Longman Dictionary of Modern English (E/A)

Word Definition
A, a the letter ‘a’
الحرف الأول من حروف الهِجاء الإنجليزية
a also an (before a vowel sound) determiner
1 used before a noun to show that you are talking about a general type of thing, not a specific thing: Do you have a car? | Her boyfriend is an artist. → compare THE1
1 أَداة تَنكير (في اللغة الإنجليزية)، وتستخدم an قبل الكلمة التي تبدأ بحرف علة (صائت)
2 one: a thousand pounds |a dozen eggs
2 بمعنى: واحِد
3 used in some phrases that say how much of something there is: a few weeks from now | a lot of people
3 تُستخدم للتَّعبير عن الكمِّيَّة أو المقدار
4 every or each: A square has 4 sides. | once a week/$100 a day etc (=one time each week, $100 each day etc): He gets paid $100,000 a year.
4 كلّ، كل واحد - مرّة كل أسبوع/مائة دولار في اليوم (كل يوم)
5 used before two nouns that are frequently mentioned together: a knife and fork
5 قبل اسمين متلازِمَين
6 used before some singular nouns that are actions: Have a look at this.
6 قبل أسماء مفردة هي في الواقع تصرُّفات أو أعمال أو أفعال
a- used at the beginning of some words to mean ‘not’: atypical | amoral.
بادئة تُضاف لبعض الكلمات لتعني: لا، بدون، غير
aback be taken aback to be very surprised or shocked: I was taken aback by Linda’s rudeness.
تأخذه الدَّهشة، يُصدَم، يَذْهَل
abacus a wooden frame with small balls which can be moved along wires, used for counting
مِعداد
abandon 1 to leave someone or something for a long time or FOREVER, without intending to go back and get them: The baby had been abandoned outside a hospital in Liverpool.
1 يَترُك إلى الأبد
2 to stop doing or using something because of problems: The new policy had to be abandoned. — abandonment noun [U]
2 يتخلّى عن، يُقلِع عن - التَّخلّي
abandoned not being used or looked after any more: an abandoned building
متروك، مَهجور
abashed embarrassed or ashamed: When he saw Ruth, he looked slightly abashed.
مُحرَج، خَجْلان
abate formal to become less strong: Our ship could not sail until the storm abated.
يَقِلّ، يضعُف، يَهْدأ
abattoir BrE a place where animals are killed for their meat; SLAUGHTERHOUSE
مَجزَر
abbess a woman who is in charge of a CONVENT and the NUNS who live there
رئيسة دَيْر الرّاهبات
abbey a large church, especially one with buildings next to it where MONKS or NUNS live or used to live
كنيسة كبيرة مُلْحَقٌ بها دَيْر
abbot a man who is in charge of a MONASTERY and the MONKS who live there
رئيس دَيْر الرُّهبان
abbreviate formal to make a word, story etc shorter
يختَصِر، يُوجِز
abbreviation a shorter form of a word, which is used in writing. For example, