precaution: an action that should prevent (or deal effectively with) possible trouble: precautions against fire.
احتياطي reserve: a store: We kept $50 in reserve (but we planned to spend the rest): Our reserves of food should last us through the winter. spare: another, as well as that which is in use; kept for use when necessary: spare parts for a machine; the spare wheel of a car.
احتيال fraud: to deceit; dishonesty; a deceitftul trick: Her illness was a fraud, to avoid the work. The bank clerk was taken to court for fraud. roguery: dishonesty; trickery. wangle: a wangling act.
احتيالي fraudulent: dishonest; deceitful: She made a fraudulent claim to the money. He got the job by fraudulent means (such as untrue statements about his training, experience, etc.).
إحجام abstinence: abstaining from food or drink. reluctance: unwillingness.
أحجم (عن) abstain: not to make use of (drink, food, etc.); avoid doing sth., (such as voting). hang back: to delay; be unwilling to go on.
أحجية puzzle: sth. that puzzles (esp. as a form of amusement). riddle: a question that is made difficult on purpose (often for amusement): Here’s a riddle for you: "What has a mouth but cannot eat?" "A river".
أحد one: (compared with the other, another, other): One (ball) was black, the other was red. I’ve met all her sons, at one time or another.
أحد الرعايا subject: a member of a state under a king or queen: He’s a British subject.
أحد رعايا... national: a member of a particular nation: He is an Italian national.
أحد عشر eleven: the number 11 (roman numerals XI).
الأحد (يوم) Sunday: the first day of the week.
إحداث creation, production, effectuation, causation.
إحداثي co-ordinate.
إحداثيات أسطوانية cylindrical co-ordinates.
أحدب hunchback: sb. who has been born with a hump on his back.
أحدث latest: nearest to the present moment; last: Have you heard the latest news?.
أحدث bring about: to cause to happen: What brought this trouble about?. cause: to be the cause of sth.; to make it happen: What caused her death?. create: make; cause sth. to be: He was paid to create trouble in the factory. generate: to produce, cause to exist: Fire generates heat. Cruelty generates fear and hate. give rise to: to cause: His long absence gave rise to a report that he was dead.
أحدق بـ encircle, encompass, surround.
أحدهما either: one or the other of two: A judge must not favour either side. Either of these coats would fit me.
احدودب stoop: to bend forward: She stooped to pick up her baby.
إحدى one: (compared with the other, another, other): One (ball) was black, the other was red.
أحدي (لا يتجزأ) monistic.
احديداب stoop: (usu. sing.) a stooping position of the body: Old people often walk with a stoop.
إحرار heating, thermalization.
إحراري thermic.
إحراق burning, combustion.
الإحراق العمد arson: the crime of setting fire to sth. (esp. a building) on purpose.
أحرج disconcert: to cause (sb.) to feel doubt and anxiety; make (sb.) unsure: The child’s question disconcerted the teacher because she could not answer it. embarrass: to make sb. feel uncomfortable, so that he does not know what to say, or do: I was very embarrassed when I was suddenly asked to make a speech.
أحرز achieve: to get sth. (success, one’s aim, etc.) by trying: He proved his worth as a young officer and soon achieved the rank of captain. attain: to reach; succeed in getting: He attained his goal of becoming rich.
أحرق burn, incinerate, set fire to.
أحرق بالبخار (بسائل حار) scald: to burn with boiling liquid or steam: She scalded her hand.
أحرى or: expressing the same thing in a different way, or with a different word: They hunt with dogs, or ‘hounds’, as the English call them. or rather: or, more truly: He arrived this morning - or rather, early in the afternoon, or, more truly: He arrived this morning - or more truly, early in the afternoon.
أحزمة harness.
أحزن depress: to make sad: The papers are always full of depressing news. They make me very depressed. grieve: to feel very sad (because of loss, etc.); make sb. sad: The girl was grieving because her friend had gone away. His bad behaviour grieved his mother. sadden: to make sad.
أحس feel, (felt): to know that sth., is touching or having an effect on oneself: I felt his hand on my arm. I felt a pain in my stomach. perceive: notice and understand, especially through the eyes or mind: I can’t perceive any difference between these two coins. We perceived that we were unwelcome, so we left. sense: to feel (sth. that is not openly expressed): He sensed their anxiety.
إحساس feeling: to sense (of pleasure, pain, love, etc.).
إحساس (شعور قوي) emotion: any deep feeling (love, hate, fear, sorrow, etc.).
إحسان charity: kindness; giving money to the poor.
أحسر (البصر) myopic, short-sighted, myope.
أحسن best, good, better: of the highest quality; most satisfying; most suitable: Bill is the best player in the team.
أحشاء bowels: the pipes leading down out of the stomach, through which waste matter is emptied; the intestines. guts: the long pipes that lead down from the stomach. insides: stomach: I have a pain in my insides.
إحصاء (رسمي للسكان) census: an official counting of the people of a country, or of animals, flow of vehicles, etc.: Census figures show that 5000 cars use this bridge daily. count: the act of counting: I made a quick count of the boys. statistics: (with pl. verb) facts that are shown by numbers; (with sg. verb) the science of showing facts by numbers: National statistics of births and deaths are collected regularly. Statistics is a modern science.
إحصائي statistical: of or by statistics. statistician: sb. who studies and works with statistics.
إحصائيات statistics.
أحصى count: to add up and find out how many there are: Please count these coins. tot: (with up) add up.
أحصى (الفوز أو الخسارة في اللعب) score: to record the score in a match.
أحضر bring, brought: to carry sth., cause sb. to come to the place where the speaker is: Bring me a chair. Bring your brother to me. collect: to go and get: I always collect my son from school.
أحضر (الفرس) أي عدا بسرعة gallop: (of a horse) to go at its fastest speed; (of a man) to ride a horse at this speed.
أحفور fossil: an ancient plant or creature that has hardened into stone.
أحق ما تقول؟ why: expressing surprise: Why! I never knew that!.
إحكام accuracy: correctness; exactness. precision: exactness; being precise: please express your thoughts with precision, so that everyone can understand you.
أحكم (أوثق الرباط) lash: to tie (sth.) tightly to sth. else: He lashed some poles together to form a footbridge.
أحكم الربط tighten: to make or become tight: Tighten this knot.
أحكم السد (الإغلاق) seal: to close tightly, so as to keep out the air: Tins of food must be well sealed.
أحل (جزءا من البرنامج مكان آخر) overlay, replace, substitute.
إحلال replacement, substitution.
أحلام اليقظة dreams, (also daydreams): thoughts and pictures passing through the mind when one is awake but one’s mind wanders.
إحليل urethra.
إحماء heating, warming.
إحماض acidization.
أحمر red: the colour of blood: Red flags and red lights are signs of danger.
أحمر خفيف pink: a very light red colour.
أحمر داكن maroon: a brownish-red colour.
أحمر الشفاه rouge: a red substance for colouring women’s faces.
احمر flush: to become red: Some trees colour in the autumn. redden: to become red.
احمر خجلا (وجهه) blush: to become red through shame, etc. colour, color: to develop bright colour in the face: She coloured when she made a silly mistake.
أحمض acetify, acidize.
أحمق daft: foolish like a fool; silly. idiot: a foolish person: Idiot! You’ve dropped my book!. idiotic: foolish; silly. mad: very foolish: a mad idea. senseless: very foolish. silly: foolish.
إحناءة nod: a nodding movement: He greeted me with a friendly nod.
أحنق aggravate: to make sb. angry: That noise aggravates me. infuriate: to make very angry. madden: to make wildly excited (with pain or anger, not joy): The prisoners were maddened with hunger.
أحول العينين cross-eyed: with one or both eyes looking towards the nose.
أحيا resurrect: to bring back to life; bring back into use (an old custom, sth. forgotten etc.): Why resurrect old quarrels?. revive: to bring back into use: We have revived an old custom.
أحياء living things.
إحياء revival: a return to practice or use: a religious revival.
أحيائي biotic.
أحيانا now and again, now and then: sometimes. occasionally: sometimes, but not often or regularly. off and on, on and off: not continuously; at one time and another: It has been raining off and on the whole day. once in a while: sometimes, but not often. sometimes: at certain times but not always: Sometimes I win and sometimes I don’t. England sometimes has a hot summer, but not often.
أخ brother: a son of the same parents.
أخ غير شقيق half-brother: sb’.s brother by only one parent.
أخ من الأب أو الأم half-brother: sb’.s brother by only one parent.
أخو الزوج أو الزوجة brother-in-law: the brother of one’s husband or wife.
أخاذ glamorous: having glamour: the glamorous lights of a big city. irresistible: (of a desire, etc.) so powerful that one yields to it; (of a person) very charming: an irresistible longing for a cigarette; an irresistible smile.
أخاف frighten: to make afraid: The little girl was frightened by the big dog. horrify: to shock; fill with fear and dislike: He was horrified by his son’s debts. She was horrified by the idea of going into hospital.
أخبى extinguish, put out.
أخبار information: news; knowledge.
إخبار information, notification.
أخبر inform: to tell: I was not informed of his arrival. let sb. know: to tell sb.: When you move house, let me know your new address. notify: to tell formally: I notified the police that my car had been stolen. tell, told: to say (the truth, a lie, the answer, the time, a secret, a story, etc.) to sb.: He told me that he was afraid. If you know the answer you mustn’t tell (anyone).
أخت sister: a daughter of the same parents as sb.’s own.
أخت الزوج أو الزوجة sister-in-law: one’s husband’s or wife’s sister.
أخت غير شقيقة half-sister: sb.’s sister by only one parent.
أخت لأب أو لأم half-sister: sb.’s sister by only one parent.
اختار choose, (chose, chosen): to pick out what one wants: The captain chose his team. As the shop was closing I had no time to choose. pick: to choose: Have you picked the books you want?. select: to choose carefully: He selected a book from the shelf. sort out: to choose; separate: Please sort out the best oranges and throw the rest away.
اختار المكان site: to place sth.; fix a site for sth.: He sited the guns where they could control the harbour entrance.
اختال (في مشيته) strut: to walk about stiffly, seeming very pleased with oneself: She was strutting about in her new fur coat. swagger: to walk in a proud and self-satisfied manner, sometimes swinging one’s body.
اختبأ hide, (hid, hidden): to be or become hidden: They hid from the police.
اختبار test: testing; an examination: a driving test; a history test. trial: an act of trying the ability of a person or thing: The new clerk was taken on three months’ trial. Give the boy a trial before you offer him a regular job. trial run: driving a car to try whether it works properly.
اختبارات الأعماق (المائية) hydroscopic tests.
اختباري experimental, experiential.
اختبر (أجرى اختبارا على) experiment: to try new ideas (esp. scientific ones): We were experimenting with a special kind of cotton seed. prove: to try (sb.’s ability, worth, courage, etc.). test: to examine (sth. or sb.) so as to see whether it is satisfactory: New machines have to be tested. Examinations test our knowledge.
اختراع invention: inventing; sth. invented: Aeroplanes are a modern invention.
اختراق breakthrough.
اختراقي penetrative.
اختراقية (إمكانية الاختراق) penetrability.
اخترع invent: to make (sth.) that is completely new: Alexander Bell invented the telephone. invent: to contrive, devise, create.
اخترق penetrate: to make a way into or through (sth.) by force or with difficulty: The knife penetrated his heart.
اختزال shorthand: a quick way of writing, by using signs instead of whole words (or common groups of letters). stenography: shorthand.
اختزان storage, storing.
اختزل reduce.
اختزن hoard: to save and store, often secretly: He hoards his money under the floor.
اختص specialize: to study especially; deal with especially: This bookshop specializes in scientific books. Some doctors specialize in diseases of the eye or ear.
اختصار abbreviation: a short form of a word or words such as etc., sth., p.m.. reduction: reducing: a big reduction in expenses.
اختصارا for short: as a short way of saying sth.: His name is Christopher, but we call him Chris for short.
اختصاص (حقل) speciality, specialty: a special interest or product: Fish dishes are the speciality of this restaurant.
اختصاصي specialist: sb. who specializes, esp. a doctor: a heart specialist.
اختصر abbreviate: to shorten (a word, phrase, speech, etc.). cut short: to shorten: He cut short his visit because he felt ill. summarize: to sum up, esp. in writing.
اختط plan, scheme.
اختطاف grab: seizing; an attempt to seize: The thief made a grab at her handbag.
اختطف grab: to seize quickly. snap up: to seize; buy quickly: Those cheap radios were snapped up as soon as they appeared in the shops. snatch: to take (or try to take) violently: He snatched the bag from her hand. It is rude to snatch when you are offered something.
اختفاء disappearance: the act of disappearing.
اختفى be gone: to be no longer present (having left or disappeared): I left my car unlocked, and when I came back it was gone.. disappear: to go out of sight; be seen no more, for no known reason: He disappeared behind a tree. My bicycle disappeared while I was in the shop. go: to disappear: The pain will go if you drink this medicine. vanish: to disappear.
اختفى لمدة go into hiding: to hide oneself (probably for a long time).
اختل (ساء أداؤه) malfunction.
اختل توازنه overbalance: to fall over when one is standing in a difficult or unsteady position: He overbalanced and fell from the bank into the river.
اختلاج convulsion, spasm.
اختلاس embezzlement: the act of embezzling; misappropriation.
اختلاط mingling, intermixing.
اختلاف change: the act of changing; sth. that is or can be changed; a difference: a change in the weather. A change of plans. difference: being unlike or changed: What’s the difference between swimming and floating? Have you noticed any difference in England since your last visit?. discrepancy: the state of being different or not agreeing (in statements, calculations, etc.): There is some discrepancy between the two descriptions of the accident. variation: (a) change or difference (in amount, etc.); (a) different form: In this area there is not much variation in rainfall during summer and winter. This music takes the form of several variations on an old song.
اختلاف في الرأي disagreement: a lack of agreement.
اختلاق fabrication.
اختلال disorder, disturbance, chaos, disorganization.
اختلال insanity: madness.
اختلج flicker: (of a flame or light) be unsteady.
اختلس embezzle: to use for oneself (money that one holds for others). scrounge: to get (sth. that one needs) by some shameful means (by begging, by taking without asking etc.). steal: take secretly and unlawfully: Thieves steal things.
اختلس أو خالس النظر peep: to take a quick look, usu. rather secretly: She peeped in at the window.
اختلط mingle: to mix: We mingled with the crowd.
اختلف vary: to be or make different: Opinions vary. The cost of a car varies between $3000 and $40,000, according to its make.
اختلف عن differ: (with) to be unlike: English customs differ from ours.
اختلف مع disagree: not to agree: I disagree with you on this point. quarrel: to disagree violently.
اختلق invent: to write or say (sth.) imaginary or untrue (so as to amuse or to deceive): Writers invent characters. As he had no good reason for being late, he invented one. make up: to say or write sth. untrue: They made up that story to deceive you.
اختمار fermentation, zymosis.
اختمر ferment.
اختناق asphyxia, suffocation, asphyxiation, strangulation.
اختنق choke: to be unable to breathe properly because of smoke or of sth. wrongly swallowed.
اختيار choice: the act of choosing: She made a wise choice. option: a choice: The gunman forced me to give him money; I had no option. selection: choice.
اختياري optional: left to one’s choice: an optional subject at school. voluntary: done by choice, willingly (the opposite of compulsory): He made a voluntary statement to the police.
اختيال swagger: a swaggering manner.
أخدود groove: a long narrow cut in hard material, allowing sth. to slide smoothly along it: The cupboard door opens by being pushed sideways along a groove. pothole: a hole in the surface of a road. rut: a deep track that is left by a wheel in soft ground: cart ruts.
أخذ have: to take: Do you have milk in your coffee? Let’s have a swim. tackle: (in football) to get the ball away from (an attacking player). take: to get hold of; catch; seize: He took her hand and helped her up the slope, to have (a bath, a drink, medicine, effect, a holiday, a walk, etc.): Never take a heavy meal before swimming.
أخذ (بعنف أو سرعة) seize: to take hold of (excitedly or violently); take possession of (firmly or by force): He seized her hand and kissed it. The police seized his supply of explosives.
أخذ أسيرا take prisoner: to make (sb.) a prisoner in war: The enemy took them all prisoners.
أخذ بالاضمحلال fail: (of eyesight; memory) to become weak.
أخذ بالاعتبار take account of sth., take sth. into account: to consider: The judge took the boy’s age into account, and punished him lightly.
أخذ بسيارته pick up: to collect; take into one’s car: I picked up my son outside the school.
أخذ حماما شمسيا sunbathe: to let the sun shine on one’s bare body, for the good of one’s health: I enjoy sunbathing after a swim.
أخذ صورة شمسية photograph: to take a photograph of: She photographed the ceremony.
أخذ علما بـ take note of: to pay attention to; make a written note of: The clerk took note of my complaints.
أخذ على عاتقه undertake: to agree to do: If you undertake a job, you must do it properly.
أخذ عينة من sample: to take a sample and try (it): After sampling his apples, we bought a boxful.
أخذ غفوة snooze: to have a short sleep, esp. by day: My father was snoozing in the sun.
أخذ في proceed: (with to) to do (sth.) in a determined way, without question or delay: He marched into my office and proceeded to search my cupboards.
أخذ في الاعتبار consider: to think of; care about the feelings of: You must consider other people as well as yourself.
أخذ في اعتباره allow for: to provide for; take into consideration: I’ve allowed enough time for a meal on the way. We must allow for possible delays. make allowance(s) for: to take into consideration facts that may change sth., esp. an opinion: The judge made allowance(s) for his youth, and punished him lightly.
أخذ نفسا عميقا draw breath: to take in a breath: He drew a deep breath.
آخذ بالانحطاط decadent: slowly losing its former greatness, quality, character, etc.: a decadent nation; decadent art.
أخذ بالثأر reprisal: (an act of) harming sb. as a punishment for harm that he did (when punishment by law would be difficult or impossible): Our aircraft destroyed their ports in reprisal for their attacks on our ships.
أخذ عينات sampling, taking samples.
أخذته الدهشة be taken aback: to be unpleasantly surprised.
أخذته سنة من النوم nap: to sleep for a short time, esp. during the day.
آخر another:: one (or a given number) more: I need another two pounds. I’ve got one and I want another. a different one:: We’ll go there another time. If this hat does not fit, try another. else:: Did you look anywhere else, or only under the bed? Where else did you look?. other:: (instead of the first one); instead: Let’s talk about something else. Peter was ill, so someone else came. other: (in comparisons) a different one: Some smoke; others do not. He likes French cigarettes and won’t smoke any others. This side is dry; the other is wet (in comparison).
آخر last: (the opposite of first) coming after all the others; the latest in order: December is the last month in the year. latest: nearest to the present moment; last: Have you heard the latest news?.
آخر الأنباء stop press news: the latest news, which is added to a newspaper after printing has begun.
آخر الجميع last: (compared with first) after all the others: He arrived last.
آخر مرة last: (compared with next) at the latest time before the present: When did you last see the missing bag?.
أخر delay: to cause to be late: Heavy snow delayed our train. hinder: to delay; make (sth.) slow or difficult: His wounded leg hindered his escape (or hindered him in his escape). hold up: to delay: The building of the road has been held up by bad weather. keep: to delay: If you’re busy, I mustn’t keep you.
إخراج dislodgment, removal, eviction, expulsion.
أخرت (الساعة) lose: (of a watch or clock) to become slow by (a certain amount of time): My watch loses five minutes a day.
أخرج emit: to send out (heat, light, smell, sound, etc.). give off: to send out (smoke, smell, etc.): A fire of wet wood gives off a lot of smoke. produce: to control the making of a play or film: Our school play was produced by the history teacher (He trained the actors and arranged the scenes).
أخرج أو أدخل خلسة smuggle: to take (sth.) or sb. secretly and unlawfully into or out of a country, etc.: He smuggles gold. We smuggled him out of prison.
أخرج أو أصدر بخارا steam: to produce steam: a steaming cup of coffee.
أخرج عن الطور send sb. mad: to cause sb. to become mad.
أخرج من القشرة shell: to remove the shell from (a nut, etc.).
أخرج نسخة أو صورة عن reproduce: to make a copy of (sth.): Artists reproduce what they see. Records reproduce music.
أخرج هواء الزفير exhale: to breathe out: He exhaled noisily.
أخرس dumb: unable to speak: Animals are dumb.
أخرق clumsy: not skilful, clever or careful, esp. in movement: Clumsy people often drop or break things. He made a clumsy attempt at making a pot. foolish: like a fool; silly. senseless: very foolish.
أخزى disgrace: to bring shame on: Peter has disgraced himself by drinking too much wine.
أخسدة (اختزال وأكسدة) redox.
اخشيشاب sclerosis.
إخصائي specialist: sb. who specializes, esp. a doctor: a heart specialist.
أخصب fertilize: to make (seeds, eggs, soil, etc.) productive: Bees fertilize flowers. Male creatures fertilize the eggs of females. Farmers sometimes use chemicals to fertilize their fields.
إخصاب fertilization, fecundation.
إخضاع subjection.
أخضر green: the colour of grass.
أخضع لـ (عصيانا، إلخ) quell: to stop; put down: Soldiers were called to quell the uprising against the government. subdue: to conquer; bring under control; make quieter or gentler: Napoleon subdued several European states. subject: to cause to suffer: The prisoner was subjected to cruel treatment.
أخطأ err: to do sth. wrong; make a mistake. mistake: to misunderstand; have a wrong idea about: We mistook the road and lost our way. offend: to do wrong: I offended against the law by driving too fast.
أخطأ أو أساء إلى wrong: to treat or blame unfairly.
أخطأ بين وآخر (شخص، أو شيء) mistake: (with for) to think wrongly that (sb. or sth.) is sb. or sth. else: I mistook him for his brother.
أخطأ المرمى miss: to fail to hit: I aimed wildly at him and missed (him).
إخطار notification, notice, information.
أخطبوط octopus: a sea creature whose eight arms stick tight to whatever they catch.
أخف مما ينبغي (أضعف) under weight: not heavy enough.
إخفاء hiding, concealment, secretion.
إخفات muting, deadening.
إخفاق failure: lack of success: My efforts were a failure.
أخفت drop: to cause sth. to get lower or weaker: He dropped his voice so that no one else should hear.
أخفق come to grief: to end in failure or misfortune: His plans all came to grief. fail: not succeed; not do what one is trying to do: We failed to find it. Our plans failed.
أخفى bury: to hide sth. on or under sth.: I found the papers I had lost buried under a pile of books. conceal: to hide. hide: to put or keep out of sight; prevent sth. from being seen or found: He hid the money in a hole. She could not hide her feelings. obscure: to make obscure; block (a view): The sun was obscured by clouds.
أخفى بالقناع mask: to cover with a mask.
أخل بالأمن riot: to take part in a riot: The unemployed men rioted and burnt down some offices.
إخلاء سبيل release: setting free: Who ordered his release?.
إخلاص devotion: strong love. loyalty: faithfulness. sincerity: being sincere.
أخلاط aggregates.
أخلاق ethics: the rules which one person or group obeys: His business ethics are not always of the highest kind. morality: moral ideas in general.
الأخلاق morals: personal rules of right and proper behaviour.
أخلاقي ethical: concerning ethics, good or right: I shouldn’t do that, it’s not ethical. moral: concerning what is naturally right or wrong (without regard to a government’s laws): the moral teachings of religion.
إخلال بالأمن العام riot: a violent outburst of public disorder.
أخلف الرجاء disappoint: not to fulfil sb.’s hopes; make sb. sad by not fulfilling one’s promises: His low marks in science disappointed his teacher. I was disappointed at his absence from my party.
أخلى empty: to make empty. evacuate: to empty; leave: Everybody evacuated the town when the army approached. vacate: to go out of a place, so that it becomes vacant: All hotel guests should vacate their rooms at 12 o’clock.
أخلى سبيل release: to set free: He was released from prison today.
إخماج infection.
إخماد extinction, extinguishing, quenching.
إخمال (إخماد الفاعلية) inactivation.
أخمد break sth. down: to suppress: Break down all the opposition.. extinguish: to put out (a light, a fire, etc.): The firemen put the fire out (They stopped a dangerous fire). suppress: to prevent (sth.) from developing, or from becoming public: Governments sometimes suppress the truth.
أخنس (للأنف) snub: (of a nose) having a turned up end.
إخوان brotherhood: a group with common aims.
أخوة brotherhood: a group with common aims.
أخوى evacuate, empty, deflate.
أخوي brotherly: like a brother; which can be expected from a brother: brotherly help.
أخير final: last: The final letter of the English alphabet is Z. last: (the opposite of first) coming after all the others; the latest in order: He was last in the race. December is the last month in the year. latter: later; towards the end: In the latter part of the month, (with the, the opposite of the former) the second of two people, groups (or things) that have already been spoken of: They had the choice of learning Latin or French, and they chose the latter (French).
أخيرا at last: in the end, after much delay: The train was very slow, but we got there at last. (finalmente; afinal). at length: at last; in the end: He waited two hours. At length he went home. at long last: after a very great delay. eventually: in the end: The car kept stopping, but we got home eventually. finally: lastly; in the end. lastly: (in a list; esp. in speeches) in the last place: Lastly, may I thank you all for listening so attentively. ultimately: in the end: We must all, ultimately, die.
أداء تمثيلي performance: (an act of) performing: Our team’s performance has been very good this year. There were seven performances of the play.
آداب arts: subjects other than science (languages, history, etc.).
آداب عامة manners: social behaviour and training: His manners are bad; he puts his feet on the table.
أداة appliance: a piece of equipment (esp. electrical or mechanical. device: a clever plan; any machine, instrument, or piece of equipment that is planned for a special purpose: Have you a device for separating the cream from milk?. gadget: a small device or instrument: A tin-opener is a useful gadget. implement: a tool, esp. one used for farming. instrument: a tool or device with which sth. is done (esp. by doctors, engineers, skilled men, etc.): A knife is a sharp instrument. Electrical and scientific instruments are made there. tool: any simple instrument such as a hammer.
أداة إضافة of: (after a noun) showing position or relationship: the top of the hill; the captain of the team, (used after a noun) forming a verbal phrase: What was the cause of it? (What caused it?).
أداة إضافة دالة على الملكية of: (after a noun) showing possession: He’s a friend of theirs (He’s their friend). That car of Peter’s is very fast (That car which belongs to Peter...).
أداة التعريف (أل) the: used with a noun naming sb. or sth. that is already known; used like this with the pronoun one: I want that book. Which book? The book (or The one) that you promised to lend me.
أداة تنظيف cleaner: sb. or sth. that cleans things, esp. clothes: Send this coat to the cleaners.
أداة تنكير أو تعريف article: (one of the words a, an, and the).
أداة تنكير بمعنى "واحد" a; an; one:: He has a big dog (pl. He has big dogs). Have you a match (pl. any matches)? That is an axe (pl. Those are axes).
أداة نقل carrier: sb. or sth. that carries sth.: an aircraft carrier.
أدوات apparatus: (a piece of) special equipment: I have my own apparatus for printing photographs.
أدوات مكتبية stationery: writing materials (paper, pens, etc.).
أدار administer: to control, (esp. business or money affairs). direct: to guide; control (a business, a piece of work, etc.): The film was directed by Zoltan Korda. start, superintend: watch and direct (work, workers, etc.).
أدار manage: to control (a business, etc.). run: (of a business, a planned activity, etc.) to work; (of men) to make (sth.) work; control: Our school runs very smoothly. Who runs your football club?.
أدار (على محور) turn: to move round in a circle: An engine turns the wheels. revolve: to go (or cause to go) round in a circle: The earth revolves around the sun. rotate: to go round; make (sth.) go round: Wheels rotate. The earth rotates. We rotate crops (plant different ones in a certain field each year, in an order that goes round regularly). swivel: to swing round on a central point, as a wheel does: She swivelled round to see who was behind her.
أدار بلطف (المحرك) (والسيارة في مكانها) start: to set sth. going: I can’t start my car. tick over: (of a petrol engine) to run gently while not driving the machine.
أدار أو عني بالمنزل keep house: to look after the work of a house.
أدار أو لف بسرعة whirl: to move quickly and excitedly round and round: The dancers whirled around.
أدار قرص الهاتف dial: (with a modern telephone) to call a certain number by moving a dial with one’s finger: To call the police, dial 999.
أدار المفتاح الكهربائي switch: to make sth. start or stop, by moving a switch: Please switch the electric fire on.
إدارة administration: to control (of business, money, government activities, etc.): The administration of the law. department: a division of sth. (shops, business, government, school, etc.):. direction: to control: He worked under my direction. management: to control: The failure of the party was caused by bad management in the kitchen, (often with pl. verb) all those who control a business: a meeting between the management and the workers’ leaders.
إدارة housekeeping: the care of a house and its needs: He gives his wife half his pay, as housekeeping money (to buy food, etc.).
إداري administrative: concerned with administration.
أدام (إلى الأبد) perpetuate: to cause to last for ever: Shakespeare’s plays have perpetuated his memory.
أدان condemn: (of a judge) to order sb. to receive a certain punishment: He condemned the murderer to death. convict: (of a judge) to declare that sb. is guilty of a crime: The prisoner was convicted of murder.
إدانة condemnation.
أدب civility: politeness. courtesy: politeness. literature: books and writing of high quality in general, including poetry and plays: modern French literature. politeness: polite behaviour.
أدب educate: to teach; train (sb.) in mind, body and character so that he or she will have a useful and happy life.
إدبار turning away, retreat.
أدبي literary: concerning serious writing, as an art (not news reports, business reports, etc.): literary skill. moral: concerning what is naturally right or wrong (without regard to a government’s laws): the moral teachings of religion.
ادخار saving(s).
إدخال insertion: the act of inserting; sth. that is inserted: The insertion of the word ‘not’ into a sentence will change its meaning completely.
ادخر save: to keep for future use; store money instead of spending it: I’m saving this bottle of wine for my birthday. You must save hard if you want to buy a car. store: to gather and put away for future use: Ants and bees store food for the winter. treasure: to store sth. that one values: She has treasured all the photographs of her son since boyhood.
ادخر شيئا keep: to have a supply of sth. for sale: Do you keep ink in this shop?.
أدخل admit: to let sb. enter: The cinema will not admit you without a ticket. enter: to write (a name, an amount of money, etc.) on a list: Have you entered (your name) for the next race? Did you enter that payment in your accounts?. get, got, gotten: (with various adverbs and prepositions); to cause sb. or sth. to move or go: Can you get your arm through that hole?. incorporate: to make sth. (a country, a company, a report, etc.) part of sth. larger; include: Your ideas were incorporated in our plans. insert: to put (sth.) into sth.; put (sth.) between two things: Please insert this notice in your newspaper. Insert the key in the lock. Insert my name in the list, between yours and his. introduce: to bring in (sth. new): Tobacco was introduced into Europe from America, about 400 years ago.
أدخل البرغي بالخشب screw: to force (a screw) into wood.
أدخل أو أخرج خلسة smuggle: to take (sth.) or sb. secretly and unlawfully into or out of a country, etc.: He smuggles gold. We smuggled him out of prison.
أدخل بالقوة ram: to push heavily, with great force: He rammed some stones into the hole.
أدخل في الحساب count: to include: There was enough for everyone in the hotel, not counting the servants.
أدخن اللون smoky: of a greyishbrown colour.
إدراج insertion: the act of inserting: the insertion of the word ‘not’ into a sentence will change its meaning completely.
إدراك appreciation: judgement; act of appreciating; understanding. comprehension: understanding: an exercise in English comprehension. perception: the ability to notice and understand sth. (esp. an idea); sth. that is understood in this way. sense: a feeling or understanding: a strong sense of danger; a sense of duty; a sense of direction (being able to find one’s way without help). understanding: the act of understanding; power to judge: According to my understanding of this letter, it says something quite different. It is beyond the understanding of a child.
إدراك سليم common sense: good practical judgement gained from experience: Although he’s not very clever, he’s got plenty of common sense.
أدرج insert: to put (sth.) into sth.; put (sth.) between two things: Please insert this notice in your newspaper. Insert my name in the list, between yours and his.
أدرج في قائمة أو جدول list: to put (a name, etc.) on a list; put (a lot of names, etc.) into the form of a list: The price of the book is listed as 80 pence. Don’t rent your house to a stranger without first listing its contents.
أدرد toothless: having no teeth: a toothless smile.
أدرك appreciate: to understand: I appreciate your point of view. attain: to reach; succeed in getting: He attained his goal of becoming rich. catch up: come level (with): He started early but I soon caught up (or caught him up or caught up with him). catch, (caught): to meet or join sb. or sth. by being at the right place at the right time: I caught the bus outside the cinema. I caught the headmaster as he left his office. comprehend: to understand: The child read the story but did not comprehend its meaning. find, (found): to learn or discover sth. (by experience or study of inquiry): She found him changed. You will find the hotel very comfortable. The judge found the prisoner guilty. I found that my car had been stolen. make out: to understand: I can’t make out what this means. overtake: (of a runner, etc.) to come level with sb., by going faster (and perhaps to pass him): I overtook him and gave him your message. perceive: to notice and understand, especially through the eyes or mind: I can’t perceive any difference between these two coins. We perceived that we were unwelcome, so we left. realize: to understand (the truth of sth.): Does she realize her mistake? (Does she know about it?) Do you realize that you are in great danger?. see: to understand (a reaon, a joke, a need, etc.): I can’t see why he wants it. It’s too hard for him, you see? Yes, I see. tell: (with can) to know; to recognize: Can you tell the difference between these two brothers?. understand: to know the meaning of: I don’t understand this question.
أدرك حقيقته أو مراميه الخفية see through: to see the truth behind some trick: He pretended to be asleep, but I saw through him (or through his deceit.).
أدرك قيمة (الشيء) appreciate: to value: We appreciate your help.
أدرك المراد من make sense: (of a person, with of) to understand: I can’t make sense of these accounts.
ادعاء allegation: a statement that charges sb. with doing sth. bad but which is not supported by proof. pretence: pretending.
ادعى allege: to say; declare (sth. that will have to be proved): He alleges that you stole his pen. claim: to declare that sth. belongs to oneself: Does anyone claim this pen?, to declare that sth. is a fact: He claims to be the richest man in England. pose: (with as) to pretend to be: He posed as a railway official in order to travel free. pretend: to seem to be (or to be doing) sth. so as to deceive others, or so as to amuse oneself: He pretended to be ill (so as to avoid work). The boys pretended to be soldiers (as a game).
ادعى ملكية شيء lay claim to sth.: to demand to be given sth. as the owner.
إدغام حرفي علة في صوت واحد diphthong: the union of two vowels to form one sound.
أدلى lower: to let (sth.) down, esp. with a rope: They lowered his body into the grave.
إدماج amalgamation, merger, incorporation, integration.
إدمان addiction: being addicted.
أدمج merge: to join or cause to join completely: The two companies have decided to merge.
أدمعت (العين) water: (of the eyes or mouth) to be filled with water: The smoke made my eyes water. My mouth watered at the smell of food.
آدمي human: concerning people; not concerning spirits, animals or machines: a human being.
أدنى minor: smaller; less important, unimportant: a minor road; a minor difficulty.
الأدنى least: smallest in size or amount: Which cup has the least (amount of) milk in it?.
أدهش amaze: to surprise very much; fill with wonder: His knowledge amazes me. astonish: to surprise greatly: We were astonished by what happened. We were astonished to hear what happened. stun: to surprise and confuse: The unexpected news stunned me. surprise: to give (sb.) a surprise: His sudden anger surprised me. I was surprised at him (at his behaviour).
أدهم black, dark.
أدى perform: to do (a duty, an action, etc.).
أدى ألعابا سحرية juggle: to do clever tricks, throwing and catching (things) so as to amuse people: He juggled the cups in the air.
أدى إلى go: to reach or lead (to a place): This road goes to the station. lead: to show the way: The road led straight to his house. to cause: result in: What led you to think that? His careless mistakes led to the loss of his job. result: (with in) to cause: Rudeness often results in a quarrel.
أدى دور act: to perform: He acted (the part of a Frenchman) in the play.
أدى عملا بنجاح do: well, to make progress: Peter is doing well at school.
أدى عمله work: (of a machine, an idea, etc.) to do what it is meant to do; be effective: This watch won’t work, as its spring is broken. Our plans worked smoothly.
أدى الوظيفة function: to work: My radio isn’t functioning properly.
أديب respectful: showing respect.
أديم surface.
إذا if: (usu. not followed by the future tense) on condition that; provided that: If you go, I shall go too, (usu. in regard to the past) supposing that: If he lost it, he was a fool. If I had told you, you would not have believed me, (in regard to sth. certain) when: Ice melts (or will melt) if you heat it.
إذا استمر هذا الحال at that rate: if those conditions continue: He keeps stopping for a rest; at that rate, he won’t finish the job today.
إذا اعتبرنا أو أخذنا بعين الاعتبار considering: remembering as a reason for judging less (or more) severely: Considering your bad leg, you ran very well. Considering all his years of study, he ought to have done better in the exam.
إذا سمحت kindly: please!: kindly close the door!. please: (when asking) giving a polite order: Please stop that noise. A cup of coffee, please, asking for a favour or for permission: Will you help me, please? Please may I use your pen?.
إذا صح هذا at that rate: if those conditions continue: He keeps stopping for a rest; At that rate, he won’t finish the job today.
إذا فشل كل شيء آخر in the last resort: if everything else fails: In the last resort you could sell your watch to get some money.
إذا لم يكن متوفرا (الشيء) failing: giving a second choice of action, if the first choice fails: Ask John to do it. Failing him, ask Michael.
إذا all right: also alright, in that case: You don’t want it? All right, I’ll give it to someone else. so: showing slight bitterness: So you’re ready at last!. then: in that case: Don’t you want it? Then I’ll give it to someone else.
أذاب dissolve: to make (sth. solid) become liquid: Dissolve the salt in the water. melt: to cause to become liquid through heating: We melted the wax over a flame. liquefy: to change into a liquid form: liquefied gas. thaw: to rise (or cause to rise) above freezing point, so that ice and snow melt: You must thaw frozen meat before you cook it.
إذابة dissolving, dissolution, solution.
إذابية (قوة الإذابة) solvency.
آذار أو مارس (شهر) March: the third month of the year.
أذاع announce: to make known publicly: He announced his intention to build a cinema. broadcast: to send out (news, music, etc.) in all directions, esp. by radio or television. give out: to say publicly; hand out publicly: The news was given out at the meeting. publish: to make known (news, facts, etc.) to the public.
أذاع سرا expose: to make known (sth. secret).
إذاعة broadcast.
أذبل shrivel: to cause to become twisted and bent by heat or dryness.
إذعان resignation: suffering without complaint; being resigned: She accepts her hard life with resignation.
أذعن concede: to allow that sth. is true (after disagreeing); give way, allow sb. a right, etc.: At last he conceded that he had made a mistake. give in: yield; stop struggling: He had to give in when his strength was gone. yield: (old use) to cease opposition and accept defeat: The enemy were forced to yield.
أذعن comply: to obey; do what is asked: He refused to comply (with the rules).
أذعن لـ submit: to accept defeat, punishment, etc.: The boy submitted to having his hair cut.
أذكى بإضافة الفحم (النار) stoke: to supply (a fire) with coal, wood, etc., so that it will go on burning.
أذل humiliate: to shame; lower the pride of: a humiliating defeat.
أذن authorize: to give official permission for; give power to act in some way: The city council has authorized the building of a new road. I authorized the man to act for me while I was away. permit: to allow: Smoking is not permitted.
أذن بـ sanction: to give permission: The government sanctioned the inquiry into the car industry.
أذن announce: to make known publicly: He announced his intention to build a cinema.
أذن ear: one of the two organs on either side of the head with which we hear. tab: a short strip of cloth, fixed to a garment so that it will hang on a hook; a piece of metal for pulling the top off a tin.
إذن leave: permission: They gave him leave to photograph the ceremony. pass: written permission to pass a certain point; a special ticket: You need a pass to enter this camp. Old people have a free pass on the city buses. permission: allowing; being allowed, esp. officially: You have my permission to go home.
إذن admission: allowing or being allowed to enter: No admission except on business.
إذن رسمي permit: a note giving permission: You can’t enter that camp without a permit.
أذنب err: to do sth. wrong; make a mistake.
أذهل amaze: to surprise very much; fill with wonder: His knowledge amazes me. shock: give sb. an unpleasant surprise: His rude language shocked his friends. stagger: to surprise very much: I was staggered at the news of his success. stun: surprise and confuse: The unexpected news stunned me. surprise: to give (sb.) a surprise: His sudden anger surprised me. I was surprised at him (at his behaviour).
أذوى wilt, wither.
أذى hurt: pain wounding; harm done to a person’s body or feelings. injury: to damage; hurt; wound: A wound is on the outside of the body; an injury may be inside or outside. mischief: (of children) playful misbehaviour; harm that is done on purpose: My sons are always in (or up to) mischief. wrongdoing: (a) wrong or unlawful action.
أذى evil: wrong; harmful ideas or effects; harmful acts done on purpose: evil thoughts; the evils of modern society. ‘Deliver us from evil’. harm: to hurt; damage: The storm did a great deal of harm to the crops.
أذية harm, injury.
أذين القلب atrium, auricle of heart).
أذينة lug.
أراح comfort: to cheer (a sad person). relieve: to take sth. from sb.: The servant relieved me of my bag and carried it to my room. A new guard relieved the old one (took his place so that he could go and rest). rest: to cause (sth.) to rest: He rested his legs (or his horse).
أراد care: to have a desire or liking: Would you care to read this book?. like: (with a predicative adjective) wish: I like boys to be honest. She likes her tea (to be) hot, (in a negative sentence, with to) wish; to be willing: I don’t like to trouble you when you’re busy. want: to desire: I want an apple. She wants to go home. I want my car washed; I want you to wash it for me. wish: to want: Do you wish to go with us? You may, if you wish (it).
إرادة will: the power of the mind to control one’s own or other people’s actions: I went of my own free will (I was not forced to go). She did it against her will (She was forced to do it). They worked with a will (eagerly).
إرادي voluntary: done by choice, willingly (the opposite of compulsory): He made a voluntary statement to the police.
أراق slop: to cause to flow over carelessly: He slopped his tea all over the table. spill: to pour of a container by mistake: I spilt some sugar on the table. The milk spilt over the floor.
أراق shed blood: to cause blood to flow (in war, etc.).
أراق ماء وجهه lose face: to lose the respect of others.
إرباك embarrassment: an embarrassed feeling; sth. that causes it. mess: a state of dirt or disorder; confusion: Tell the boys to clear up the mess in this room. It’s in a terrible mess. Your accounts are in a mess; you’ll have to organize them properly.
إربة (ج إرب) shred: a thin bit (of cloth, paper, etc.) that has been torn off sth.: He tore the letter into shreds.
الأربعاء (يوم) Wednesday: the fourth day of the week.
أربعون forty: the number 40 (roman numerals XL).
الأربعون fortieth: number 40 in order.
أربك baffle: to be too difficult for sb. to do or understand: It baffles me how radio works. bewilder: to make sb. confused: The farmer’s boy was bewildered by the noises of the city.. confuse: to throw into disorder (of thought): The shock confused me. disconcert: to cause (sb.) to feel doubt and anxiety; make (sb.) unsure: The child’s question disconcerted the teacher because she could not answer it. embarrass: to make sb. feel uncomfortable, so that he does not know what to say, or do: I was very embarrassed when I was suddenly asked to make a speech. fluster: make sb. too confused and excited to think clearly: She was flustered by having to cook for several unexpected guests. mess up: to make a mess of; confuse: You’ve messed up your clean coat. He messed up his speech because he was so nervous. muddle: to confuse; bring into disorder: They muddled me with their various accounts of the event. overwhelm: to defeat completely, with much larger or stronger forces; have such a strong effect on sb. that he feels completely helpless: We suffered an overwhelming defeat. Her kindness overwhelmed the poor old man. puzzle: (of a strange or difficult matter) to make (sb.) think very hard: His disappearance puzzled me.
إربيان prawn: a small edible shellfish.
ارتأى judge: to examine facts about (sb. or sth.) and come to a decision; consider (in court, in a competition, etc.): He judged the man (to be) guilty. They judged him (to be) the winner. I was invited to judge the cattle at the show.
ارتاب distrust: not trust.
ارتاب في doubt: to think that sth. is uncertain or improbable; not trust: I doubt his honesty.
ارتاح rest: to be still, so as to regain one’s strength after work or activity: He lay down to rest after the race.
ارتاد explore: to travel into or through (a place) for the purpose of discovery: Captain Scott explored the Antarctic regions. scout around: to search (not for sth. that is lost): I’ll scout around for a good place to camp.
ارتاع dread: to fear greatly (sth. that may or must happen): I dread the thought of having to leave home. She dreads going out in the dark. get the wind up: to become frightened or anxious. panic, panicked: to act madly through fear.
ارتباط association: the joining of ideas, activities etc.: the association of ideas; two groups working in association. liaison: keeping in touch, meeting to hear each other’s news and opinions: We need more liaison between teachers and students.
ارتباك confusion: disorder; misunderstanding: The thieves left the room in a state of confusion. There was some confusion about the time of meeting; that’s why I was late. embarrassment: an embarrassed feeling; sth. that causes it. muddle: a confusion; a muddled state: His plans were all in a muddle.
ارتبط connect, engage, correlate.
أرتج bolt, lock, bar.
ارتج jerk: to make sudden irregular movements: The car was jerking forward because the petrol pipe was blocked. jolt: to shake suddenly; (of vehicles) to move shakily: The lorry jolted along the rough road.
ارتجاج shaking, jolting, vibration.
ارتجاف throb: a throbbing sound or feeling; a strong regular beat: the throb of drums; the throb of a ship’s engine.
ارتجال improvisation: making or doing sth. one has not prepared for, because of a sudden need; an example of this.
ارتجالا off-hand: without thought or preparation: I can’t say off-hand what it cost, but it was over $1000.
ارتجالي extemporaneous, impromptu, offhand.
ارتجف quake: to shake, esp. with fear. quiver: shake (esp. with excitement or anger). shiver: shake (with cold or fear). shudder: (of a person) to shake with fear or with violent dislike: He shuddered at the sight of a snake. tremble: to shake, esp. with fear or excitement.
ارتجل improvise: to make or do sth. one has not prepared for, because of a sudden need or when one cannot get the right materials: The actor forgot his words and so he had to improvise. We were outside when the storm began, but we improvised a shelter and kept ourselves.
ارتحال migration, departure.
ارتحل travel: to make a journey: I rarely travel by train. I like travelling, especially in Africa and Asia.
ارتخاء slackness: slack behaviour.
ارتخى loosen, slacken, sag.
ارتد recoil: to jump back; draw back quickly: She recoiled with shock. shrink: to draw back because one is afraid: The boy shrank from his angry father. withdraw: to draw back; move back: He withdrew from the race when he hurt his foot. When the enemy attacked, we withdrew to the fort.
ارتد إلى الوراء draw back: to move away, usu. quickly: He drew back in fear.
ارتدى dress: to put on one’s clothes. have sth. on: to wear sth: What did she have on (or What had she got on)? She had a fur coat on. put on: (the opposite of take off) to dress oneself in: Put your hat and coat on. wear: to have on the body: He wore a shirt and trousers. wore: p.t. of wear.
ارتداد return, reversion.
ارتسام projection.
ارتشح infiltrate, transpire, sweat, exude.
ارتطام bump, collision, crash, impact.
ارتطم بـ bump: to knock by mistake: My knee bumped against the table.
ارتطم برفق lap: (of waves) to beat (the shore, the side of a boat, etc.) gently, with a sound like an animal drinking: The water was lapping against the rock.
ارتعاشة twitch: a sudden (often uncontrolled) movement of a muscle.
ارتعد quake: to shake, esp. with fear. quiver: to shake (esp. with excitement or anger). shake: to move quickly from side to side, or up and down: I shook the sand out of my shoes. He was shaking with fear. He shook his head, from side to side, to show disagreement (the opposite of nod). shiver: to shake (with cold or fear). tremble: to shake, esp. with fear or excitement.
ارتعدت فرائصه shudder: (of a person) to shake with fear or with violent dislike: He shuddered at the sight of a snake.
ارتعش quiver: to shake (esp. with excitement or anger). shake: to move quickly from side to side, or up and down: He was shaking with fear. He shook his head, from side to side, to show disagreement: (the opposite of nod). shiver: to shake (with cold or fear). tremble: to shake, esp. with fear or excitement. twitch: to move with a twitch: A dog’s nose twitches when he smells meat.
ارتفاع altitude: height (esp. height measured above sea level): Modern aeroplanes can fly at very high altitudes. height: measurement from top to bottom: What is the height of this building?. rise: an increase; an upward movement: a rise in the cost of living.
ارتفاعه... high: measured from top to bottom; (of mountains) measured from top to sea level: The tower was 25 metres high. Mount Everest is over 29,000 feet high.
ارتفع ascend: to go up (steadily or solemnly); climb up; rise: Smoke was ascending from the factory chimneys. The speaker ascended the stage and began to address the meeting. climb: to go higher: The road climbed gently up the hillside. The aeroplane climbed to 10,000 metres. go up: to rise: The price of tea has gone up again. lift: (of smoke or cloud) to rise, leaving the air clear. rise: to go upwards: Prices rise. The cliffs rose steeply from the shore. soar: to rise high (into the air, etc.): The plane soared into the sky.
ارتفع وانخفض heave: to rise and fall with heavy movements: The ship was heaving up and down.
ارتقاء ascent: a way or act of ascending: a steep ascent; the ascent of Mount Everest. climb: the act of climbing; a place to be climbed; rise, going up.
ارتقى ascend: to go up (steadily or solemnly); climb up; rise: Smoke was ascending from the factory chimneys. The speaker ascended the stage and began to address the meeting. climb: to go up sth. steep (a mountain, stairs, a tree, etc.): Can you climb a rope?.
ارتكاز support.
ارتكاس (ارتداد إلى الأصل) reversion.
ارتكاض (حركة الجنين) quickening.
ارتكام accretion.
ارتكب commit: to do (a crime): He committed three murders.
ارتكب (حماقة أو غلطة فاحشة) blunder: (to make) a foolish mistake.
ارتكز على abut on, lean on.
ارتكم accumulate.
أرتوازي (بئر) artesian: (of a well) having its water forced up by natural pressure.
ارتياب qualm: a feeling of doubt about the rightness of one’s actions: Even thieves may have qualms about hurting old people.
ارتياح satisfaction: being satisfied.
ارتياد exploration.
ارتياع dismay: a feeling of surprise, mixed with fear of hopelessness: He discovered with dismay that the telephone wasn’t working, and he couldn’t call the doctor.
إرث legacy: sth. (money, possessions, etc.) that is specially left for sb. by one who dies: My aunt left me her house as a legacy.
أرجأ adjourn: (of meetings) stop, to break off until another time. postpone: to delay (a planned event or action): The match was postponed (till next Saturday) because of rain. put off: to delay: We have put off the meeting till tomorrow. suspend: to stop or set aside for a short time, hang: I shall suspend judgement until I know all the facts. An electric light was suspended on a wire over the entrance.
إرجاء postponement: the act of postponing.
إرجاع return: an act of returning sth.: The library asked for the return of the books.
أرجح rock: to swing or shake from side to side: A wave rocked the boat. An explosion rocked the building. He rocked with laughter. wobble: to move unsteadily from side to side: Wheels wobble when they are loose. Don’t wobble the table when I’m trying to write.
أرجحية odds: the chances in favour of (or against) sth.: The odds are ten to one against his winning the race. Our men were fighting against heavy odds (They were much weaker than the enemy, so their chances were small).
أرجع bring back: to return: This old photograph brings back happy memories. return: to give back; put back; send back: She returned the book that I lent her. He showed me the picture and returned it to his pocket.
أرجو عفوك excuse me: an expression used when one wishes to speak to sb., esp. a stranger: Excuse me! Can you tell me the way to the post office?. pardon, I beg your pardon!: I’m sorry! Forgive me! (a formal expression when one causes annoyance to sb.).
الأرجوان (لون) purple: the colour that is formed by mixing red and blue.
أرجواني خفيف mauve: light purple.
أرجوحة see-saw: a long board supported in the middle for children to play on; two people sit on it, one at each end, and one goes up while the other goes down. swing: a frame with a swinging seat for children.
أرجوفة rumour: a common report that is probably untrue: I’ve heard a rumour that petrol is becoming cheaper.
أرجية allergy.
أرخ date: to put a date on sth.: This letter is not dated.
إرخاء relaxation: a way of resting or loosening one’s body; an activity that lets the mind stop being anxious.
أرخبيل (مجموعة جزر متقاربة) archipelago.
أرخى let go: (also leave go; but let can be transitive and leave cannot) not hold any longer: Hold this rope tight and don’t let go (or let it go or let go of it; or leave go or leave go of it). Don’t let go the rope till I tell you. loosen: to make loose; unfasten: He loosened the string round the bundle. relax: to loosen (one’s hold, one’s muscles, etc.). slacken: to loosen (a rope).
أردأ worse: more bad; more badly: Murder is worse than stealing. It is a worse crime. You write even worse than I do.
الأردأ worst: most bad; most badly: He’s the worst player in the team. He plays worst when he is in a bad temper.
أردف أو أضاف قائلا add: to say further: But, he added, "it wasn’t my fault.".
أردواز slate: a blue-grey rock that breaks into small flat sheets; such as sheet used for roofing a building.
الأرز (شجر، خشب) cedar: an evergreen tree with hard sweet-smelling wood; the wood from this tree.
أرز rice: a plant with white grain that is boiled for food; its grain.
إرزبة (مطرقة ضخمة) aboutsledge.
أرستقراطي aristocratic: of aristocrats; proud and noble. aristocrat: sb. of noble birth.
إرساء anchorage, anchoring.
إرساب deposition, precipitation, sedimentation.
إرسال despatch = dispatch, sending.
إرسالية consignment.
أرسل dispatch, despatch: to send off (men, letters, goods, etc.). send: to cause (sb.) to go; cause (sth.) to be taken: She sent her son to the post office. I sent her a letter. sent: pt. of send.
أرسل (إلى عنوان جديد) forward: to send on (a letter) to a new address: Please forward my letters to the Grand Hotel.
أرسل إلى موقع ما post: to send (sb.) to a place of duty: He was posted to his firm’s branch office in Rome.
أرسل بالبريد mail: to send by mail; post: Will you mail this letter for me?. post: to send by post; put in a postbox.
أرسل باللاسلكي radio: to send (a message) by radio: The ship radioed for help.
أرسل بريقا flash: to give a sudden bright light: The lighthouse on the rock flashes twice a minute. He flashed his lamp in my face.
أرسل بعجلة bundle: to send away in a hurry: She bundled him down the stairs.
أرسل رسالة برقية (لاسلكية) transmit: to send a message by radio or electricity along a wire.
أرسل في طلب send for: to send a message, so as to call (sb.) or to get (sth.): You’d better send for the police. I’ve sent for some medicine.
أرسل نورا beam: to send out light.
أرسى anchor: to prevent (a ship) from moving by means of an anchor.
أرسى السفينة moor: to fasten (a boat or ship) with ropes or chains: My boat is moored to a ring in the harbour wall.
إرشاد guidance: guiding.
إرشادات directions: advice on how to do sth.: The directions for use are printed on the packet. instructions: advice; an order: If you read the instructions on the medicine bottle, you will know how often to take it.
أرشد conduct: to lead or guide: He conducted the visitors round the school. direct: to show sb. the way: Can you direct me to the post office?. guide: (of a person) to show (sb.) the way by going with him; (of a person or thing) show (sb.) the way; advise: He guided me to the secret cave. I was guided by the official reports. instruct: to teach; advise: He instructed me in the art of fishing.
أرصاد جوية meteorology.
أرصادي (إخصائي أرصاد جوية) meteorologist.
الأرض earth: the ground: Oil lies deep under the earth, the world on which we live. ground: the solid surface of the earth: He sat on the ground.
أرض country: land with a special nature or character: This is good farming country. The road ran through thickly wooded country. land: earth; ground: Farm land; waste lands. soil: (a kind of) earth in which plants grow: sandy soil; rich black soil; a chalky soil.
أراض grounds: the land round an important building: the school grounds.
أرض بور heath: a stretch of waste land, covered with rough grass. moor: a wide, open, often raised space of waste hilly land, usu. covered with rough grass and low bushes. moorland: waste, hilly land.
أرض بور قاحلة waste: waste land; a wide empty area: desert wastes.
أرض تابعة لدولة territory: land that is ruled by a particular government.
أرض تكسوها الشجيرات shrubbery: a part of a garden that is planted with many shrubs.
أرض جبلية highlands: mountainous country: the Scottish Highlands.
أرض ذات شجيرات مجتمعة scrub: waste land that is covered with small bushes.
أرض سبخة swamp: (a piece of) land which is always swamped.
أرض سبخة مغطاة بالعشب moor: a wide, open, often raised space of waste hilly land, usu. covered with rough grass and low bushes.
أرض الغرفة floor: (of a room) the part on which one walks: I dropped it on the floor.
أرض أزيلت منها الأشجار (في غابة) clearing: an area of land cleared of trees but in the middle of other trees.
أرض مخصصة لاستعمال خاص (تصوينة) reserve: an area that is reserved for sth. (animals, birds, plants, etc.) which is in danger of being destroyed: a nature reserve.
أرض مخصصة لغرض ما ground: a piece of land that has a particular use: a sports ground; a landing ground.
أرض مرتفعة highlands: mountainous country: the Scottish Highlands.
أرض مستوية lowlands: land without high hills.
أرض مشجرة woodland: that is covered with trees.
أرض معشبة meadow: a field where the grass is allowed to grow long, as food for animals.
أرض مغطاة بالأشجار woodland: that is covered with trees.
أرض منبسطة plain: an area of level open country.
أرض الموقد hearth: the floor around the fireplace (regarded as the centre of family life in the home).
إرضاء satisfaction, gratification.
أرضا down: on to the ground: I fell down. He knocked me down. I got down from my horse. over: from an upright (or straight) position to a flat (or bent) position: I fell over. He knocked me over.
أرضى appease: to calm or satisfy (hunger, anger, etc.) by giving what is wanted. please: to make happy; satisfy: Her efforts pleased me. I was pleased with her. She was pleased to see you. satisfy: to fill the needs of; be enough for: He ate enough to satisfy his hunger. My explanation satisfied the police. tickle: to amuse: His story tickled me.
إرضاع suckling, nursing.
أرضي terrestrial.
الأرضي شوكي artichoke: a kind of vegetable.
أرضية background: the part of a scene behind and beyond the chief figures: The picture showed two people against a country background.
أرعب appal, appall: to shock deeply: We were appalled by the news of all the deaths in the explosion. horrify: to shock; fill with fear and dislike: He was horrified by his son’s debts. She was horrified by the idea of going into hospital.
أرعد thunder.
إرغاء lathering, frothing, foaming.
إرغام compulsion: the act of forcing sb. to do sth.: He says he signed the statement only under compulsion.
أرغم compel: to force: Hunger compelled him to steal. oblige: (usu. passive) to force sb. to do sth.: As the bus did not come, we were obliged to walk.
أرغم بالتخويف intimidate: to frighten (sb.) so as to force him to do, or not to do sth.: Criminals sometimes intimidate people who might speak against them in court.
أرغن (آلة موسيقية) organ: an instrument (usu. very large) that makes music by forcing air through pipes: a church organ; a cinema organ.
أرغى وأزبد seethe: to boil and bubble; be restlessly excited (with anger or crowds): The station was seething with people.
أرفأ harbor, harbour, berth.
إرفاء berthing.
أرق get on sb.’s nerves: to destroy sb.’s peace of mind; make sb. excitedly anxious or angry.
أرق sleepless: without sleep: I passed a sleepless night.
أرقش spotted: marked with spots of a different colour from the rest of the body: a spotted dog.
أرقط spotted: marked with spots of a different colour from the rest of the body: a spotted dog.
أركان staff.
أركيولوجية archaeology.
أرمش blink.
أرمل widower: a man whose wife has died, and who has not married again.
أرملة widow: a woman whose husband has died, and who has not married again.
أرنب bunny: (a child’s word for) a rabbit. rabbit: a furry little animal with long ears, that lives in holes in the ground.
أرنب بري hare: an animal like a rabbit which has long ears and can run fast.
إرهاب terrorism: the activity of terrorists.
إرهابي terrorist: sb. who uses violence for political reasons.
إرهاق exhaustion: being tired out. fatigue: tiredness. overwork: doing too much: They were suffering from overwork. weariness: tiredness.
أرهب terrify: to frighten very much.
أرهق wear: to damage by use or by rubbing: Water and wind can wear away rock. I have worn my shoes out (worn them till they are no longer fit for use). I’ve worn holes in them (I’ve caused holes, by walking in them so much). She wore herself out.
أرهق نفسه overdo (it): to make too much effort; work so hard that one harms one’s health: The doctor says I’ve been overdoing it lately.
إرواء watering, irrigation.
أروز hibernation.
أرومة stub: a short remaining piece of sth. (a pencil, a cigarette, etc.) that has been mostly used; the small piece of a ticket or a cheque which is left as a record after the main part has been given away.
أرى show: to let (sth.) be seen: Show the letter to your father. The medical examination showed something bad. He showed no sign of fear.
أريب shrewd: showing wise judgement and good sense, esp. in business matters: My wife is a shrewd buyer who never wastes money.
أريب intellectual.
أريج perfume: a sweet smell; (of roses, etc.) a liquid with a sweet smell; for putting on the body. scent: a pleasant smell: the scent of roses.
أريكة couch: a long bed-like seat, to sit or rest on in the daytime. settee: a long soft seat, with a back and sides, usu. for 2 or 3 persons. sofa: a long soft seat, with a back and sides (usu. for 2 or 3 people).
أز buzz: to make a buzz; be filled with a buzzing noise.
أز fizz: to make a noise like gas escaping from water. whirr, whir: to make a whir: The sewing-machine whirred as he turned the handle. whizz: to make a noise by rushing along through the air: The arrow whizzed past my nose.
إزاء facing, opposite, in front of.
أزاح oust: to drive or push (sb.) out, from a position of power, etc.: The ruler was ousted by the army.
إزاحة displacement, shifting, shift, translation.
أزال eliminate: to remove or take out: Doctors try to eliminate all diseases. The body eliminates waste matter. He eliminated a few phrases from the speech he had written. erase: to rub out (sth. written). remove: to take away; to take off: Please remove your books from the table. What will remove ink from clothing?. rub out, erase: to remove (writing) with a rubber or cloth: Rub out that word on the blackboard. take: (esp. with from, off, out, etc.) to remove: Washing takes the dirt out of clothes.
أزال بالفرشاة brush: to move with a brush: Brush this mud off your coat.
أزال بالنفخ blow, blew, blown: to move sth. by a stream of air: I blew the dust off my books.
أزال سوء التفاهم أو الفهم clear up: to explain (sth. not understood): The affair was soon cleared up.
أزال الماء من dehydrate: to (cause to) become dry; remove all the water from.
إزالة removal: removing.
إزباد foaming, frothing.
أزبد foam, froth, scum, spume.
ازداد gain: to obtain more of (sth.), little by little (strength, weight, etc.). go up: to rise: The price of tea has gone up again. increase: to make (or become) greater in size or numbers: The population of the town increases every year. mount: (usu. with up) to increase: Our bills are mounting (up) and need to be paid. The river was swollen by heavy rain. The crowd swelled.
ازداد سوءا deteriorate: to become worse; decay: Her eyesight is deteriorating. Most foods deteriorate if they are left in the air for a long time.
ازدحام density: crowding.
ازدحم بـ swarm: to be filled with a restless crowd: The streets were swarming with people. teem: (with with) to be full (of moving things): This lake is teeming with fish.
ازدراء contempt: complete lack of respect for what one considers bad or foolish. disdain: to disrespect for sb. or sth. that one considers worthless. disrespect: lack of respect. scorn: a bitter feeling of disrespect: Their lack of courage filled him with scorn.
ازدراد swallowing, ingestion.
ازدرد (ابتلع بسرعة) gulp: to swallow quickly.
ازدرع (نقل غرسة من مكان إلى آخر) transplant: to take up a young plant, with its roots, and plant it again somewhere else.
ازدرى look down on: to consider sb. or sth. to be of lower quality (than oneself; than what suits oneself): Office workers often look down on farm workers. scorn: to treat as worthless; to refuse (sth. that one considers worthless): She scorned his love He scorned my offer of help. sneer: to express a low opinion of sb. (or sth.) with bitter words or a bitter smile: He sneered at my failure. despise: to consider worthless; have a very low opinion of: I despise anyone who hurts a child.
ازدهار boom: (in trade) (be in) a successful state; (to be in) increased demand: The tobacco business is booming. There will be a boom in the sale of bicycles. prosperity: success; fortunate condition: National prosperity depends on hard work and wise government.
ازدهر flourish: (of people, crops, a business, etc.) to be well and active; grow healthily.
ازدهر عمله (ازدهرت تجارته) prosper: to do well in business, or grow rich: His farm prospered.
ازدواج pairing.
ازدواجي duplex.
ازدياد growth: the act of growing: A baby’s growth depends on its food.
أزرق blue: (having) the colour of a clear sky.
إزعاج annoyance: the state of being annoyed. bother: (a cause of) trouble. discomfort: lack of comfort; something that makes one uncomfortable: Insect bites can cause a great deal of discomfort. disturbance: sth. that disturbs the public peace: Some students caused a disturbance in the street. inconvenience: a state of difficulty; an act, event or fact which does not suit one: It causes a lot of inconvenience when the buses are late. irritation: annoyance; sth. that irritates.
أزعج annoy: to cause (sb. or sth.) trouble; make (sb.) slightly angry: Strong sunlight can annoy the eyes. I’m annoyed with him. He’s an annoying little boy. bother: to trouble sb.: Don’t bother me when I’m busy. disconcert: to cause (sb.) to feel doubt and anxiety; make (sb.) unsure: The child’s question disconcerted the teacher because she could not answer it. distrub: to break the calmness of; trouble: Don’t disturb him when he’s reading. Don’t disturb his sleep; make anxious: I was disturbed at the news. get (sb.) down: (infml.) to annoy; put in low spirits. get on sb.’s nerves: to destroy sb.’s peace of mind; make sb. excitedly anxious or angry. harass: to make (sb.) worried by causing trouble, esp. repeatedly: I felt harassed by all the work at the office. perturb: to make anxioux. trouble: to cause trouble to: His leg is troubling him (It hurts). upset: to make (sb.) unhappy: His death upset her very badly.
أزعج worry: to make or be anxious; trouble: Don’t worry me now; I’m busy. Don’t worry (yourself) about me; I can take care of myself.
أزعج hurt: to come to harm; cause trouble: It won’t hurt if you leave your car without lights in this street.
أزعج بالإلحاح في الطلب pester: to annoy continually; ask continually: Beggars pestered us for money.
أزعج بشدة torment: to annoy cruelly; cause suffering to: You shouldn’t torment a helpless animal.
أزعج بكثرة الطلب والتأنيب nag: to scold or ask (sb.) about sth. continually: She nagged her sister to give her the book.
أزعج نفسه bother: to take trouble: Don’t bother about this (or with this or to do this) if you’re busy.
أزغب pubescent, downy, fuzzy.
أزف arrive: to come: The time for action has arrived.
أزمة crisis, (crises): a time of danger or of very serious difficulty; a turning point in a course of events: A crisis arose when all the lights failed. Matters reached a crisis on the third day, when the men refused to work. stress: trouble or anxiety: In moments of stress, people sometimes use rude words.
أزمرة isomerism.
الأزموزية osmosis.
أزمومتر (الانتشاري) osmometer.
إزميل chisel: a sharp tool for cutting wood, stone, or metal.
إزهار bloom, efflorescence, florescence.
أزهر flower: (of a plant) to produce flowers.
ازهرار inflorescence.
إزواج coupling, doubling, pairing.
أزوت azote = nitrogen (N).
أزيز whir(r): a sound made by sth. (wings, wheels, etc.) moving (round) quickly in the air: the whir(r) of machinery. buzz: the noise made by a bee, any noise like this (of machines, or people talking, etc.). whizz: the noise of sth. rushing very fast through the air.
آس (الواحد في ورق اللعب) ace: a playing card with one mark (used as the highest or lowest card).
الآس البري (شجيرة) holly: an evergreen tree with small red fruit and prickly leaves.
أس foundation, basis.
أساء الاستعمال pervert: use for a bad purpose; change or twist in a bad way: to pervert the course of justice; pervert the truth.
أساء إلى displease: to annoy. hurt: cause pain to (sb.’s mind): Your refusal hurt his feelings. Unkindness hurts. offend: to displease; hurt the feelings of: Your rude letter offended him.
أساء الفهم misunderstand: not to understand correctly: I asked for two pounds of meat; but he misunderstood (me) and sent ?2 worth of meat. get the wrong end of the stick: understand wrongly; have a wrong idea about sth.: He wants to sell you his car, not to buy yours; you’ve got the wrong end of the stick.
أساء فهم mistake: to misunderstand; have a wrong idea about: We mistook the road and lost our way.
أساء بالكلام abuse: to say very rude things to: You shouldn’t abuse a servant.
أساء الظن بـ distrust: not to trust.
أساء قصد ما يقال له get the wrong end of the stick: to understand wrongly; have a wrong idea about sth.: He wants to sell you his car, not to buy yours; you’ve got the wrong end of the stick.
أساء معاملة ill-treat: to treat (a person or animal) badly. maltreat: to treat unkindly or roughly (esp. a helpless person, a prisoner, a child).
إساءة offence: (with give or take) displeasure; hurt feelings: She took offence (She was offended) at my refusal of her invitation. offensiveness: offensive behaviour.
إسابة (مزج الغاز أو البخار بمواد صلبة لإماعته) fluidification, fluidization.
أساس base: the bottom of anything; the part on which sth. stands: The base of a cup must be flat. basis, (bases): a fact, idea or condition on which sth. is arranged: Payment is planned on the basis of forty hours work a week. Try to keep on a friendly basis with your neighbours. bed: sth. solid that a heavy object rests on: The engine was lowered on to its bed. grounds: reason (for saying or doing sth.): You have no grounds for complaint.
أساسا primarily: mainly; in the first place: This book is written primarily for foreigners.
أساسات foundation: (esp. pl.) sth. on which the rest is built: The foundations of the new hospital are now being laid.
أساسي basic: very necessary or important; forming a starting point on which to develop: I have only a basic knowledge of science. Experience in foreign countries is basic for this kind of job. chief: most important; main: Our chief crop is corn. essential: belonging especially to sth. and showing its real nature: Kindness was an essential part of his character. indispensable: adj. very necessary; what one must have for a certain purpose: A sharp knife is indispensable for cutting meat. key: important, so that others depend on it: The ship’s engineer holds a key position. main: chief; most important: my main reasons; a main road. material: important; necessary: We must make a material change in our plans. radical: concerning the most important parts of anything; (of change) complete; (of people) in favour of complete political change: radical changes in the laws of a country; radical improvements; radical opinions. vital: very important; necessary to life: It was a vital decision. The heart is a vital organ.
أسال liquefy.
إسالة liquefaction.
أساليب methods, ways.
أسباب العيش livelihood: the means of living: He earns his livelihood as a baker.
إسبات hibernation.
أسبت hibernate.
أسبستوس (حرير صخري) asbestos: a soft mineral material that cannot burn.
أسبقية priority: the right to come first: Feeding the people and starting new industries are the government’s priorities. (A car on) a main road has priority over (a car from) a side road.
اسبكتروسكوب spectroscope.
اسبكترومتر spectrometer.
أسبوع week: a period of seven days, esp. from Sunday to Saturday.
أحد أيام الأسبوع (ما عدا الأحد، وأحيانا السبت أيضا) weekday: any day except Sunday and usu. Saturday.
أسبوعان fortnight: a period of fourteen nights; two weeks.
أسبوعي weekly: once a week, every week: a weekly newspaper; a paper which comes out weekly; a weekly visit.
أسبوعيا weekly: once a week, every week: This paper comes out weekly.
أسبيرين aspirin: a medecine for pain or fever; a small piece of this, in solid form.
إست anus.
استئجار rent(ing), hire, leasing, tenancy.
استئصال removal.
استئمارة form.
استئمان confidence: confiding: I told him in confidence.
استئناف (العمل) resumption: continuing or beginning again of some form of activity, continuation.
استاء resent: to be angry about (sth. that seems unfair or rude, etc.): He resented my calling him a child.
استاتي static.
استاتيات الموائع hydrostatics.
استأثر بـ monopolize: to have the only control of (sth.), and not to let anyone share: No player should be allowed to monopolize the ball.
استأجر hire: to obtain (the use of sth. or the services of sb.) for payment: I hired a car for a week, and I hired a driver with it. lease: to give or take possession of (sth.) by lease: I’ve leased this flat from the owner. rent: to use (sth.) on payment of rent: We have rented this house for a year.
استأجر مركبا أو طائرة (لغرض معين) charter: to hire (an aeroplane, ship, etc.) for a special purpose.
استاد stadium: a sports ground that has seats around it.
أستاذ جامعي professor: a university teacher (in Britain, of the highest rank, who is in charge of a certain subject): the Oxford professor of poetry.
استأصل eliminate: to remove or take out: Doctors try to eliminate all diseases. The body eliminates waste matter. eradicate: to destroy completely or put an end to (sth. bad): We must try to eradicate crime in the cities. exterminate: to destroy completely sth. (rats, disease, etc.) that is harmful. kill off: to kill till few or none remain: The icy weather killed off my roses. stamp out: to put an end to (sth. dangerous or evil): We must stamp out this disease before it spreads.
استأصل من الجذور root: (with out) to find and remove (a cause of trouble, sth. unwanted etc.): We shall root out the real problems.
استأنف (الكلام) continue: to go on after pausing for a time: But, he continued, "I may be wrong". proceed: to go on: After a short delay, we were able to proceed (on our journey or with our business). reopen: (of schools, shops inquiries, etc.) to start again after being closed or stopped: The school will reopen with a new headmaster after the holidays. resume: to continue; begin again after a pause: I go on holiday tomorrow, and resume work on the 17th.
استأنف الحكم appeal: to ask sb. higher in rank (esp. a court) to change a decision: The prisoner appealed to the high court.
استأهل deserve: (not used in the continuous tenses) to be worthy of: Thieves deserve to be punished. Good work deserves good pay. merit: to deserve: She merits all the praise that she has been given. worth: deserving: The castle is worth a visit. It is well worth visiting.
استباق anticipation, forestallment.
استبان dawn: (with on) to become clear to: It suddenly dawned on me that I was being deceived.
استبانة detection, definition; resolution.
استبداد tyranny: the behaviour of a tyrant.
استبدادي autocratic: making others obey without considering their wishes. tyrannical: like a tyrant.
استبدل exchange: to give sth. and receive sth. else in return: We exchanged addresses. People exchange money for the goods that they need. replace: to put (sth.) in the place of: If you break my glasses, you must replace them (You must provide new ones). substitute: to put (sth.) in place of sth. else: He removed the jewel and substituted a worthless stone.
استبشار optimism: hopefulness; the feeling that all will end happily; the opposite of pessimism.
استبعاد exclusion.
استبعد exclude: to shut out; leave out; not include: I was excluded from the meeting. rule out: to declare that sth. is impossible or cannot be considered: The cause of his death is uncertain, but murder has not been ruled out.
استبق forestall, anticipate.
استبقاء retention: keeping; not being able to let go.
الاستبقائية retentivity.
استبقاه في خدمته keep on: to continue to employ sb.: I kept him on on although he was too ill to work.
استبقى keep: to hold; continue to possess: You can keep this book till next week. retain: to keep; not to let go: Some metals retain heat longer than others.
استبيان questionnaire: a list of written questions sent to many people, to find out facts or opinions on some subject and make a report on them: All the doctors were sent a questionnaire on the new medicines.
استتباب homeostasis.
استتر hide, take cover.
استثارة excitation, stimulation.
استثمار exploitation: developing or using; making unfair use of another person. investment: putting money into a business so that one may gain more money in return. utilization.
استثمر exploit: to develop; make full use of (things that nature provides: forests, oil, coal, etc.): We can make electricity by exploiting the force of the river. invest: to put (money) into a business so that one may get more money in return: He invested his savings in buying a small shop. We invested $500 in shares in a tobacco company.
استثناء exception: sth. or sb. that is not included: I like them all, without exception.
استثنائي exceptional: unusual: That book is an exceptional one. It was an exceptionally hot summer. extraordinary: very unusual; causing wonder and surprise: For a small boy he has an extraordinary knowledge of science. unusual: not usual; strange.
استثنى exclude: to shut out; leave out; not include: I was excluded from the meeting. rule out: to declare that sth. is impossible or cannot be considered: The cause of his death is uncertain, but murder has not been ruled out.
استجاب respond: to act in answer; show an effect, as a result of sb.’s words or actions: I invited him to help, but he did not respond. My illness is responding to the doctor’s treatment.
استجاب لـ react: to behave, as the result of hearing (or seeing, feeling, etc.) sth: How did she react to the news? Was she angry?.
استجابة reaction: the way that one behaves, as the result of hearing (or seeing, feeling, etc.) sth.: What were your first reactions on seeing the accident? To help, or to call a doctor. response: an answer; action in answer to a sign, demand, etc.; noticeable effect: I waved to her, but she made no response.
استجدى scrounge: to get (sth. that one needs) by some shameful means, by begging.
استجذاب adsorption.
استجلاء clarification, elucidation, clearing up.
استجم recuperate: to rest and get strong again, after an illness or accident, etc..
استجمام recreation: any activity that freshens the body or mind, esp. after work is done: Football, playing cards, gardening and painting pictures are all recreations. They went to the children’s recreation ground.
استجمع شجاعته pluck up courage: to conquer one’s fears; become brave: He plucked up enough courage to jump from the window of the burning house.
استجمع قوته pull oneself together: to get control of one’s weaknesses: Stop crying, and pull yourself together.
الاستجمية (تركز الأشعة تماما في بؤرة المنظومة البصرية) stigmatism.
استجواب inquest: an official inquiry into the reasons for sb.’s death. inquiry: actions and meetings which are arranged to find out the reason for sth. or how sth. happened: There was a public inquiry into the causes of the child’s death.
استجوب cross-examine: to question sb. closely (esp. in court) in relation to answers that he has already given: The lawyer cross-examined the prisoner to find out whether he had been lying. examine: (in a law court) to question sb.. interrogate: to question closely, esp. about a crime: The police interrogated the prisoner. question: to ask sb. serious questions; examine sb. (concerning a crime, etc.): The police questioned the dead man’s neighbours.
استحاثة (استحجار بقايا النبات والحيوان) fossilization.
استحالة transformation, transmutation, transition.
استحث spur: to urge on: He spurred his horse. Our cheers spurred our team to win. prompt: stimulate.
استحدث innovate, create, originate.
استحسان admiration: a feeling of respect or pleasure; wonder: They had great admiration for his courage. approval: the act of approving. favour, favor: to support; liking: A teacher should not show special favour to any child.
استحسن approve: to agree; consider as satisfactory: We don’t approve of your behaviour. If you approve, I’ll invite him to dinner. favour, favor: to support; show a liking for one (person or thing) more than another: I favour the idea of hiring a car instead of buying one. Parents sometimes favour their youngest child.
استحسن كثيرا admire: to regard with respect or pleasure: I admire his courage. She was admiring your roses.
استحضر إلى الذهن recall: to remember. recollect: to remember.
استحفار fossilization.
استحق deserve: (not used in the continuous tenses) to be worthy of: Thieves deserve to be punished. Good work deserves good pay. earn: to deserve (a rest, respect, etc.) because of one’s hard work or good qualities: He earned the title of ‘The Great’ by his victories in the war. merit: to deserve: She merits all the praise that she has been given. worth: to be deserving: The castle is worth a visit. It is well worth visiting.
استحق أو استأهل ما حصل له serve sb. right: to give sb. the misfortune that he deserves: It serves you right if you fail the exam (because you haven’t worked hard).
استحق الدفع payable: having to be paid: The rent is payable weekly.
استحق ما يبذل فيه worth: (with while) good enough to deserve the time or trouble or money that is spent on it: Our visit was worthwile.
استحقاق due: the fair treatment that one deserves in spite of one’s faults: He failed. But to give him his due, he did try hard.
استحك (الجلد) itch: (of the skin) to have a hot or pricking feeling, so that one wants to rub it with one’s fingernails: My feet itch between the toes.
استحكام barricade, bulwark, rampart.
استحلاب emulsification.
استحلابية emulsibility.
استحلب emulsify.
استحم bath, bathe: to wash (a baby) in a bath; take a bath.
استحمام (حمام) bath, baths: the act of washing the whole body: I have (or take) a warm bath every night. bathe: the act of going into water to bathe or swim: Let’s go for a bathe in the lake.
استحمض acidulate.
استحوذ overwhelm: to defeat completely, with much larger or stronger forces; have such a strong effect on sb. that he feels completely helpless: We suffered an overwhelming defeat. Her kindness overwhelmed the poor old man.
استخبار inquiry, investigation.
استخبارات intelligence: secret news, esp. of an enemy: an intelligence officer in the army.
استخدام employment: the giving of paid work: a government office dealing with employment. use: using: These goods are ready for use. That room is not in use at present (is not being used), the purpose for which sth. is made; the work that sth. is able to do: Knives have many uses; for cutting food; for sharpening pencils, etc. How many uses can you think of for a brick?.
استخدام طويل wear: loss of quality caused by use or by rubbing; the act of causing such loss: The tyres showed signs of heavy wear.
استخدم apply: to put sth. on or into use (force, rules, etc.): Apply as much force as is necessary. employ: to give work to: My firm employs 300 men, to use: She employed every trick that she knew in the hope of getting what she wanted. engage: to give a job to: The school has engaged two new teachers. exercise: to make active use of (one’s mind, a power or right): Exercise a little more patience, please. exploit: to develop; make full use of (things that nature provides: forests, oil, coal, etc.): We can make electricity by exploiting the force of the river. take: to use; follow: We took the train to London. You took the wrong road. Don’t go! You should take this chance of a new job. take on: to give employment to: My company has taken on three new clerks. use: to employ (sth.) for a purpose; do sth. with: We use cups for drinking. I had to use force to open the door. utilize: to make use of (sth. that one has): Coal, oil and gas are all utilized as means of power.
استخدم ببراعة (أداة، سلطة، إلخ) wield: old use to use or handle effectively (an axe, sword, power, etc.).
استخدم الآلة بدلا من الإنسان mechanize: to supply with machines; use machines for (instead of using men, horses, etc.): mechanized farming.
استخدم علامات الفصل والوقف في الكتابة punctuate: to put the stops (?;. etc.) into writing.
استخدم كـ act as: to be useful for; be used as: The fallen tree acted as a bridge across the river.
استخراج نسخة reproduction: copying.
استخرج extract: to take out (a tooth from sb.’s mouth, oil from a seed, useful parts from a book, etc.).
استخرج من منجم mine: to dig (a mineral) from a mine: They were mining for gold, but they found silver. They mined the silver.
استخرج نسخا duplicate: to make copies of (esp. by machine): Please duplicate this letter and send it to all these addresses.
استخف sneer: to express a low opinion of sb. (or sth.) with bitter words or a bitter smile: He sneered at my failure.
استخف بـ brush aside: not to treat seriously; not attend to (a person or idea): The Police brushed my complaint aside. despise: to consider worthless; have a very low opinion of: I despise anyone who hurts a child.
استخفاف lightness: lack of weight; lack of seriousness.
استخفى abscond: to run away secretly after breaking the law: The new clerk absconded with all the money. stow away: to hide on a ship or aircraft (so as to escape from a port, or to travel free).
استخفى متربصا skulk: to move or wait in a secret or guilty way: A fox was skulking round the farmyard, hoping to seize a hen.
استخلاص extraction, digging out, winning, eduction.
استخلص extract, draw out, educe, abstract.
استخلص derive: to obtain (from sth.): Petrol is derived from mineral oil. extract: to take out (a tooth from sb.’s mouth, oil from a seed, useful parts from a book, etc.).
استدار round: to become round.
استدان borrow: to get the use of sth. with the intention of returning it later: I borrowed this book from Peter. run into debt: to begin to owe money.
استدرج entice: to make sb. do a (usu. wrong) action by offering something pleasant or by argument: He enticed the girl into his car by offering her some sweets. lure: to draw (a person or animal) on by promising pleasure or gain: The meat lured the lion into the trap. He was lured by her promises.
استدعاء invitation: a polite expression of a desire for sb. to attend sth. or to do sth.: I sent him an invitation to my party. summons, (summonses): a formal order to come (to court etc.).
استدعى (للمثول أمام القضاء) call: to ask sb. to come: Call the doctor. recall: to call (sb.) back (after sending him somewhere). send for: to send a message, so as to call (sb.) or to get (sth.): You’d better send for the police. summon: to call officially: The headmaster summoned me to his office. summons: (also serve a summons on) to order sb. to come to court: He has been summoned for dangerous driving.
استدق taper: to become slowly narrower towards one end.
استدقاق taper(ing), draft.
استدل infer, conclude, deduce.
استدلال inference, conclusion, deduction.
استدلالي a posteriori, inferential, deductive.
استذابة dissolving, solution.
استذكار recollection: memory (of an event): He was hit on the head and had no recollection of the accident. remembrance: (esp. concerning the dead) memory.
استذكر remember: to keep in mind; have in one’s memory; not forget: I can’t remember your name. I may have seen it, but I can’t remember (doing so). Did you remember to lock the door?.
استراتيجي strategic: using or needing strategy.
استراتيجية strategy: the art of planning the movement of one’s armed forces in war; skilful planning for any struggle.
استراح relax: to rest one’s mind or body; stop being anxious: We could not relax till the danger was past. rest: to be still, so as to regain one’s strength after work or activity: He lay down to rest after the race. sit back: to rest one’s body against the back of a chair.
استراحة break: a pause: a break between lessons. interval: a space (in time or distance) between two things: an interval of ten minutes between two parts of a play. rest: resting; (a period of) freedom from any work or activity.
استراحة خشبية (في الحديقة) summerhouse: a hut in the garden, where one may sit in summer.
استرجاع recovery: getting back (lost things).
استرجع recover: to get back (sth. that was lost): The stolen goods were recovered by the police. regain: to get back (a position or condition; not sth. stolen): He regained his place in the team after his illness. retrieve: to get back (sth. that had become lost or hidden): I retrieved the bicycle from the bottom of the river.
استرخاء relaxation: a way of resting or loosening one’s body; an activity that lets the mind stop being anxious.
استرخى relax: to rest one’s mind or body; stop being anxious: We could not relax till the danger was past. sit back: to rest one’s body against the back of a chair. lounge: sit in a lazy way: He was lounging back in his chair.
استرد recover: to get back (sth. that was lost): The stolen goods were recovered by the police. regain: to get back (a position or condition; not sth. stolen): He regained his place in the team after his illness. retrieve: to get back (sth. that had become lost or hidden): I retrieved the bicycle from the bottom of the river.
استرداد recovery: getting back (lost things).
استرسل flow: (of hair, clothes, etc.) fall loosely: Her thick hair flowed over her shoulders. indulge: (with in) to give oneself the pleasure of (sth. pleasant but unnecessary or unsuitable): I’m too old to indulge in boyish games.
استرضاء appeasement, placation.
استرعى interest: to cause (sb.) to give close attention to: This book interests me very much.
استرعى الانتباه catch sb.’s eye: to cause sb. to notice: A spot on her tongue caught the doctor’s eye.
إسترليني sterling.
استروح smell, scent.
استساغ relish: to enjoy: I don’t relish the idea of getting up at 6.30 every morning for my new job.
استسلام resignation: suffering without complaint; being resigned: She accepts her hard life with resignation. surrender: surrendering.
استسلم give in: to yield; stop struggling: He had to give in when his strength was gone. surrender: to give (oneself, a town, arms, etc.) into the power of an enemy or of a force too strong to resist: The defeated army was forced to surrender. yield: (old use) to cease opposition and accept defeat: The enemy were forced to yield.
استسلم لـ submit: to accept defeat, punishment, etc.: The boy submitted to having his hair cut. succumb: to yield to; cease to struggle against; be defeated by: He succumbed to his desire for a cigarette, though he had promised his wife to stop smoking.
استسلم للنوم go to sleep: to begin to sleep.
استشار consult: to ask advice of or obtain facts from: consult the doctor; consult a book.
استشارة consultation, advice.
استشاري advisory.
استشعار (إدراك بالحواس) feeling, sensing, perception.
الاستشعاع radiotherapy, radiation therapy.
استشف رسما أو صورة trace: to copy the lines of a pattern, picture, etc. by drawing on thin clear paper that is laid over it.
استشفاء hospitalization.
استشهاد (اقتباس) citation, quotation.
استشهد بـ quote: to repeat words that were spoken or written by sb. else (or by oneself at some other time): Don’t quote me! (Don’t tell others that I said this!). He often quotes poetry. She was quoting (from) Shakespeare.
استصباح illumination, lighting.
استصلاح reclamation.
استصلح الأرض للزراعة reclaim: to bring back (desert, land that was under water, etc.) to a useful condition for farming or building.
استصواب approval.
استصوب approve: to agree; consider as satisfactory: We don’t approve of your behaviour. If you approve, I’ll invite him to dinner. Our plans were approved by the meeting.
استضاءة illumination.
استضاف entertain: to receive (sb.) as a guest: We entertained some friends to dinner. We’re too busy to entertain very often. treat: to give sb. pleasure, paying the cost oneself: I treated my friend to dinner (I invited him to dinner at a restaurant and I paid the bill).
استضواء (شدة الضيائية) luminance.
استطاب relish: to enjoy: I don’t relish the idea of getting up at 6.30 every morning for my new job.
استطار scatter.
استطارة scattering.
استطاع can, cannot, can’t: to be able to: Can you lift that box?. could, could not, couldn’t: (past tense of can) was able to; knew how to: When I was young, I could walk for hours without getting tired. He could speak German, couldn’t he?.
استطاع أن يتحدث بلغة speak: to know (a language) and be able to talk it: Do you speak English?.
استطاعة ability, capability, capacity.
استطال lengthen: to become longer.
استطالة elongation, extension, stretch.
استطراد digression.
استطلاع reconnaissance, exploration, scouting.
استطلاع رأي questionnaire: a list of written questions sent to many people, to find out facts or opinions on some subject and make a report on them: All the doctors were sent a questionnaire on the new medicines.
استطلع scout: to search an area to obtain facts (esp. about an enemy). scout around: to search (not for sth. that is lost): I’ll scout around for a good place to camp. snoop: to watch secretly what others are doing, so as to make trouble for them (as by reporting their faults to some official).
استظهر memorize: to fix (facts, dates, poetry, etc.) in the memory. know. sth. by heart: to be able to repeat (sth. such as a poem) from memory.
استعاد resume: to take again (one’s seat, one’s position, etc.) after a pause: He stood up to ask a question, and then resumed his chair.
استعاد إلى الذاكرة recall: to remember.
استعاد الصحة mend: to become better in health: His broken leg is mending slowly.
استعادة recovery: getting back (lost things).
استعار borrow: to get the use of sth. with the intention of returning it later: I borrowed this book from Peter.
استعارة metaphor: a special use of words to express an idea in an imaginative way: ‘He has a will of iron’ is a metaphor for ‘He has a very strong will!.
استعاض عن substitute: to put (sth.) in place of sth. else: He removed the jewel and substituted a worthless stone.
استعاضة replacement, substitution; exchange.
استعجال haste: quick movement or action; hurry: Make haste!. hurry: haste; reason for haste: There’s no hurry, so you needn’t run. urgency: urgent condition: a matter of great urgency.
استعجل hurry: to make (sb.) hurry; get (sth.) done faster: If you hurry her, you’ll confuse her. We must hurry our plans.
استعد prepare: to get ready: She’s preparing a meal. Prepare (yourself) for a shock!.
استعداد aptitude: natural ability or skill: He has an aptitude for languages. readiness: being ready. willingness: readiness (to help).
استعداد طبيعي (مزاج) disposition: sb.’s usual way of thinking and acting; sb.’s character or nature: My son has a cheerful disposition. flair: a natural ability to do sth. well: a flair for languages.
استعداد فطري gift: a natural ability to do sth. well: He has a gift for music.
استعدادات preparation: (pl.) things that are done in readiness for sth: preparations for a journey.
استعدادي preparatory.
استعدى turn against: to make unfriendly towards sb.: His cruelty turned even his children against him.
استعر flame, flare, blaze.
استعراض display: showing; a public show: a dancing display. parade: a ceremonial march or journey through the streets; a show: a parade of ancient cars. show: a splendid appearance that is a sign of pride: These fine shoes are made for show and not for comfort, a public performance, esp. of a play: a film show.
استعرض review, survey, inspect, examine, consider, discuss.
استعصى indurate.
استعصاء induration, tenacity.
استعفى resign.
استعلاء superiority.
استعلامات information.
استعلام enquiry: a question: My clerk deals with all enquiries. There is an enquiry office at the railway station.
استعلائي transcendental.
استعلم enquire: (rather formal; with whether, not with if) to ask: He enquired my name. I enquired after her health. We enquired whether they had arrived.
استعلم عن inquire, enquire: to ask (often about some important matter).
استعمار colonization.
استعماري colonial: of a colony. imperialist: sb. who favours imperialism; concerning imperialism.
استعمال application: applying; sth. applied: An application of heat may help to lessen the pain. use: the purpose for which sth. is made; the work that sth. is able to do: Knives have many uses; for cutting food; for sharpening pencils, etc. How many uses can you think of for a brick?. using:: These goods are ready for use. That room is not in use at present (is not being used).
استعمل apply: to put sth. on or into use (force, rules, etc.): Apply as much force as is necessary. employ: to use: She employed every trick that she knew in the hope of getting what she wanted. use: to employ (sth.) for a purpose; do sth. with: We use cups for drinking. I had to use force to open the door.
استغرق take: to need (effort, money; time, etc.): I took (or It took or it took me) two hours to get here.
استغرق في التفكير muse: to think deeply: She sat musing for hours, without noticing the people around her.
استغش distrust: not to trust.
استغفل kid: to deceive sb. for amusement: It cost only $2? You’re kidding (me).
استغل exploit: to develop; make full use of (things that nature provides: forests, oil, coal, etc.): We can make electricity by exploiting the force of the river.
استغل (لأغراض أنانية) exploit: to use (esp. a person) unfairly for one’s own profit: He exploited the poor by making them work for very low pay. make the most of: to use in the most effective way: In his speech, he made the most of the opposition’s few mistakes. to take advantage of: to make unfair use of; deceive: The shopkeeper took advantage of my inexperience and charged me too much.
استغل (من شيء) make the best of: to do as well as one can with (sth. imperfect): If this torn shirt is your only one, you’ll have to make the best of it.
استغلال exploitation: developing or using; making unfair use of another person.
استغنى become rich.
استغوى entice: to make sb. do a (usu. wrong) action by offering something pleasant or by argument: He enticed the girl into his car by offering her some sweets. lure: to draw (a person or animal) on by promising pleasure or gain: The meat lured the lion into the trap.
استفاد (من) profit: to gain: We can profit (gain wisdom or skill) by experience. take advantage of: to make good use of: I took advantage of the new public baths and learnt to swim. utilize: to make use of (sth. that one has): Coal, oil and gas are all utilized as means of power.
استفاد كثيرا من make the most of: to use in the most effective way: In his speech, he made the most of the opposition’s few mistakes.
استفادة utilization, use.
استفتاء poll: the taking of public opinion on some subject by means of certain questions.
استفتى consult: to ask advice of or obtain facts from: consult the doctor; consult a book.
استفراغ vomiting.
استفرغ spew: to be sick so that matter from the stomach is thrown out through the mouth. vomit: to bring up (food) from the stomach; be sick.
استفزاز provocation, incitement.
استفسار enquiry: a question: My clerk deals with all enquiries. There is an enquiry office at the railway station. inquiry: (an act of) inquiring. question: asking: Please answer my question.
استفسر enquire: (rather formal; with whether, not with if) ask: He enquired my name. I enquired after her health. We enquired whether they had arrived.
استفسر عن inquire, enquire: to ask (often about some important matter).
الاستفهام (صيغة) interrogative: which asks a question.
استفهام بلاغي rhetorical question: a question that expects no answer.
استفهم enquire: (rather formal; with whether, not with if) to ask: He enquired my name. I enquired after her health. We enquired whether they had arrived. question: to ask sb. serious questions; examine sb. (concerning a crime, etc.): The police questioned the dead man’s neighbours.
استقال resign: to give up (a personal position): He resigned his job. I’ve resigned from the club (or I’ve resigned my membership of the club).
استقالة resignation: giving up one’s (official) position; a formal statement of this: He sent in his resignation as director of the company.
استقامة honesty: being honest. integrity: honesty; trustworthiness.
استقبال welcome: a manner of receiving (not always with pleasure); greeting: a warm welcome; a cold welcome. reception: receiving (guests, etc.): the reception office at the hotel.
استقبالية receptibility.
استقبل meet: to go and wait for the arrival of: I’ll meet your train. see: to visit; receive (a visitor): The doctor will see you at 10.30.
استقبل بالترحاب welcome: to receive with pleasure: We welcomed our guests at the door. I would welcome your advice.
استقبل الضيوف receive: to welcome guests (see reception) formally.
استقر settle: to come to rest: A fly settled on my nose, go and make a new home somewhere: My grandfather left England and settled in New Zealand. settle down: to stop being restless; become calm and content: Settle down and get on with your work! The boy soon settled down in his new school.
استقر رأيه على choose, chose, chosen: to decide: I chose to stay at home rather than to travel.
استقر على rest: to lie, or cause to lie: Clouds rested on the hills. For a moment she rested her eyes on my face (she looked steadily at me).
استقرأ investigate: to make careful inquiries; try to find out (what is happening); inquire into (a crime, sth. strange and unexplained, etc.): He heard a noise and went to investigate.
استقراء induction.
استقرائي inductive.
استقرابي approximate.
استقرار settling, settlement.
استقرى explore: to examine (a new idea; a plan etc.) in order to learn more: We explored all the possibilities before making a decision.
استقصاء research: careful study that aims to find new facts: medical research.
استقصى investigate, explore, survey.
استقطاب (انفصال شحنات الجزيء السالبة والموجبة بتأثير عامل خارجي) polarization.
استقطابية polarizability.
استقطار distillation.
استقطاع deduction.
استقطب polarize.
استقل ride: esp. AmE travel in or on a bus, cart, train.
استقلاب metabolism.
استقلال independence: being independent; freedom from control.
استكان resign: (passive or with -self) to force oneself to suffer without complaint (sth. that one cannot avoid): He resigned himself (or He was resigned) to living alone after his wife died.
استكان إلى nestle: to sit or lie comfortably and warmly: The little cat nestled in her lap.
استكانة resignation: suffering without complaint; being resigned: She accepts her hard life with resignation.
استكبار disdain: to disrespect for sb. or sth. that one considers worthless.
استكتب dictate: to say (sth.) for sb. to write down: Businessmen usually dictate their letters.
استكرى rent: to use (sth.) on payment of rent: We have rented this house for a year.
استكشاف exploration: (an act of) exploring: a journey of exploration along the Amazone; a full exploration of all the reasons for and against closing the railway.
استكشافي exploratory.
استكشف explore: to travel into or through (a place) for the purpose of discovery: Captain Scott explored the Antarctic regions. scout: to search an area to obtain facts (esp. about an enemy).
استكمال (استكمال من الداخل) interpolation.
استكمل complete: to finish, make perfect; fill (the spaces on a printed form): I’ve just completed my studies at the university. Please complete your application paper and send it to this office. replenish: to fill up again (a supply, a store, etc.): May I replenish your glass (of wine)?.
استل draw, drew, drawn: to pull a weapon (sword, knife, gun, etc.) from its case, intending to use it.
استلام receipt: receiving: On receipt of his letter, we went at once to see him. reception.
استيلاء على capture: the act of capturing: The capture of that city ended the war.
استلذ enjoy: to get pleasure from: Did you enjoy your dinner?.
استلزم call for: need; demand: This work calls for great care. involve: to result in (sth. that cannot be avoided): His job involved a lot of foreign travel.
استلقى lie: (lay, lain) to remain flat; be spread out: He was lying on his back. lie down: (from a standing position) to spread one’s body out flat: She lay down on the bed for a rest. recline: to lie down or lie back, so as to rest: He was reclining comfortably in an armchair.
استلقى على ظهره lie back: (from a sitting position) to let one’s body fall back: He lay back in the armchair and fell asleep.
استلم receive.
استماح... عذرا apologize: to say that one is sorry for a fault: He apologized to me for his mistake.
استمارة form: a printed paper asking for certain facts, with spaces that sb. must write in.
استماع audition, hearing, listening.
استمال induce: to cause (sb.) to do sth. (by offering sth. in return): Only a lot of money would induce me to work in a city. win over: to cause (sb.) to change his opinion and favour sb. else’s.
استمالة persuasion: persuading.
استمتاع relish: enjoyment; pleasure: She drank the wine with relish.
استمتع wallow: (with in) to enjoy: She wallowed in their praise.
استمتع بـ enjoy oneself: to enjoy what one is doing: We enjoyed ourselves at the cinema.
استمد derive, draw, get.
استمر carry on: to continue: Carry on with your work.. continue: to go on; not stop: The noise continued. go ahead: go on; make progress: You may go ahead with your plans. go on: (esp. with the -ing form of verbs) to continue: He went on sleeping in spite of the noise. Go on with your work. last: to continue; fill a certain amount of time: The play lasted (for) two hours. persist: to continue to exist: The snow persists on the ground in spite of the hot sun. press on: to go on; continue in a determined way: We must press on with our efforts. stand, stood: to be, or remain, in a certain position: As matters stand (In present conditions) we have no hope of success.
استمر في keep: (with a present participle; often with on) to continue to do sth.; do sth. repeatedly: He kept (on) hitting me. Keep (on) trying till you succeed. keep on: (without the participle) to continue: Keep on till I tell you to stop.
استمرار continuation: continuing. steadiness: being steady.
استمرارية continuity; permanence.
استمع بصبر وأناة إلى... bear with: to stay and listen to sb.; to be patient with.
استمع لـ listen: (esp. with to) to hear attentively: You must listen to what your teacher says.
استملاك (اكتسابي) acquisition.
أستميح عفوك pardon, I beg your pardon!: I’m sorry! Forgive me! (a formal expression when one causes annoyance to sb.).
استناد leaning.
استنباط invention, discovery.
استنباطي deductive.
استنبط devise: to plan with skill: We devised a plan of escape.
استنتاج conclusion: an opinion which is the result of thought.
استنتج conclude: to arrive at an opinion (after thought): As we knocked on your door and no one opened it, we concluded that you were out. deduce: to reason out an idea from a limited number of facts: The dead man had two thousand pounds in his pockets: from this the police deduced that he had not been murdered for his money. gather: (with a clause as the object) to understand: I gather from your son that he has left school. make out: to understand: I can’t make out what this means. take: to understand; believe: I took him to be your son.
استنجد appeal: to ask anxiously for; beg: The lost child appealed (to us) for help.
استند lean: to rest the weight of (sth. or oneself): He leant the post against the wall. The old lady leant on his arm.
استند إلى rest: to be (or cause to be) supported: The roof of the hut rested on four strong posts. He rested the pole against the wall.
استنزاف depletion, exhaustion, attrition; bleeding.
استنزف deplete: to lessen in quantity, contents, power or value: During the cold weather our store of coal became depleted. exhaust: to tire completely: The long climb exhausted me. strain: to damage sth. by stretching it too much, or by tiring it too much: I strained my back in lifting that rock. You’ll strain your eyes if you read in poor light.
استنساخ duplication, copying.
استنشاق inhalation.
استنشق sniff: to breathe into one’s nose the smell of sth.: She sniffed (at) the roses.
استنشق الهواء inhale: to breathe (sth.) in: He inhaled the fresh air. If you smoke, try not to inhale too deeply.
استنطاق (دقيق) interrogation, questioning, cross-examination.
استنطق interrogate: to question closely, esp. about a crime: The police interrogated the prisoner.
استغنى عن do without: not to have sth., but be content (or continue one’s work, etc.) in spite of not having it: My car is being repaired, so I shall have to do without it today.
استنفاد depletion, exhaustion; consumption.
استنفر (أو أمر) alert.
استنقذ salvage: to save sth. from loss (by fire, by sinking at sea, etc): He salvaged some furniture from the ruins of his house.
استنكار disapproval: the act of disapproving. outcry: a loud angry complaint by the general public: When the plans for the new road were annouced, there was a general outcry.
استنكر condemn, denounce.
استنكر deplore: to be very sorry about and consider to be wrong (sth. that is not one’s own fault): I deplore the custom of smoking at meals. disapprove: to consider sth. to be wrong or undesirable: I disapprove of smoking. mind: to be troubled (by): Do you mind if I smoke? Do you mind my smoking? Would you mind passing me that book? Do what you like; I don’t mind.
استهان بـ make light of sth.: not treat it as serious: He made light of my complaints.
استهتار recklessness: wildly careless behaviour.
استهجان disapproval: the act of disapproving.
استهجن disapprove: consider sth. to be wrong or undesirable: I disapprove of smoking.
استهدافية susceptibility.
استهزأ بـ sneer: to express a low opinion of sb. (or sth.) with bitter words or a bitter smile: He sneered at my failure.
استهزاء jeer: an unkind laugh. ridicule: unkind laughter and words.
استهزائي sardonic: showing bitter, cruel amusement: a sardonic smile.
استهل commence: to begin: Our school year commences in September.
استهل سيره strike out: to set out (across open country or open water): He jumped from the boat and struck out for the shore.
استهل اللعب kick off: to start a game of football: We shall kick off at 2:30.
استهلاك consumption: the act of consuming; the amount consumed: You should try to cut down on your consumption of petrol. wear: loss of quality caused by use or by rubbing; the act of causing such loss: The tyres showed signs of heavy wear.
استهلك consume: to use a supply of sth. (food, electricity, oil, etc.): This car consumes a lot of petrol. deplete: to lessen in quantity, contents, power or value: During the cold weather our store of coal became depleted. exhaust: to use up completely (a supply of anything): We have exhausted our food supply. go: be spent; be used: Most of my pay goes on food. His strength had gone. swallow up: to cause (sth.) to disappear: His family’s needs swallow up all his earnings. use up: to use until none is left: We’ve used up all the string. consume: to use a supply of sth. (food, electricity, oil, etc.): This car consumes a lot of petrol. exhaust: to use up completely (a supply of anything): We have exhausted our food supply. use up: to use until none is left: We’ve used up all the string.
استهواء appeal, fascination.
استهوى appeal: to be pleasing: Such music appeals to me. enchant: to charm; delight: She was enchanted by the idea of a party.
استواء flatness: the state of being flat.
استوائي tropical: of the tropics: tropical plants.
استوى level; straighten; flatten.
استوثق insure, ensure: to make sure sth. will happen or be done: Keep the fish in a cold place, to insure that it stays fresh.
استوثق أو تأكد أو تحقق من see: make sure: Please see that the doors are locked.
استوجب deserve, merit.
استوحش (لفقد) miss: to be sad at the absence of; notice the absence of: She misses her children when they are away on holiday. I missed several tools from my toolbox.
استودع سرا confide: (with in) to trust sb. with one’s secrets or private troubles: Never confide in a stranger.
استوديو studio: the workroom of a painter or photographer; a room where cinema films are made; a room from which radio or television material is sent out.
استورد import: to bring (sth.) into a country: We import bicycles from Holland.
استوطن colonize: to form a colony in (a place). settle: go and make a new home somewhere: My grandfather left England and settled in New Zealand.
استوعب absorb: to take in (liquid, heat, light, knowledge, etc.): Salt absorbs water. assimilate: to take sth. (or sb.) in and make a part of a single whole: Our bodies assimilate food. America has assimilated people from many countries. hold: to contain or be able to contain: This box holds all my clothes. This tin will hold 10 litres of petrol.
استولد breed, bred: to keep (animals) and cause them to produce young: He breeds horses for racing.
استولى seize: to take hold of, excitedly or violently; take possession of (firmly or by force): He seized her hand and kissed it. The police seized his supply of explosives.
استولى capture: to catch or seize; make a prisoner of: The police have captured the thief. occupy: to hold (an enemy’s land or town) in time of war. take: to get hold of; catch; seize: The city was taken by the enemy. vanquish: to conquer.
استولى خلسة على pocket: to put into one’s pocket (often dishonestly): He pocketed the money and told nobody.
استياء offence: (with give or take) to displeasure; hurt feelings: She took offence (She was offended) at my refusal of her invitation. resentment: anger and annoyance (about sth. that seems unfair or rude, etc.).
استيراد import: the act of bringing trading goods into a country: The import of foreign meat was forbidden.
استيطان settlement.
استيعاب comprehension: understanding: an exercise in English comprehension.
استيقظ awake, awoke, awoken: to wake; (often with up) to stop sleeping: I woke at 6 o’clock. Wake me (up) at seven o’clock please.
استيلاء على capture, seizure.
أسخط exasperate: to annoy greatly.
أسد lion: a large fierce cat-like animal, with yellow-brown fur; it is found in Africa and is regarded as the king of all animals.
أسدل الستار draw a curtain: to pull it across a window.
أسدى معروفا oblige: to do a kindness to: He would do it to oblige a friend, but he wouldn’t do it for money.
أسدى النصيحة advise: to tell sb. what he should do: I advise you to be more careful.
آسر seductive: likely to seduce; charming: a seductive smile.
أسر captivity: the state of being a prisoner: Wild animals often die in captivity.
أسر (استيلاء على) capture: the act of capturing: The capture of that city ended the war.
أسر capture: to catch or seize: make a prisoner of: The police have captured the thief. intrigue: (of sth. strange that cannot easily be explained) to interest (sb.) greatly. take prisoner: to make (sb.) a prisoner in war: The enemy took them all prisoner.
أسر (فتن، سحر) charm: please greatly.
أسر whisper: to speak or say quietly with the breath only, not with the voice: He whispered a secret to me.
أسر إلى confide: (with in) to trust sb. with one’s secrets or private troubles: Never confide in a stranger.
أسراب (مؤذية) plague: a very large number of creatures (esp. flies, rats, locusts, etc.) that cause great trouble: The crops were destroyed by a plague of locusts.
إسراع speed-up, hastening, hurry(ing).
إسراف extravagance: wastefulness; free or careless spending.
أسرة descent: family going back into the past: a man of noble descent. family: a man and a wife with their children. house: an important family: a ruling house. household: all those who live in one house.
أسرة مالكة royalty: royal persons: The play was performed in the presence of royalty.
أسرج (الحيوان) saddle: to put a saddle on (an animal).
أسرع get a move on: (usu. as advice) to hurry: Get a move on, or you’ll be late!. hurry: (often used with up) to be quick; move quickly: Hurry up, or you’ll be late! I must hurry home. nip: to hurry: She nipped home for a quick meal. quicken: to become faster: He quickened his speed. speed: to go fast: The car sped past me.
أسرع إلى rush: to hurry; go (or take, or send) fast or violently: He rushed past me to catch the bus.
أسرع بإرساله إلى rush: to hurry; go (or take, or send) fast or violently: They rushed the wounded boy to hospital.
أسرع في الخطو خارجا step out: to walk quickly, with large steps.
أسرع من الصوت (للسرعة) supersonic: travelling faster than sound: supersonic aircraft.
أسرع come along! (come on!): to be quick!.
أسروع (الحشرة بعد طور اليرقة) chrysalis: the second stage in the life of certain insects, whose body changes inside a hard case; the hard case.
أسروعة maggot: one of the young of certain flies that lay their eggs on our food (esp. meat and fish) or on dead bodies.
أسس (على) base: to build on sth. or take it as a starting point: My story was based on true events. establish: to start and develop: He established a school for homeless boys. This company was established in 1924. found: to start (a school, a city, a business, etc.).
أسس foundation: (esp. pl.) sth. on which the rest is built: The foundations of the new hospital are now being laid.
استعمر colonize: to form a colony in (a place).
إسطبل stable: a building in which horses, etc. are kept.
أسطوانة (في محرك آلة) cylinder: (in an engine) the hollow space shaped like a cylinder, in which the mixture of air and petrol is exploded to produce power: This is a car with six cylinders, any long round object, with flat ends of equal size: A cigarette is a small cylinder. roller: (in machinery, such as in printing) a round bar that turns, and makes things go over or round it.
أسطوانة (موسيقى، غناء، إلخ) disc: a gramophone record. record: a flat plastic plate with recorded music or speech, for use on a record player.
أسطواني round: (of long things) shaped like a pipe, with curved sides: a round pencil.
أسطورة fable: a fanciful story, often about animals. legend: a fanciful old story (sometimes partly true) that has been passed on by spoken words: There is a legend that gold lies buried under this castle. myth: a story (passed down from ancient times) that contains the early beliefs of a race (about nature, history, etc.).
أسطوري fabulous: unbelievable; wonderful: fabulous jewels. legendary: concerning legends; famous in legends: King Arthur is a legendary figure from England’s distant past. mythical: (of sth. ancient) to known through myths.
أسطول fleet: a large group of any named vehicle: a fleet of buses.
أسطول تجاري merchant navy: the trading ships of a country (and those that carry travellers); the officers and men of these ships.
أسطول حربي fleet: a large group of warships under a single control. navy: the warships of a country.
إسعاف أولي first aid: treatment given by an ordinary person to sb. sick or hurt.
أسعد delight: to please greatly: I’m delighted to see you.
أسعف aid, help.
آسف sorry: a polite expression when one has made a mistake, or when one cannot help sb.: Sorry, I meant four, not five! Can you lend me a pencil? Sorry, I can’t. sad: (about some bad action, condition, etc.): I’m sorry that I hurt you. I’m sorry to hear of your illness. Are you sorry for your crimes?.
أسف deplore: to be very sorry about and consider to be wrong (sth. that is not one’s own fault): I deplore the custom of smoking at meals.
أسف regret: sadness about some past or future fact: He expressed his regret for the damage. Much to my regret, I can’t help you, bo be sorry about (sth.): He regretted his rudeness. We regretted your absence. I regret to say that I shall be unable to accept your kind invitation.
أسفل base: the bottom of anything; the part on which sth. stands: The base of a cup must be flat. below: lower than under: Write your name below mine. Peter came below me in the examination, lower down; in a lower place: From the tower, the ground seemed far below. beneath: below. bottom: the base on which sth. stands; the lowest part, inside or outside: the bottom of a bottle. under: in or to a lower position than; below: Put it under your bed.
الأسفل bottom: lowest: The books were on the bottom shelf.
إسفنج sponge: a sea creature whose soft body we use for washing ourselves; sth. that is made (of rubber, etc.) like a sponge; the material itself.
إسفنجي spongy: soft and springy like a sponge; wet and soft: spongy soil.
الإسفندان (شجر) maple: a common tree in northen countries (whose 5-pointed leaves turn red in autumn).
إسفين chock: a wooden block used to prevent wheels, etc. from moving. wedge: a V-shaped piece of wood, rubber, etc. for fixing sth. in place; a V-shaped piece of metal, for breaking logs in half.
إسقاء irrigation.
إسقاط (ضوئي أو هندسي) projection.
الإسقربوط (داء) scurvy: a disease caused by lack of fresh fruit and vegetables.
أسقط bring down: to cause to fall: A storm brought down the telephone wires. drop: to let fall: I dropped a coin into his hand. I dropped my book in the mud. shed: to let sth. fall: Trees shed their leaves. Lamps shed light.
أسقط drop.
أسقف bishop: a Christian priest of high rank.
إسكات silencing.
إسكاف cobbler, shoemaker.
إسكان housing: houses in general: The lack of housing prevents workers from coming here.
أسكت hush!: to be quiet: Hush! Don’t wake the baby!.
اسكتلندا Scotland: a country which is part of Great Britain.
اسكتلندي (اسم، صفة) Scotch, Scottish: (but only correct in a few special phrases): Scotch whisky. Scottish: of Scotland and its people. Scotsman, Scotswoman: sb. from Scotland.
أسكر intoxicate: (of alcoholic drinks) to cause (sb.) to lose control of himself and to become unnaturally excited.
أسكفة sill.
إسكلة jetty: a structure (of wood, iron or stone) which is built into the water so that people can land from boats or ships (when made of stone, it also often protects a harbour from strong waves).
أسكن house: to put in a house; find a place or space for: If you bring workers here, you must house them.
الإسكواش (لعبة) squash: a game for 2 or 4 players, who hit a small rubber ball against the walls of a small court.
الأسل (نبات) rush: a plant that grows in wet places; its tall stems are used for making chair seats, baskets and floor coverings.
أسلاب plunder: plundered goods.
أسلاك wires, wiring.
إسلامي Muslim: of Muslims: Muslim countries.
أسلة tip: an end; a point: the tips of one’s fingers.
أسلحة arms: weapons: Soldiers carry arms.
أسلحة خفيفة (small) arms: guns that can be carried by hand.
أسلك الخيط في ثقب أو سم الإبرة thread: to put a thread through (sth.); join things with a thread: Please thread this needle for me.
أسلوب fashion: manner: It was done in a careless fashion. manner: the way in which sth. is done: It was tied in a very strange manner. method: a way of doing sth.: modern methods of building. process: (in factories, etc.) a way of making or treating sth.: Colour films are printed by a special chemical process. style: a particular way of doing sth.: a writer’s style; a swimmer’s style; the latest style of dress. way: manner: That’s the wrong way to do it. Foreigners don’t understand our ways (our customs).
أسلوب راسخ rut: a fixed way of life that is dull but is hard to change: be in a rut.
اسم name: the word by which sb. or sth. is known: His name is Peter Scott. Every known creature has a scientific name. noun: a word that is the name of a person, thing, quality, idea, etc.: ‘cat’, ‘vegetable’ and ‘glass’ are nouns, but ‘accept’ and ‘beautiful’ are not.
اسم الأسرة surname: family name: John Smith’s surname is Smith.
اسم أسرة الزوجة قبل الزواج maiden name: a woman’s family name before marriage (when she takes her husband’s family name): Mrs Brown’s maiden name was Scott.
اسم أو توقيع شخص كتبه بنفسه autograph: the signed name of a (famous) person.
الاسم الأول Christian name: one’s first name(s): John Brown’s Christian name is John; his surname (family name) is Brown.
اسم الفاعل أو المفعول (صيغة) participle: a verbal adjective: The present participle of ‘annoy’ is ‘annoying’ as in ‘He is an annoying man’. The past participle of ‘break’ is ‘broken’ as in ‘It is a broken cup’.
اسم مستعار alias: a name used instead of one’s real name: Many thieves have an alias. His name is Smith, alias Brown. pseudonym: a name that is used by a writer instead of his real name.
اسم موصول relative: (pronoun, in the study of a language; of a pronoun or adverb) related to a noun before it, which it describes; the word which in the last sentence is a relative pronoun describing noun.
أسمال بالية rag: torn and dirty clothes: The poor girl was dressed in rags. tatters.
اسمح لي... excuse me: an expression used when one wishes to speak to sb., esp. a stranger: Excuse me! Can you tell me the way to the post office?.
أسمدة fertilizers.
أسمر brown: of a brown colour; (of bread or sugar) natural; not whitened. tan: yellowish brown; the colour of sunburnt skin.
أسمر اللون swarthy: (of the face) rather dark-skinned.
إسمنت cement: a grey powder (made from burnt lime) that hardens when mixed with water, used esp. in building.
إسمنت مسلح concrete: a hard material for building made of lime mixed with sand and water.
أسموزية osmosis.
الأسمى supreme: (usu. attrib.) highest in rank or power; greatest possible: a supreme commander; a supreme effort.
اسمي nominal.
آسن stagnant: (of water) not flowing, so not fresh or clear: a stagnant pool.
أسن elder: (of people, esp. in a family) older: my elder brother; her elder son.
إسناد reference.
إسنان dentition; teething.
أسنان teeth: pl. of tooth.
أسند rest: to be (or cause to be) supported: He rested the pole against the wall.
إسهاب elaboration.
إسهال diarrhea or diarrhoea).
إسهام contribution.
أسهب amplify: to make stronger, louder or clearer: A loudspeaker amplifies sound. This explanation needs amplifying.
أسهل (البطن) purge.
أسوأ worse: more bad; more badly: Murder is worse than stealing. It is a worse crime. You write even worse than I do.
الأسوأ worst: most bad; most badly: He’s the worst player in the team. He plays worst when he is in a bad temper.
أسوأ جزء من worst: the worst part of sth.: The worst of the illness is past.
أسوأ الجميع worst: most bad; most badly: He’s the worst player in the team. He plays worst when he is in a bad temper.
أسوأ حالا worse: more ill: I felt ill yesterday and I feel worse today.
أسوأ من أن يعرف أو يوصف nameless: too terrible to describe or name: They were guilty of nameless crimes.
إسوار bracelet: a ring or chain worn round the arm or wrist.
أسوة example: sth. that should be copied: He sets a good example (of behaviour). Please follow his example.
أسود black: the opposite of white: The colour of coal or of this print. negro: a person who has black skin by race.
أسود كالزفت pitch-black, pitch-dark: very black; very dark.
اسود blacken: make or become black.
اسوداد blackening.
إسوي iso-, equal.
أسى bitterness: bitter taste or feeling. grief: deep sorrow. sorrow: sadness; grief; sth. that causes sadness.
أسير captive: (a person, etc.) taken or kept as a prisoner: a captive bird. capture: sb. or sth. captured.
أسير حرب prisoner: an enemy who is caught in wartime.
أشاب (السبيكة) alloy.
أشابة alloy.
أشاح ببصره عن avert: to turn away (one’s eyes, etc.): He averted his eyes from the sight of the murder.
أشار register: (of an instrument that measures speed, heat, etc.) to show (a certain figure). signal: to make a signal; express sth. by signal: He signalled to me that all was well by blowing a whistle. wave: to make a sign with one’s arm or hand: The policeman waved me on (He told me to go on by waving his arm).
أشار refer: to speak of: I was not referring to you when I said "some fool".
أشار (إلى) indicate: to point out; show: There was no sign to indicate the way to the station. point: (with at) to draw attention to (sth. that one can see); aim one’s finger: She pointed at me and shouted, "That’s the thief!", (with to) show the direction of sth., whether it can be seen or not; draw attention to: The road sign pointed to London. She pointed to the broken window, to direct aim: Don’t point that gun at me! He pointed his finger at the guilty boy. represent: to be a sign or example of (sth.): The sign ‘&’ represents the word ‘and’. allude to: to speak indirectly about sb. or sth.: When he said ‘someone’, he was alluding to you. hint: to say indirectly: He hinted that he was in need of money.
أشار (على) advise: to tell sb. what he should do: I advise you to be more careful. recommend: advise: I recommend you to buy one of these new radios.
أشار (له بالحضور) beckon: to call sb. by making a sign with the hand: He beckoned (to) me to follow him.
أشار بيديه لإفهام مقصوده gesticulate: to express oneself excitedly by movements of the hands.
أشار ضمنا imply: to suggest; seem to mean: Her manner implies that she would like to come with us. His absence implies that he is unwell.
إشارة allusion: the act of alluding; sth. that alludes. indication: a sign. mark: sth. said or done as a sign of sth.: They stood silent as a mark of respect for the dead. reference: referring; a statement that refers to sth.: His speech made no reference to the war. sign: sth. that shows the existence (or probable existence) of sth. else: A red sunset is a sign of good weather. Loss of hearing is a sign of old age, a movement or mark or notice that tells one sth.: He waved his arm as a sign that he was ready. + is a sign of addition. The road sign gave a warning of a dangerous bend. signal: an official sign that gives an order or warning: A red light is a signal that a car or train must stop. symptom: a sign of an illness: A hot head is a symptom of fever. wave: a waving movement or sign, usu. with the hand: He gave a wave (of his hand) as he walked away.
إشارة إلى mention: mentioning; a short statement (about sth.): He made no mention of their plans. There was a mention of her in the newspapers yesterday.
إشارة تنبيهية cue: which is a sign for sb. to begin doing or saying sth.: The actor missed his cue to come on the stage.
إشارة تنظيم المرور traffic control signal.
إشارة الخانة العشرية (في الحساب) point: a decimal sign in numbers: 4 1/2 is 4.5 (four point five) in decimal figures.
إشارة خفيفة hint: sth. said indirectly; a faint idea or feeling: Don’t tell him the answer; just give him a hint. There was a hint of fear in his voice.
إشارة دالة clue: sth. that helps to answer a difficult question: The thief’s footmark gave the police a clue.
إشارة سهم arrow: a sign (.) showing where sth. is.
إشارة النجمة في الكتابة asterisk: the mark *.
أشاط (أزال زغب النسيج) singe, sear, scorch.
أشاط غضبا madden: to make sb. wildly excited (with pain or anger, not joy): The prisoners were maddened with hunger.
أشاع rumour.
إشاعة rumour: a common report that is probably untrue: I’ve heard a rumour that petrol is becoming cheaper.
أشب (مزج المعادن) alloy.
إشباع surfeit: too much of sth. (esp. food or drink); the dislike resulting from eating or drinking too much of sth..
أشبع appease: to calm or satisfy (hunger, etc.) by giving what is wanted. satisfy: to fill the needs of; be enough for: He ate enough to satisfy his hunger. My explanation satisfied his curiosity. saturate.
أشبع إشباعا كاملا satiate: to satisfy completely or too much, so that one desires no more: satiated with rich food (with amusements, with looking at television).
أشبع بالماء soak: to make (a material) very wet: Our clothes were soaked by the storm.
أشبه bear a resemblance to: to look like: He bears a slight resemblance to his uncle. resemble: to look like: He resembles his father.
إشبينة العروس bridesmaid: a girl who attends a bride at her marriage.
اشتاق إلى long: to have a strong wish (that may be difficult or impossible to fulfil): I’m longing to meet your famous son. He longs for a quiet home in the country. I long for the old days, when we were young and happy. crave: to want (sth.) very much.
اشتباه suspicion: a belief in sb.’s guilt or in sth. being true, but without proof: My suspicions were proved correct.
اشتبه بـ suspect.
اشتد tighten: to become tight: His grip on my arm tightened.
اشتداد (ازدياد الشدة أو الحدة) intensification, exacerbation, hardening, aggravation.
اشتدت الريح rise: (of wind, etc.) to become stronger.
اشتراك participation: participating. subscription: money that one subscribes; (a) regular payment for membership of club.
اشتراكي socialist: sb. who believes in socialism.
الاشتراكية socialism: the belief that the state should own all a country’s wealth and should control its means of production.
اشترط stipulate: to demand formally, as a necessary condition: The order stipulated that the goods should be supplied within a week.
اشترع legislate, enact.
اشترك be in for: to be going to take part in (a race, an exam, etc.): Are you in for the long jump?. take part in: to join with other people in doing (sth.): How many people took part in the game?. join in: to take part: The game has begun, but you can join in. Do you want to join in the game?;. go in for: to enter for; arrange to take (an examination) or take part in (a competition): I’m going in for the long jump. participate: to share or take part (esp. in some activity): They bought the girl who was leaving a gift, and asked me to participate (in giving money).
اشترك (في مجلة، إلخ) subscribe: to pay regularly to receive a newspaper, etc..
اشترك في عضوية (لجنة، إلخ) sit on: to be a member of (an official group, such as a committee).
اشترك في سباق race: to compete in a race: Will your horse be racing today?. run a race: take part in a race; hold a race: We ran a race along the shore.
اشترك في وليمة feast: to eat a feast.
اشترك في موكب أو عرض parade: to take part in a parade.
اشترى buy, (bought): to obtain sth. by giving money: I bought this car for $700. It is best to buy when prices are low. purchase: to buy. shop: to buy things in shops: My wife is shopping (or has gone shopping) in the village.
اشترى جميع (الأشياء) buy up: to buy all that can be got: Somebody has bought up all the sugar in this area.
اشترى شيئا ثمينا invest: to buy sth. expensive that seems worth the expense: We’ve invested in a new car.
اشتط في السعر overcharge: to charge (sb.) too much money.
اشتعال combustion: the action of burning (esp. that of petrol, oil, etc.), which gives power to an engine.
اشتعالية ignitability, combustibility.
اشتعل burn, (burnt, burned): to be on fire; be lit; be able to be lit: The fire burnt brightly. The lamp was left burning. Wet wood will not burn. catch fire: to begin to burn (often by mistake): My house caught fire. go: (of fire, lamps things that work by electricity, etc.) to become on: Suddenly all the lights went on. ignite: to start to burn, kindle.
اشتغال working, operation.
اشتغل operate: (of machines, plans, etc.) to be effective. run: (of an engine or machine) to be in action; be working: Don’t leave your engine running while you buy petrol. work: to be busy (for some good purpose); not rest or play: He’s working in the garden. My boy works hard at school, have a paid job: She works in an office. start: (of an engine) begin working: My car won’t start.
اشتق derive: to obtain (from sth.): Petrol is derived from mineral oil. Some English words, like ‘beauty’ are derived from French.
اشتقاق derivation.
اشتكى complain.
اشتم smell; feel; realize.
اشتمال embodiment, containment.
اشتمل على involve: to result in (sth. that cannot be avoided): His job involved a lot of foreign travel. include: to contain; consider as one of a group: Our class includes three foreign boys. There were six people there, including myself (or myself included).
اشتهاء appetite: desire for food.
اشتهار publicity: being looked at or talked about in public (esp. in the papers, or on radio and television): Many famous people hate publicity. Salesmen pay for publicity for their goods.
اشتهى desire: to want very much. long: to have a strong wish (that may be difficult or impossible to fulfil): I’m longing to meet your famous son. He longs for a quiet home in the country. I long for the old days, when we were young and happy.
اشتياق craving: a strong desire (for sth.): a craving for a cigarette.
الأشخاص المهمون key personnel.
أشر serrate.
أشر mark: to put (a special sign) on (sth.): The price was marked on the goods.
أشر بعلامة √ (أي صحيح) tick, tick off: to mark with a tick: I ticked (off) the names of those who had paid.
إشراف direction: to control: He worked under my direction. supervision: supervising: The repair was done under my supervision.
إشراق brightness: bright appearance.
أشرب impregnate, imbue, infuse.
أشرطة tapes, stripes, bands.
أشرف على direct: to guide; control (a business, a piece of work, etc.): The film was directed by Zoltan Korda. dominate: to rise above: The castle dominated the valley. superintend: to watch and direct (work, workers, etc.). supervise: watch and direct (work, workers, etc.).
أشرق brighten: to become bright. light up: (of sb.’s face or eyes) to become bright: Her face lit up when she heard the good news.
أشرك في implicate: to show that sb. has a share in sth. (usu. sth. unpleasant, esp. a crime): The watchman was implicated in the thefts.
أشع (أصدر إشعاعات) radiate.
إشعار notice: warning, esp. when one plans to end some agreement: The cook gave a week’s notice (She said that she would only work for one week more). He left me at short notice (He went soon after telling me that he would go).
إشعار بالتسلم acknowledg(e)ment: a note of receipt: I sent the money but I’ve had no acknowledgement.
إشعاع radiation: the act of radiating (heat, light, etc.); sth. that is radiated.
إشعاعات مرئية (الأمواج الضوئية بين 780 و380 نانومتر) visible radiations.
إشعاعي radioactive.
إشعال ignition: igniting. kindling: lighting, firing; (in a petrol engine) the means of setting fire to the exlposive gases.
أشعة إكس X-ray: a powerful unseen beam of light that can pass through solid things, used for photographing the bones, etc., inside one’s body.
أشعة سينية X-rays: a powerful unseen beam of light that can pass through solid things, used for photographing the bones, etc., inside one’s body.
أشعة الشمس sunshine: the light or heat of the sun.
أشعث dishevelled: (of a person’s appearance, esp. hair) untidy. ragged: (of clothes) old and torn; (of people) wearing old torn clothes; (of other things) not neat or orderly: the ragged edges of a torn piece of paper.
أشعث وكث الشعر shaggy: having rough thick hair: a shaggy dog.
أشعر أو أخطر (بتسلم شيء) notify: to tell formally: I notified the police that my car had been stolen. acknowledge: to say that one has received sth.: I acknowledged (the receipt of) his letter.
أشعر بالإحباط frustrate: to make sb. hopeless and angry by preventing the success of his efforts.
أشعل ignite: to cause to start to burn. light, (lit, or lighted): to cause sth. (a fire, a match, a lamp or cooker that uses oil or gas, etc.) to burn: He lit a cigarette, (of electric lamps or fires; rarely used except in passive tenses) turn on the supply of electricity: The street lamps were already lit. (of lights, etc. with off, on, out): to cause to burn or stop burning: Put the lights on. kindle: to make (a fire) start burning.
أشعل أو أضرم النار (في شيء) set fire to sth.: to make it (a house; crop etc.) burn, often for evil reason.
إشغال occupation.
أشغال يدوية handwork: things made by hand (sewing, weaving, leather goods, etc.).
أشغر vacate: to go out of a place, so that it becomes vacant: All hotel guests should vacate their rooms at 12 o’clock.
أشغل distract: to cause (the mind or attention of sb.) to wander: The noise distracted me (or my attention) from my work. occupy: to fill (a space, time, sb.’s mind, etc.); keep sb. busy: The top shelf was occupied by my son’s books. Children need something to occupy them during the holidays.
أشفق على pity: to be sorry for (sb.).
أشقر fair: light in colour; (of people) having yellow hair: Most Norwegians are fair. Most English girls have a fair skin.
أشقر الشعر blond: having light yellow hair.
إشكال problem, ambiguity, misunderstanding.
أشكال figures, diagrams.
أشكرك thank you: a grateful expression: Thank you for the money, "No, thank you." he said "I don’t need it". thanks: thank you: Thanks very much.
اشمئزاز disgust: a strong feeling of dislike, caused by sth. shameful or nasty: He turned away in disgust at the cruel deed. revulsion: a sudden violent feeling of dislike: She turned away from the dirty food in revulsion.
اشمأز من loathe: to hate deeply.
إشهار declaration, proclamation.
أشهب grey, gray: the dull colour of iron or a rainy sky: a greyhaired old man.
أشهر نفسه distinguish: to make oneself known by doing well: Tim has distinguished himself in the government.
أشهل اللون hazel: the greenish-brown colour of hazel nuts: She has hazel eyes.
أشول left-handed: accustomed to use one’s left hand, esp. for writing and for using tools.
أصاب (بـ) shoot, (shot): to strike (sb. or sth.) by firing: He raised his hands and cried, ‘Don’t shoot!’. He shot me in the leg. I shot him dead (I shot him and he died at once). strike, (struck): to give a strong feeling: The explosion struck fear into their hearts. catch, (caught): to get a disease or illness: You’ll catch a cold if you stand in the rain. get, (got, gotten): to catch (an illness); suffer from; I keep getting a pain in my chest.
أصاب بصدمة shock: to give sb. an unpleasant surprise: His rude language shocked his friends.
أصاب الهدف shoot: (in football, etc.) to aim at the goal; send the ball into (a goal): First I shot and missed; the next time I shot a goal.
إصابة casualty: one who is killed or badly hurt in war or in an accident. goal: the act of sending a ball between the goal posts: We won the match by 6 goals to 2. John kicked 3 of our 6 goals.
أصابع fingers.
أصالة originality, authenticity.
أصبح be: to become: I want to be a doctor. become, (became, become): to grow to be; begin to be: The weather became warmer. I want to become a doctor. Her voice became weaker. blossom: to develop: She blossomed into a fine girl. come, (came): to become: My shoes came loose. The knot came undone. All will come right in the end. fall: (with an adj. or phrase) to become: He fell ill. She fell asleep. They fell in love. get, (got, gotten): to become: I got ill, but I soon got better. go: (with an adj.) to become: His face went white with fear. grow: to become: He grew tired of his job. make: to become: That boy should make a good footballer. run: (with an adj.) become: Supplies were running low. The garden was left to run wild. turn: to become: The night turned stormy.
إصبع finger: one of five divisions of the hand: Our thickest finger is called a thumb. key: part of an instrument like a piano or typewriter, that works when pressed with a finger.
إصبع الإبهام thumb: the short thick finger separated from the other four on the hand.
إصبع القدم toe: one of the five divisions of the foot; the front end of a shoe.
أصحيح ما تقول؟ really?: used as an expression of surprise: I’ve left my job. "Really?", (a polite inquiry): you’ve broken a window? Really! You should be more careful. (an angry answer).
أصدأ rust, corrode.
إصداء echo.
إصدار issue: an official supply; (of newspapers) a particular supply: an issue of new coins; yesterday’s issue of the local paper.
إصدار emission, issuance.
أصدر emit: to send out (heat, light, smell, sound, etc.). issue: to send out (orders) officially; supply (stamps, food, clothes, etc.) officially: Winter coats were issued to the soldier.
أصدر حفيفا أو صوتا خفيفا (حف) rustle: to make a noise like dry leaves rubbing against each other.
أصدر حكما (حكم بـ) rule: to give an official decision: The judge ruled that the prisoner was wrongly charged.
أصدر رائحة كريهة stink: to have a very nasty smell.
أصدر صفيرا (صفر) whistle: to make the sound of a whistle: I whistled as I walked along. The wind whistled through the trees.
أصدر صوت الفوران (فار) fizz: to make a noise like gas escaping from water.
أصدر صوتا كالجرش (جرش) crunch: to make a noise of sth. being crunched: The ice crunched as he stepped on it.
أصدر صوتا كالعواء (عوى) howl: to make a long loud noise: The boys howled with laughter.
أصدر طقة أو تكتكة (طق أو تكتك) click: (make, to cause to make) a short sharp little sound: The door clicked. He clicked his fingers at me.
أصدر طنينا (طن أو هدر) boom: to make a deep hollow sound: The speaker had a loud booming voice.
أصدر قعقعة (قعقع أو قرقع) clatter: to (make) a repeated noise of hard things knocking together: The boys clattered down the stairs.
أصدر مرسوما بـ decree: to declare by decree; decide officially.
أصدر نقيقا (نق) croak: to make a deep rough noise in the throat.
أصدر نهيقا (نهق) bray: to make the noise made by a donkey.
أصدف (الركبتين) knock-kneed: with legs bent inward, so that the knees knock each other in walking.
أصدى echo: to repeat (a sound); make an echo: His voice echoed in the empty hall. The walls echoed his voice.
أصر على insist: to urge or declare with force, repeatedly: He insisted that I should go. He insisted on my going. He insisted that it was your fault. press: to urge: They were pressing (her) for an answer. They pressed her to answer.
إصرار persistence, insistence.
آصرة tie: sth. that binds; a relationship: family ties.
اصطاد hunt.
اصطاد سمكا fish: (try to) catch fish.
اصطباغ staining.
اصطحب accompany: to go with. take: to carry or lead: Take this letter to the post-office. I took the child home.
اصطخب surge: to move forcefully, like strong waves: The crowd surged through the gates.
اصطخب الموج wash: (of water) move or carry away: The sea washed against the cliffs. surge: to move.
اصطدام collision: colliding. crash: an act of crashing: He was killed in the crash.
اصطدام مروع smash: violent breaking, or the sound of it; a violent accident: a car smash.
اصطدم (بـ) run into: (of a vehicle, a ship, its driver, etc.) to strike by accident: We ran into a bus at the crossroads. clash: to meet and quarrel or fight: The two parties clashed outside the hall. collide: to meet and knock hard against sb. or sth. by mistake: two players collided and fell. My car collided with a tree. ram: (of a ship or vehicle) to run hard into sth. (usu. on purpose): The police (car) rammed the thief’s car and prevented his escape.
اصطدم بصوت عال crash: to fall or strike sth. suddenly and noisily, causing much damage: The car crashed into a wall. An aeroplane crashed.
اصطف file: to walk in a line: The boys filed into class. line: to form a line along: Crowds lined the streets to watch the Queen pass, (with up) to form into a line: His team lined up for a photograph. People lined up to buy tickets. queue: to stand in a queue: The girls are queueing up for the bus.
اصطفاء selection.
اصطك (الأسنان) chatter: (of a person’s teeth) to strike together making a number of quick sounds (through fear or cold).
اصطلاح idiom: a group of words that have a special meaning when used together: To be ‘hard up’ is an English idiom meaning ‘to lack money’.
اصطلاحات terminology.
اصطلاحي idiomatic: using an idiom or idioms; like the natural speech of a native speaker of the language: ‘To pull a face’ is an idiomatic expression.
اصطلاحي conventional.
اصطناع synthesis.
اصطناعي (غير طبيعي) synthetic: (of materials) not natural; made by man as a copy of sth. natural: Nylon is a synthetic material. This bag is not real leather, it is only synthetic.
اصطناعي artificial.
اصطنع put on: to pretend: His illness was all put on. She put on a bold face (She pretended not to be anxious).
اصطياف estivage.
أصعب من أن يقوى عليه be too much for: to be more than sb. (or sth.) can deal with: The steep hill was too much for our old car.
إصغاء listening.
أصغر minor: smaller; less important, unimportant: a minor road; a minor difficulty.
أصغر سنا أو مرتبة من junior: younger; lower in rank: the junior classes in a school; a junior officer; junior to me.
الأصغر least: smallest in size or amount: Which cup has the least (amount of) milk in it?.
أصغى listen: (esp. with to) to hear attentively: You must listen to what your teacher says.
أصفر (اللون) yellow: having the colour of butter, sunlight, gold, ripe corn, etc..
أصفر برتقالي saffron: an orange-yellow colour.
أصل basis, bases: a fact, idea or condition on which sth. is arranged: Payment is planned on the basis of forty hours work a week. Try to keep on a friendly basis with your neighbours. blood: family; family relationship: a blood relation; a man of noble blood. descent: family going back into the past: a man of noble descent. origin: the place where sth. began or was made; the first cause: These stories are of African origin. What was the origin of your quarrel?. root: a part of the body from which sth. grows: the root of a hair or tooth, a first cause (of trouble, etc.): It is often said that money is the ‘root of all evil’. source: the place from which something comes; the place where a stream of water starts: Try to find the source of the trouble. Follow the river to discover its source.
أصل derivation: a word or words from which another word has been formed.
أصل أو مصدر الفعل (باللغة الإنجليزية) infinitive: the form of a verb that can be used after other verbs and with to before it, such as to go and go in: ‘I want to go’ or ‘Let him go’.
الأصل original: sth. from which a copy is made: The original of this picture is in the Queen’s collection. The original of this book was written in German.
أصلا originally: in the beginning: This school was originally a rich man’s home. primarily: mainly; in the first place: This book is written primarily for foreigners.
إصلاح reform: a change for the better: Their political party promised many reforms if they were elected. reformation: changing and improving; esp. (the Reformation of about 1500-1550 in European history) the changing of the Christian churches, when England and other northern states broke free form the rule of Rome. remedy: sth. that will put an end to trouble or disease: Medicines are remedies. Courts provide a remedy for injustice. repair: repairing or being repaired: The road is under repair (is being repaired). I must do some repairs to my fence. restoration: the act of repairing or bringing sth. back to its former state: restoration of old paintings.
الإصلاح الديني (حركة) reformation: changing and improving; esp. (the Reformation of about 1500-1550 in European history) the changing of the Christian churches, when England and other northern states broke free form the rule of Rome.
إصلاح ذات البين reconciliation: a return to friendship after a quarrel.
إصلاحات repairs.
إصلاحي corrective, remedial.
أصلح better, good, best: of a higher quality; more satisfying; more suitable: He’s a better driver than I am.
أصلح fix: (esp AmE) to repair: I must get the radio fixed - it’s broken. mend: to repair (sth. broken or worn out or torn): My watch needs mending. patch: (mostly with up) to repair (sth. worn or damaged): Please patch up those holes in the road. reform: to change and improve: After leaving prison he decided to reform (his character or behaviour). remedy: to put right (sth. that is wrong): Most faults can be remedied. repair: put (sth. that is damaged or heavily worn) into good condition again: My watch needs repairing. Please repair these holes in my shirts. restore: to repair (a ruined building, a damaged work of art, etc.).
أصلح شيئا بغير مهارة tinker: (with with) to make unskilful repairs: He’s always tinkering with his old radio set.
أصلح بين reconcile: to cause people to be friends again after they have quarrelled, cause people to be friends again after they have quarrelled.
أصلح النار make up a fire: to put more wood or coal on a fire.
أصلع bald: having no hair on the head: Old men often go bald.
أصله من come from: (of people) to be a native of: My wife comes from Newcastle.
أصلي authentic: real; true: This is an authentic piece of ancient art, not a modern copy. indigenous: native: The lion is indigenous to parts of Africa. native: by birth; of one’s birth: my native land; their native language. natural: not changed by man: Wild animals should live in their natural state (not shut or tamed). original: earliest; first: My original plan was simpler than this new one. true: correct with regard to facts; actual; proper; right: a true copy.
أصم deaf: unable to hear. solid: not hollow: without holes: a solid rubber ball.
أصم irrational, surd.
أصم deafen.
أصهب ginger: (of hair) light red-brown. reddish: rather red.
أصول principles, fundamentals, assets.
أصيب بالفواق أو الحازوقة hiccup, hiccough: to catch one’s breath unintentionally, with a loud noise in the throat.
أصيص زهور flowerpot: a pot containing soil, in which plants can grow.
أصيل genuine: real; not copied; true: Is this pound note genuine?. pedigree: the family line (parents, grandparents, etc.) from which a person or animal is descended; (attrib. of animals) having a known pedigree of quality: a pedigree cow.
أضاء beam: to send out light. illuminate: to give light to: An illuminated sign hung over the cinema. light, (lit, lighted): to cause sth. (a fire, a match, a lamp or cooker that uses oil or gas, etc.) to burn: He lit a cigarette. shine: to give out light: The sun was shining. His eyes shone with happiness.
أضاء بأنوار ساطعة floodlight, (-lighted): to light sth. up with powerful lamps: The old castle was floodlit, to please the visitors.
إضاءة للزينة illuminations: gay ornamental lights in public places.
أضاع lose: to miss; be too late for (a train, the chance to do sth., etc.), not have any longer; become unable to find; become separated from: I’ve lost my job. He lost his way in the dark. He lost an arm in the accident. waste: to use (time, money, food, etc.) without any good purpose or result.
أضاع الوقت هدرا idle: to be lazy.
إضاعة الوقت سدى waste: (an) act of wasting: a waste of time.
أضاف add: to put one thing with another: He added sugar to the coffee. If you add 2 to 4 you get 6. tack on: to add on: A service charge was tacked on to the bill.
أضاف إلى add to: to increase: These losses added to my troubles.
إضافات additions, addenda, additives.
إضافة addition: adding; sth. added: There’s a mistake in this addition. The food is improved by the addition of a little salt. supplement: sth. that is added to a book, etc., as a separate part.
إضافي additional: more; added: If you work additional hours, you earn additional pay. auxiliary: (of armed forces, machines; of verbs like will, etc.) giving help; helping. extra: added; more than usual: You must drive with extra care on a busy road. We earn extra pay for dangerous work. spare: another, as well as that which is in use; kept for use when necessary: spare parts for a machine; the spare wheel of a car. supplementary: added, esp. to supply sth. lacking before: supplementary English course that gives special attention to the needs of business students.
إضباب fogging, clouding.
إضبارة file: a hard cover for keeping papers in order.
إضجاع embedding, bedding in, laying.
أضجر bore: to tire sb. by seeming dull: Her stories about her children bore me. tire: to cause (sb.) to tire: The small print tired his eyes. I’m tired of paying your debts.
أضجع imbed, embed, lay.
أضحك amuse: to make sb. laugh: The story amused me.
أضحية sacrifice: an offering to God or a god.
أضر damage: to harm: The storm damaged the crops. My car was badly damaged in the accident. harm: to hurt; damage: Smoking harms your health. hurt: to cause harm or pain to (sb.’s body): He hurt his leg at football. injure: to hurt or wound: She was slightly injured in a motor accident. The injured (people) were taken to hospital.
إضراب strike: a stopping of work: The driver’s strike stopped all the trains.
أضرب عن العمل strike: to stop work and refuse to continue: The workers struck for more pay.
أضرم (النار) ignite: to (cause to) start to burn. kindle: to make (a fire) start burning.
اضطجع lie: to remain flat; be spread out: He was lying on his back. recline: to lie down or lie back, so as to rest: He was reclining comfortably in an armchair.
اضطر إلى need: (in questions and negative sentences only; He need not or need he?) to be forced; have to: Need you go now? No, I needn’t (or Yes, I must, or Yes, I do need to, but never Yes, I need).
اضطراب agitation: being agitated; agitating. confusion: disorder; misunderstanding: The thieves left the room in a state of confusion. There was some confusion about the time of meeting; that’s why I was late. disorder: lack of order: My accounts were in disorder. disturbance: sth. that disturbs the public peace: Some students caused a disturbance in the street. mess: a state of dirt or disorder; confusion: Tell the boys to clear up the mess in this room. It’s in a terrible mess. Your accounts are in a mess, you’ll have to organize them properly. uneasiness: anxiety; discomfort. unrest: discontent; restlessness: The fear of unemployment causes social unrest. uproar: loud confused activity or noise made by excited people, etc.. upset: an act of upsetting: the complete upset of all our plans; a stomach upset.
اضطراب عصبي nerves: fear, anxiety, excitement: He suffers from nerves (where no adjective is given, weak nerves are meant).
اضطرابات جوية atmospheric disturbances.
اضطرار exigency, necessity, emergency.
اضطرب billow, surge.
اضطرام الغضب fury: violent anger.
اضطرم flare: to burn with a sudden bright flame.
اضطلاع بـ undertaking, taking-over.
اضطلع بـ take on: accept a (difficult job): Who will take on the job of training the new team?.
اضطلع بالشيء take over: take control (of sth.) from sb. else, in a formal manner: He took over my duties while I was away.
اضطهاد oppression: oppressing. persecution: persecuting.
اضطهد persecute: to keep on treating sb. cruelly or unreasonably (esp. for religious or political beliefs).
أضعف thin: to make or become thinner: His hair is thinning. weaken: to make or become weak or weaker.
أضفى impart, confer.
أضل lead astray: He was led astray by bad companions. pervert: to cause (sb.) to turn away from right and natural behaviour: Bad films or books can pervert the mind. seduce: to cause (sb.) to behave improperly, esp. in sexual matters: He tried to seduce another man’s wife.
أضلاع ribs.
اضمحل vanish, fade (away), decay, disintegrate.
اضمحلال decay: going bad; falling into a lower or worse state: The city had fallen into decay.
أطاح بـ topple: to fall or cause to fall slowly (usu. of sth. that is topheavy).
أطاح بـ (الهواء) blow, blew, blown: to be moved by the wind: The wind blew my hat off.
إطار frame: a structure used to contain sth.: The photograph was in a silver frame. I’ve broken the frame of my glasses. framework: frame (of a building, etc.).
إطار (سيارة) tyre: the strong rubber covering on the wheel of a car or bicycle, etc..
إطار أسنان (صناعية) plate: (a dental plate) a plastic device, worn in the mouth, either to straighten teeth or to support plastic teeth.
إطار داخلي (في دولاب السيارة) tube: the circular rubber pipe that goes inside a tyre.
إطار فرغ هواؤه (بنشر) flat tyre: a tyre that has lost all its air.
أطاع obey: to do what one is told to do (by sb. or sth.): If you don’t obey (the rules or your father) you will be punished.
إطاعة compliance, yielding, obedience.
أطاق abide: to bear: I can’t abide that smell. afford: to have enough time or money for: I can’t afford (to buy) a car, I can’t afford the time to travel far. bear, (bore, borne): (usu. with can) to suffer without complaining (sth. that hurts or displeases): I can’t bear that woman. He bore the pain bravely. endure: to bear (pain, trouble, etc.): Stop that noise! I can’t endure it any longer. stand: to bear; suffer without complaint: How can you stand that noise? I can’t stand that man! (I dislike him very much).
إطاقة endurance, tolerance.
أطال draw out: to make longer (talk, etc.). extend: to make longer or wider (a fence, a garden, a building, etc.). lengthen: to make (or become) longer. prolong: to make longer, in time: We prolonged our holiday.
أطال التفكير (مهموما) brood: (of people) to think about sth. (esp. one’s troubles) for a long time: Don’t just sit there brooding over your problems: do something!.
أطال السهر sit up: not go to bed (till later than usual): We sat up till midnight to hear election results.
إطالة elongation, lengthening, prolongation.
إطباق snap, clamp.
أطبق على close: (with adv. or prep.) to come near: The crowd closed round him. The players closed in for an attack.
أطر (أحاط بإطار) frame, rim.
إطراء compliment: a polite expression of admiration: He paid them a compliment on the meal they had cooked. flattery: the act of flattering; a flattering remark. praise: praising.
اطراح discarding, elimination, rejection, jettisoning.
اطراد continuity, uninterrupted sequence.
أطراف terminals, extremities.
اطرد continue steadily or uniformly.
أطرش deaf: unable to hear.
أطروحة thesis: a long article written on a particular subject for a higher university degree.
أطرى flatter: to praise too much or dishonestly, so as to please: He flatters his rich aunt. praise: to say that one admires: They praised his courage.
إطعام feeding.
أطعم feed, (fed): to give food to; supply: It’s time to feed the pigs. Several springs feed the stream. nourish: to make sb. healthy with good food: The children looked thin and badly nourished.
أطفأ (بالنفخ) blow out: to put out by blowing: The wind blew out the match. extinguish: to put out (a light, a fire, etc.). put: (of lights, etc. with off, out) to cause to stop burning: Put the lights off. The firemen put the fire out (They stopped a dangerous fire). quench: to put out (a fire, a flame, etc.).
إطفاء (النار) extinguishing, quenching, putting out.
إطفائي fireman, fire-fighter.
الإطفائية (فرقة الإطفاء) fire brigade, fire department: a group of men with equipment to put out fires.
أطفح overfill, brim (over).
أطل dominate: to rise above: The castle dominated the valley.
اطلاع sight.
إطلاق emittance, emission.
إطلاق سراح release: setting free: Who ordered his release?.
إطلاق سراح بشروط parole: letting sb. out of prison before the end of the official time of imprisonment, conditional on good behaviour.
أطلال ruins.
أطلس (قماش) satin: silk material that is shiny on one side only.
أطلس (مصور، جغرافي) atlas: a book of maps (Geog.).
أطلع (على) acquaint: tell; make known to: I acquainted him with the facts.
أطلع أوراقا جديدة sprout: begin to grow: The bushes are sprouting (new leaves).
اطلع على learn: be told (by spoken or written words): I have only just learnt of his death (or that he is dead).
أطلق give off: send out (smoke, smell, etc.): A fire of wet wood gives off a lot of smoke. grow: let grow; not cut: He’s growing his hair. launch: send off (a space machine, a weapon, etc.) into the air. let go: not hold any longer: Hold this rope tight and don’t let go (or let it go or let go of it). Don’t let go the rope till I tell you. let sth. off: allow (smoke, steam, etc.) to escape; fire (sth. explosive): Don’t let off your gun so near the house.
أطلق سراح discharge: let (sb.) go (from hospital, because he is better; from court, because the charge is not proved; etc.). free: let go; make free. let free, let loose: set free or loose: Don’t let your dog loose among the sheep. let sb. off: not to punish; (with with) punish lightly: He let me off because I told the truth. The judge let him off with a severe warning, instead of sending him to prison. release: to set free; unfasten: He was released from prison today.
أطلق صرخة طويلة حادة squeal: to make a long loud high cry, like a frightened pig.
أطلق صيحة ألم أو دهشة yell: to give a yell.
أطلق النار discharge: to fire (a gun). fire: to shoot: They fired (their guns) at the enemy. We could hear the guns firing.
أطلق النار أو السهم shoot: to fire, with a gun or a bow; to strike (sb. or sth.) by firing: I shot an arrow into the air. He raised his hands and cried, ‘Don’t shoot!. He shot me in the leg. I shot him dead (I shot him and he died at once).
اطمئنان security: safety, freedom from danger or anxiety: National security. I have steady job now, so I have security. warmth: gentle heat; a warm feeling; a feeling of pleasure.
اطمأن settle down: to stop being restless; become calm and content: Settle down and get on with your work! The boy soon settled down in his new school.
أطنب exaggerate, overdo.
أطوم sea cow, dugong.
أطياف spectra, spectrums.
إظلال shading.
إظلام darkening, blackout.
أظلم darken: to make or become dark.
إظهار display: showing; a public show: a display of bad temper.
أظهر bring out: to cause to appear: The sunshine brought out the flowers. display: to show publicly: Shops display their goods in their windows. He never displays his real feelings. exhibit: to show publicly (esp. the work of artists). show: to let (sth.) be seen: Show the letter to your father. The medical examination showed something bad. He showed no sign of fear.
أظهر على التلفاز televise: to cause (sth.) to be seen on television: The ceremony was televised.
أظهر الفرق بالمقارنة contrast: to show contrast: The red carpet contrasts with the white furniture.
أعاد bring back: to (cause to) return: This old photograph brings back happy memories. redo: to do again: This bad work must be redone. renew: to start again; repeat: They renewed their attack. repeat: to say again; do again: He repeated his question. Don’t repeat your mistake. replace: to put (sth.) back in its place: Please replace these books on the right shelves. restore: to bring back; give back: The teacher stopped the fight and restored order. The doctor restored her health (or restored her to health). The police restored the stolen car to its owner. return: to give back; put back; send back: She returned the book that I lent her. He showed me the picture and returned it to his pocket.
أعاد الأشياء إلى أماكنها pack up: to put things (articles of equipment etc.) together after use; stop working: You can pack (your tools) up and go home.
أعاد إلى حالته الأصلية restore: to repair (a ruined building, a damaged work of art, etc.).
أعاد تسمية rename: to change the name of: The Gold Coast was renamed Ghana when it became an independent country.
أعاد تشكيل re-form: to form again: The music club, which had gone out of action, was re-formed with different members.
أعاد سماعة الهاتف إلى مكانها (أنهى مكالمة هاتفية) ring off: to put down a telephone so as to end the call.
أعاد صياغة reword: to express in other words: This sentence needs rewording more politely.
أعاد القول retell: to tell again, often differently: old stories, retold in modern English.
أعاد كتابة rewrite: to write again: You must rewrite this page more neatly. The book was rewritten in simpler English.
أعاد لعب replay: to play again (a match that had no result).
أعاد ملء refill: to fill again.
أعاد النظر في review: to examine again and reconsider (plans, facts, etc.); examine and report on (books, plays, films, music, art, etc.) for a newspaper.
أعاد النظر فيه think better of it: to change one’s plan; decide not to do sth.: I planned to leave my job, but then I thought better of it.
إعادة encore: more music or another song from a performer: The singer gave two encores. repetition: (an act of) repeating. return: an act of returning sth.: The library asked for the return of the books.
إعادة صياغة paraphrase: another way of saying sth.: ‘Making a statement’ is a paraphrase for ‘saying something’.
إعادة نظر review: a general re-examination; a report. revision: reading through (sth.) again; reconsidering.
أعار lend: to give (sth.) to sb. for a short time, after which it must be given back: Will you lend me $5 till next Tuesday.
إعارة loan: lending: I asked for the loan of his bicycle.
إعاشة maintenance: the act of keeping (a machine, etc.) in good repair; the act of paying for the needs of (sb.).
أعاق (حركة أو نمو) cramp: to prevent easy or natural movement of: Tight shoes cramp the feet. hinder: to delay; make (sth.) slow or difficult: His wounded leg hindered his escape (or hindered him in his escape). hold up: to delay: The building of the road has been held up by bad weather. interrupt: to stop; prevent for a short time: The electricity supply was interrupted by the storm. retard: to delay the progress or development of (sth.); cause to be late.
إعاقة obstruction: obstructing; sth. that obstructs.
أعال support: to provide for: I have to support a large family.
إعالة maintenance: the act of paying for the needs of (sb.).
أعالي البحار high seas, open sea.
أعالي الشجر treetops: the tops of trees: the wind in the treetops.
أعان aid: to give support to; help. help: do part of another person’s work; make it easier for sb. or sth. to do what is needed: Please help me (to) lift this box. Rain helps plants (to) grow. If I can’t do it alone, will you help?. maintain: to pay for the needs of: I have to maintain two sons at the university. support: to help; strengthen; be in favour of: If you all support me, I shall win the election.
إعانة مالية subsidy: money given by the government to help a company, etc. which is in difficulties.
الأعبل granite.
اعتاد أن used to: showing a past custom: I used to play football, but now I’m too old. I used not (also usedn’t ) to smoke, but now I do.
إعتاق liberation: the act of giving or bringing freedom.
إعتام darkening, blackout, blanking.
اعتبار consideration, regard.
اعتبار consideration: considering: The plan is still under consideration, sth. that must be thought about: Time is an important consideration, kindness and care shown to others (esp. when weaker, older, etc.): She has/shows no consideration for her grandparents. prestige: the honour and respect that are won by splendid success or famous high qualities: the prestige of Rolls-Royce cars. reputation: a good or bad name; sb.’s position in public opinion: His reputation (as a scientist) was ruined by one foolish mistake. respect: honour; consideration: Thieves have no respect for the law. He paid his respects (his respectful greetings) to my father.
اعتبار مالي credit: trust in one’s honesty or ability to pay: His credit in this town is very high.
اعتبارا من effective from, as of.
اعتبر consider: to think; have an opinion: I consider him a fool. Do you consider that I am to blame?. constitute: (in law) to be regarded as: Your act constitutes a crime. count: to consider, be considered; be worth considering: Do you count Peter as a friend? A friendly game doesn’t count as a match. rank: to consider (or to be considered) as having a certain position: I rank him (or He ranks) among the best footballers in the world. regard: to consider; look at: They regard it as an honour to work for her. They regard her with great respect. take account of sth., take sth. into account: to consider: The judge took the boy’s age into account, and punished him lightly. treat: to consider: His death was treated as murder.
اعتبر شخصا مسؤولا blame: to say that sb. is wrong: You refused to eat it? I don’t blame you.
اعتبره (كما لو كان) look on: to regard: He looks on me as his best friend.
اعتبره أمرا هينا أو ليس بذي بال think nothing of: to regard as simple or usual (in spite of difficulty or expense): He thinks nothing of swimming five miles. She thinks nothing of spending $50 on a dress.
اعتبره صحيحا assume: to accept as true, without proof: I assume that I can trust him.
اعتداء wrongdoing: (a) wrong or unlawful action.
اعتداد بالنفس pride: self-respect.
اعتدال gentleness: being gentle. moderation.
اعتدل في جلسته sit up: (of one who is sitting back or sitting lazily) to straighten one’s body into a firmly upright position: Sit up and pay attention, boy!.
اعتذار apology: a statement saying that one is sorry. regret: pl. (used in polite expressions of refusal) a note or message refusing an invitation: I cannot attend the meeting, so I have sent my regrets to the speaker.
اعتذاري apologetic: saying or showing that one is sorry: She was apologetic about her lateness. She gave an apologetic smile.
اعتذر apologize: to say that one is sorry for a fault: He apologized to me for his mistake.
اعتذر عن القبول decline: to refuse: He declined my offer. He declined to come with me.
اعتراض challenge: a demand for proof. interruption: being interrupted; stopping; sth. that interrupts: I couldn’t work without interruption, because the telephone rang several times. objection: objecting; a reason for objecting: What is your objection to this plan?. protest: complaint.
اعتراف admission: (a statement) accepting sth. as true: an admission of guilt.
اعتراف بالذنب confession: confessing.
اعترض bar: to block (a way): The road was barred by a fallen tree.
اعترض (للإفصاح عن الهوية) challenge: to demand proof or explanation: The guard challenged me at the gate. He challenged my right to enter.
اعترض سبيل obstruct: to block; prevent: Trees obstructed our view from the house. intercept: to stop or catch sb. or sth. on the way: their secret message (or messenger) was intercepted by the police. One of their team intercepted the ball before it reached me.
اعترض على object: to disagree; express dislike; complain; mind: His neighbours objected to the noise. Do you object if I smoke?. oppose: to be against; not support: I oppose (or I am opposed to) your plan. protest: to complain: All people should protest against unfairness.
اعترف admit: to agree that sth. is true: He admits his mistakes. She admits that she was wrong. own: to agree (that sth. is true): He owns that the accident was his fault. It was his fault, and he owns to it, (with up) to declare that one is guilty: Whoever broke that window should own up at once.
اعترف بالذنب أو أقر به confess: to say that one has done wrong: He confessed (his crime) to the police.
اعترف بالذنب أو التهمة (في المحكمة) plead guilty: to declare, at the start of one’s trial in court, that one is guilty: She pleaded guilty to the charge of theft.
اعترف بصحة acknowledge: to agree that sth. is true: They all acknowledged that he was the best swimmer.
اعترى befall, afflict.
اعتزاز pride: self-respect, (in a good sense) a proud feeling.
اعتزال الخدمة retirement: ceasing to work when one becomes old: On his retirement, he was given a gold watch by his employers.
اعتزل retire.
اعتزم contemplate: to think deeply about; consider (a future event, a plan, an idea, etc.): I am contemplating buying a house in the country.
اعتصب band together: to unite for a special purpose: We banded together to build a village hall.
اعتصر squeeze.
أعتق liberate: to set free; give or bring freedom to.
اعتقاد belief, conviction.
اعتقاد باطل delusion: an untrue belief, esp. one that is strongly held: That sick man is under the delusion that he is Napoleon.
اعتقال arrest, detention, internment.
اعتقد believe: to hold an opinion: I believe (that) they’ll be back soon. consider: to think; have an opinion: Do you consider that I am to blame?. hold: to consider; believe: He holds very strange ideas. He was held to blame for the accident. imagine: to suppose; think: I imagine that you’re right. regard: to consider; look at: They regard it as an honour to work for her. They regard her with great respect. think: to believe; consider; have a firm opinion: I think she’s beautiful. Don’t you think so? We never thought it possible (that it was possible).
اعتقد أن feel, (felt): to think: I feel that you could try harder.
اعتقل detain: to prevent sb. from leaving. intern: to imprison (sb.) in time of war or serious public disorder because he is regarded as a public danger.
اعتل sicken: to become ill: He sickened and died.
اعتلال illness: sickness in general; a disease: Fever is a common illness in hot countries.
اعتلى mount, surmount, rise.
أعتم obscure: to make obscure; block (a view): The sun was obscured by clouds.
اعتماد reliance: to trust: Don’t place too much reliance on his promises.
اعتماد على النفس assurance: certainty; trust in oneself and one’s own abilities: A leader of men needs plenty of self-assurance.
اعتمادات مالية fund: money belonging to a person or a group: club funds; private funds; public funds.
اعتمادية reliability, dependability.
اعتمد (على) bank on: depend on (sth. that one hopes to get): I’m banking on your help to finish this quickly.
اعتمد على count on: to depend safely on; trust: Can we count on you to help?. depend: to put one’s trust in: You can depend on him to keep his promises, to need; unable to do without: We depend on rain to make our crops grow. live on: to provide for all one’s needs from: He can’t live on what he earns from writing books. reckon on: to depend on: You may reckon on my support. rely: (with on) depend on; trust: You can rely on her not to be late. rest: to remain: The decision rests with me (It remains my duty to decide).
اعتمل في صدره rankle: to be remembered, with anger or annoyance, or bitterness: Their defeat last year still rankles (in their minds).
اعتناء care, attention.
اعتنى بـ shepherd: to guide and protect (sb.) like a shepherd: He shepherded the children on to the train.
اعتيادي habitual: usual; customary; continual: She gave her habitual greeting. He’s a habitual thief. usual: customary: He arrived at the usual time, but she was later than usual (than she was at most times).
اعتيان (أخذ العينات أو اختبارها) sampling.
إعجاب admiration: a feeling of respect or pleasure; wonder: They had great admiration for his courage.
أعجب appeal: to be pleasing: Such music appeals to me.
أعجب (بـ) admire: to regard with respect or pleasure: I admire his courage. She was admiring your roses.
أعجب بشيء لدرجة العبادة worship: to show great love and respect for (sb.) sometimes foolishly.
أعجز (جعله عاجزا) incapacitate, cripple.
أعجل hasten, speed up, accelerate.
أعجوبة marvel: a wonderful thing: the marvels of modern science. miracle: sth. that is too wonderful to be easily understood: the miracle of birth; the miracles of modern science.
أعد (شيئا إلخ) brew: to make a drink such as (tea, coffee, etc.) by mixing leaves or seeds with boiling water. draw up: to prepare; put in order: The lawyer drew up an agreement for me to sign. equip: to supply with the necessary machines, tools, clothes, etc. for a particular job or sport: We equip soldiers with weapons. The factory was equipped with modern machines. get up: to arrange: We’re getting up a dance. lay on: to provide: The electricity supply has not yet been laid on to our new house. make: to prepare sth. for use: I’ll make the beds while you make some coffee. prepare: to get ready: She’s preparing a meal. Prepare (yourself) for a shock. provide: to make preparation (for or against): We provide for the future (or against accidents). set: to arrange; provide: Our teacher set us an exam. The hunter set some traps.
أعد كمية كبيرة من stock up with: to get a big supply of (for a journey, for the winter, etc.).
أعد المائدة lay the table: to prepare the table for a meal (by setting a cloth, knives, plates, etc.).
إعداد preparation: preparing.
إعداد العدة provision: preparation: We must make provision for necessary changes.
إعدادي preparatory, preliminary.
إعدام execution.
أعدم execute: to kill (a murderer, etc.) by order of the law courts. put to death: to kill a prisoner (lawfully or unlawfully): The murderer was put to death by order of the court. The escaped prisoner was caught and put to death by an angry crowd.
أعدم شنقا hang, (hanged): to kill by hanging, with a rope round the neck: The murderer was tried and hanged.
أعدى (بالمرض) infect: to give a disease to: an infected wound.
إعذاب الماء desalination of water.
أعراض symptoms.
إعراض (عن) avoidance.
أعرب عن express: to show (feelings, ideas, etc.) by words, actions or looks: He expressed great pleasure at seeing us.
أعرج lame: unable to walk properly, because a leg is weak or hurt.
أعرض عن ignore: to take no notice of: I ignored his rudeness.
أعز treasure: to value highly; store sth. that one values: I treasure the memory of her visit. She has treasured all the photographs of her son since boyhood.
أعزب bachelor: an unmarried man. single: not married: He’s a single man.
أعزل unarmed.
إعسار (عجز عن وفاء الديون) insolvency.
أعسر left-handed: accustomed to use one’s left hand, esp. for writing and for using tools.
أعشى nyctalopic, night blind.
أعشاب herbs, grass(es).
أعشاب بحرية seaweed: a plant (of many kinds) that grows in the sea.
إعصار cyclone: a very strong wind blowing in a circle over a wide area. hurricane: a storm with a strong fast wind. tornado: a violent storm of wind.
أعطال faults, troubles.
أعطى (الدواء) administer: to control, (esp. business or money affairs). give: give (medicine, punishment, a warning, etc.). give: hand (sth.) to sb. for any purpose: She gave me a tin to open for her, to cause sb. to have (sth.); provide: What gave you that idea? Who gave you that cut on your face? Sheep give us wool, (with a noun that can also be a verb) to make: He gave me his promise (or He promised). grant: to allow (esp. officially); give (sth. asked for or needed): I was granted permission to leave the class. hand sth. over: to pass sth. to sb. else’s control: He handed over the farm to his son.
أعطى (مثلا يحتذى) set: to arrange; provide: Our teacher set us an exam. Parents should set an example to their children.
أعطى (سلم باليد) give in: to hand sth. over; give sth. to the proper person: Give in your books at the end of the lesson.
أعطى (حق) do justice to: to be fair to: To do him justice, I must add that he tried to stop the fight.
أعطى تعليمات instruct: to order: The soldiers were instructed not to fire.
أعطى رخصة license: to permit officially; give a licence to: In Britain, a shop must be licensed to sell alcoholic drink. Is your car licensed?.
أعطى سعرا quote: (in business) to state a price: The Shop quoted $3 a metre for that kind of cloth (They said that they could supply it for that price).
أعطى نكهة لـ flavour, flavor: to give (sth.) a special taste: The cake was flavoured with orange.
إعظام honour: to respect; a sign or cause of respect: The general was held in great honour by his countrymen. He was an honour to his country. The party was held in his honour.
أعظم utmost: greatest: a matter of the utmost importance.
الأعظم supreme: (usu. attrib.) highest in rank or power; greatest possible: a supreme commander; a supreme effort.
أعفى exempt, relieve, exonerate.
إعفاء exemption, release.
أعفر dusty: covered with dust.
إعقام sterilization.
أعقب follow: to come after or be after: Night follows day. Four follows three. A team follows its leader.
أعقد (غلظ أو جمد) congeal.
أعقف (خطافي) hooked: curved like a beak, hamate: hooked nose.
إعلام announcement: a public statement.
إعلان (تجاري) advertisement: a public notice of sth. offered or wanted. announcement: a public statement. declaration: an act of declaring. notice: sth. written in a public place (in a newspaper, outside an office, at the roadside, etc.) to give news or advice: The notice said: ‘Danger. Keep Out’. Please put this note on to the office notice-board. When his father died, he put a notice in the newspaper. commercial: an advertisement on TV or radio.
إعلان كبير poster: a public notice in large letters (often with a picture) or a picture on a large sheet of paper.
أعلم inform: to tell: I was not informed of his arrival. let sb. know: to tell sb.: When you move house, let me know your new address. notify: to tell formally: I notified the police that my car had been stolen. report: to give an account of (sth.): The newspapers report events and speeches. You must report the accident to the police. I shall report you to the headmaster (I shall tell him about your wrongdoing).
أعلن advertise: to make known (things offered or wanted) by a public notice: I wanted to sell my car, so I advertised it in the newspaper. announce: to make known publicly: He announced his intention to build a cinema. assert: to declare firmly: They asserted that it was not their fault. proclaim: to declare; show (a fact) publicly: He was proclaimed king. The war ended and peace was proclaimed. publish: to make known (news, facts, etc.) to the public.
أعلن العصيان rise: (of any large group) to take up arms against the government.
أعلن للملأ declare: to say clearly and publicly; make known: Our enemies declared war on us. The resutlt of the election will be declared soon.
الأعلى supreme: (usu. attrib.) highest in rank or power; greatest possible: a supreme commander; a supreme effort. top: highest: top marks in an exam; the top floor of a house; at top speed.
أعلى top: the highest point or part: a mountain top; at the top of the tall building, an upper surface: a table top, highest: top marks in an exam; the top floor of a house; at top speed. upper: higher: the upper lip; an upper floor of a house. superior.
أعلى (حافة المنحدر) brow: the top of a slope: the brow of a hill.
أعلى (قمة التل) hill top: the top of a hill.
أعلى مركزا أو مقاما senior: older; higher in rank: Who teaches the senior classes in the school? He was 20 years my senior (20 years older than me).
أعلى مقاما أو سلطة superior: higher in rank: my superior officer (one who is above me).
إعمار construction, building, development.
أعمى blind: to (make) unable to see: Was he blinded in an accident, or has he been blind from birth?.
أعني namely: that is; I mean: Two people are to blame; namely, your mother and father. or: expressing the same thing in a different way, or with a different word: They hunt with dogs, or ‘hounds’, as the English call them. that is: which means; I mean: I’ll buy it. That is, I will if I have enough money.
أعوج crooked: not straight; bent: a crooked line; a crooked stick.
اعوج warp: to bend or become bent out of shape, esp. by heat or wetness: The floor was uneven because the old floorboards had warped.
اعوجاج crookedness, warping, tortuosity, sinuosity.
أعوزه... lack: to be without; not have (sth. necessary): This cup lacks a handle. need: to want; lack; not have (sth. that one ought to have): I need some help.
الأعور cecum = caecum.
أعول howl: to make a long loud noise: The boys howled with laughter. wail: cry out with grief.
أعيا exhaust, fatigue, weary.
إعياء exhaustion: being tired out. fatigue: tiredness.
أغاث relieve, succour, help.
إغاثة rescue: saving from danger: He went to their rescue (He went to save them).
أغار على raid: to attack or enter by force or suddenly (for the purpose of seizing valuable, law-breakers, etc.): Armed men raided the bank. The police raided the night club. invade: (of an army) to enter by force and attack (a country); (of visitors) crowd into a place, like a foreign army; (of strangers, officials, loose animals, etc.) enter a private place without invitation, like an enemy: Napoleon invaded Russia. Some cows invaded my garden.
أغاظ annoy: to cause (sb. or sth.) trouble; make (sb.) slightly angry: Strong sunlight can annoy the eyes. I’m annoyed with him. He’s an annoying little boy. irritate: to annoy. vex: to annoy.
أغاظ بشدة exasperate: to annoy greatly. infuriate: make very angry.
أغبر dusty: covered with dust. khaki: light yellowish brown colour.
أغبس dusky.
أغبش grey, gray: the dull colour of iron or a rainy sky: a greyhaired old man. hazy: (of weather) full of haze.
اغتال assassinate: to murder for political reasons.
اغتذى feed.
اغتذاء nourishment, nutrition.
اغتراس transplantation.
اغتسال bath, (baths): the act of washing the whole body: I have (or take) a warm bath every night. wash: cleaning with water and soap: My shirt needs a wash.
اغتسال بالمرش shower: a wash under the shower: I had a quick shower before dinner.
اغتسل bath, bathe: to wash (a baby) in a bath; take a bath. bathe: to go into water (sea, river, baths, etc.) for pleasure. wash: to clean oneself in this way: Wash before you eat.
اغتسل بالمرش shower: to wash under a shower: She showered and dressed.
اغتصاب (امرأة) rape: the crime of having sexual union with (a woman or girl ) by force.
اغتصب (امرأة) rape: to have sexual union with (a woman or girl) by force.
اغتناء richness.
اغتنم (الفرصة) seize: seize (the opportunity). avail: avail oneself of (the opportunity).
اغتيال assassination: (an act of) assassinating.
إغراء lure: sth. that lures: the lure of the city lights; the lure of money. temptation: tempting, being tempted.
إغراق drowning, inundation, flooding.
أغرق drown: to cause to drown: He drowned the rat in its hole. swamp: to cover or fill with water, unpleasantly or dangerously: The waves swamped the boat, so that it almost sank.
أغرم بـ fancy: to have a desire for: I fancy something to eat.
أغرى entice: to make sb. do a (usu. wrong) action by offering something pleasant or by argument: He enticed the girl into his car by offering her some sweets. tempt: to urge (sb.) to do sth. dishonest or unwise, by making it seem easy or pleasant: If you leave money about, you tempt people to steal it. It was so hot that I was tempted to stop work and go for a swim.
إغضاب offensiveness: offensive behaviour.
أغضب aggravate: to make sb. angry: That noise aggravates me. offend: to displease; hurt the feelings of: Your rude letter offended him. put sb.’s back up: to make sb. angry.
أغضب غضبا شديدا send sb. mad: to cause sb. become mad.
إغفاءة forty winks: a short sleep. snooze: a short sleep.
إغفال neglect: lack of care and attention. omission: sth. that one failed to include or to do.
أغفل disregard: to take no notice of: He disregarded our warning that the river was dangerous, and went swimming anyway. leave out: not put in; not include: He left out one letter and wrote ‘heat’ instead of ‘heart’. miss out: not to include; leave out (by mistake or on purpose): My name was missed out from the list.
أغفى doze: to sleep lightly, esp. by day: The old man was dozing in his chair. snooze: to have a short sleep, esp. by day: My father was snoozing in the sun.
أغضى overlook: to forgive (a fault) by treating it as if one had not noticed it.
أغل pay, yield, produce, return.
أغلى (السائل) boil: (a liquid).
إغلاء boiling.
إغلاق shutting, closure, fermeture.
إغلال productivity, yield.
أغلبية majority: the greater part or number: The majority of the people support the government.
أغلق block: to prevent movement by putting sth. in the way: Sand was blocking the pipe. close: to shut: Close your eyes. When does this shop close?, to (cause to) be out of use: This road is closed. On his death, his business had to be closed (or closed down). shut: to close (a door, one’s eyes, a box, etc.); close a shop for the night, etc.: Shut the windows.
أغلق أبوابه shut down or shut up: to close completely, or for a long period: This hotel shuts down for the winter.
أغلق أو أقفل الأبواب (عند انتهاء العمل) lock up: to lock the doors of a building (for the night; when leaving it): Lock up the office before you go.
أغلق بالمزلاج bolt: to fasten with a bolt: Have you bolted all the windows?.
أغلق بالمصراع shutter: to protect with shutters: The shop was locked and shuttered for the night.
أغلق بعنف slam: to shut (a door) violently and noisily.
أغم sadden: to make sad.
إغماء fainting, unconsciousness, syncope.
أغمد plunge: to move suddenly and violently: He plunged his knife into the body. sheathe: to cover (a blade) with a sheath: He sheathed his sword.
أغمي عليه pass out: to faint.
أغمي أو غشي عليه faint: to lose one’s senses for a short time (because of hunger, heat, tiredness, etc.).
أغنى enrich.
إغناء enrichment.
أغنية song: words that are written to be sung; the music that fits them: He wrote several songs for my play.
أغنية lullaby: a quiet song to help a baby to sleep.
أغنية قصصية شعبية ballad: a song or poem that tells a story, often with music.
إغواء lure: that lures: the lure of the city lights; the lure of money. temptation: tempting, being tempted.
أغوى lead: lead astray: He was led astray by bad companions. mislead, misled: to cause sb. to be (or to do) wrong: You misled me into thinking it was easy to teach.
أف damn: a word used in expressions of anger: Damn! Damn you! You’re a fool!.
أفاد benefit: to help; do good to: The new road will benefit the village, to be helped: I benefited from his advice. do sb. or sth. good: to improve the condition of: This medicine will do you (or your fever) good. signify: to mean: What does this word signify. stand sb. in good stead: to be helpful to sb.: His knowledge of machinery stood him in good stead when his car broke down in the forest.
إفادة benefit, advantage; use.
أفاض بـ wallow: (with in) to enjoy: She wallowed in their praise.
إفاضة prolixity; detailedness, exhaustiveness.
أفاق revive: to come back (or bring back) into use; regain (or cause to regain) one’s strength or senses, after losing them for a short time: He suffered an electric shock, but we soon revived him (or he soon revived).
آفة pest: an insect or animal that harms crops, or causes trouble in one’s house or garden: Ants and flies are pests.
افتتاح opening, inauguration.
افتتاحي opening: a start; starting: The opening (scene) of the play was very short. I was present at the opening (ceremony).
افتتاحية (الصحيفة) editorial: sth. written by the newspaper editor himself, giving his opinion of an important matter.
افتتح open: to start: He sold his farm and opened a shop instead. She opened the meeting (or The meeting opened) with a short speech.
افتتح رسميا open: to declare ceremonially that sth. is open: The Queen opened the new college.
افتخر boast.
افتدى بالمال (أسيرا) ransom: to obtain the freedom of (sb.) by paying money: The rich man ransomed his child, who had been seized (or kidnapped) on his way to school.
افتراء slander: an untrue statement that damages sb.’s character (in the opinion of others).
افتراض assumption, supposition.
افتراضي assumed, presumed; hypothetical.
افتراق separation: separating; being separate.
افترض imagine: to suppose; think: I imagine that you’re right. assume: to accept as true, without proof: I assume that I can trust him. presume: to suppose that sth. is true, without complete proof: He is missing and is presumed (to be) dead. I presumed that you would want a ticket, so I bought you one. suppose: to imagine (sth.) to be true; think: She supposes that I am working; but she is wrong. I suppose you can’t lend me a pound?. take: to understand; believe: I took him to be your son.
افترق part: to separate; (with pl. subject) leave each other: We parted at the crossroads. part company: to separate; end a relationship: My wife and I have parted company. I have parted company with her (We are no longer married). separate: to part: We separated at the crossroads and went different ways.
افترقوا كأصدقاء part friends: to separate as friends: We quarrel at every meeting, but we always part friends.
افترى slander: to say sth. slanderous about sb..
افتضاح exposure: exposing; being exposed. The dishonest businessmen were punished by public exposure.
افتعال fabrication; forgery, falsification.
افتقار lack, want.
افتقد miss: to be sad at the absence of; notice the absence of: She misses her children when they are away on holiday. I missed several tools from my toolbox.
افتقر إلى lack: to be without; not have (sth. necessary): This cup lacks a handle.
أفتى rule: to give an official decision: The judge ruled that the prisoner was wrongly charged.
إفراج release: setting free: Who ordered his release?.
إفراخ incubation; hatching.
إفراد isolation.
أفراد personnel.
أفراد البحرية navy: the officers and men of these ships.
إفرادي solo: (usu. attrib.) (of a performer or his action) alone: a solo drummer; a solo flight around the world.
إفراز secretion, excretion; exudation.
إفرازي secretory; excretory.
إفراط excess: exaggeration, immoderation. orgy: a time of wildly improper and uncontrolled behaviour (in regard to drink or food or sex or wasteful spending). surfeit: too much of sth. (esp. food or drink); the dislike resulting from eating or drinking too much of sth..
إفراغ emptying, vacating; dumping.
أفران furnaces, ovens.
أفرج عن release: to set free; unfasten: He was released from prison today.
أفرخ hatch.
أفرد isolate; set apart or aside.
أفرز secrete, excrete.
أفرز عرقا perspire: to have a wet skin when one is very hot.
أفرط overdo: to do too much, so that one harms the effect of one’s action: Don’t overdo your kindness.
أفرط في exaggerate: to make (sth.) seem more (bigger, worse, etc.) than it is: Newspapers often exaggerate reports of trouble.
أفرغ empty: to make empty; remove the contents: He emptied his glass. He emptied the water out of his glass. evacuate: to empty; leave: Everybody evacuated the town when the army approached. turn out: to empty (pockets, cupboards, etc.).
إفريز ledge: a narrow shelf in a cliff or wall: a ledge of rock; a window ledge.
أفزع alarm: to make anxious; cause alarm to: The bad news alarmed me. frighten: to make afraid: The little girl was frightened by the big dog. startle: to surprise and frighten.
إفساد upset: an act of upsetting: the complete upset of all our plans.
أفسح (الطريق) stand, stood: (with aside, away, back forward, etc.) to move: He stood aside to let me pass.
أفسح مكانا أو مجالا لـ give way: to make room; let (others) pass: At the crossroads, give way to cars on your right.
أفسد corrupt: to make (sb.) corrupt, by offering money; teach (sb. esp. the young) to do bad things. frustrate: to prevent the success of sth. (a plan, an attempt, etc.). mess: to make a mess. mess up: to make a mess of; dirty, confuse: You’ve messed up your clean coat. He messed up his speech because he was so nervous. pervert: to cause (sb.) to turn away from right and natural behaviour: Bad films or books can pervert the mind. rot: to cause to decay: water rots wood. spoil: to ruin; damage seriously: Bad weather spoilt our holiday. The food was spoilt by being cooked too long. upset: to confuse; put into disorder (plans, calculations, ideas, one’s stomach, etc..
أفسد بالتدليع spoil: to harm the character of (a child) by being too weak and exercising no control: He expects people to give him everything, because his mother spoilt him as a child.
أفسد النظام disorganize: to put sth. (a plan, etc.) out of working order or into a state of confusion: Our holiday was disorganized by our son’s sudden illness.
أفشى (سرا) give away: to make known (a secret; sb. with a secret): His voice gave away the fact that he was lying. betray: to tell a secret about sb. or sth. so as to cause harm: The scientist betrayed his country’s secrets to a foreign government, be a sign of; give away: His eyes betrayed the anger he was trying to hide. disclose: to make known sth. that was secret: He disclosed that he had been secretly married for a year.
إفشاء disclosure.
أفشل foil, thwart, frustrate.
إفصاح expression: expressing.
أفصح (عما في نفسه) express onself: to say what one means: You cannot pass exams unless you can espress yourself clearly.
أفصح عن رأيه explain onself: to explain one’s ideas or actions.
أفضل best, (good, better): of the highest quality; most satisfying; most suitable: Bill is the best player in the team. better, (good, best): of a higher quality; more satisfying; more suitable: He’s a better driver than I am. better, (well, best): in a better way: He drives better than I do. preferable: adj. better: Any punishment is preferable to prison. superior: better than others: These clothes are of superior quality. Steel is superior to iron.
أفضل صحة better, (good, best): less ill: I feel better today.
أفضل ما يمكن best, well, better: in the best way: Peter played best last week.
أفضلية priority: the right to come first: Feeding the people and starting new industries are the government’s priorities. (A car on) a main road has priority over (a car from) a side road. superiority: being better than others: They proved their superiority by winning the competition.
الإفطار (وجبة) breakfast: the first meal of the day.
أفطس snub: (of a nose) having a turnedup end.
أفعى snake: a long thin legless reptile of many kinds; some have a very poisonous bite.
أفعى صغيرة سامة adder: a kind of small poisonous snake.
أفعم fill up, overfill; stuff.
أفق horizon: the line where the sky seems to meet the sea or the earth.
أفقد(ه)... lose: to cause (sb.) not to have sth. any longer: His laziness lost him his job.
أفقد الأهلية disqualify.
أفقد الوضوح blur: to cause sth. not to be clearly seen or heard: All the faces in my photographs are blurred.
أفقي flat: to spread out: He lay flat on his back. horizontal: flat; level with the ground: a horizontal line.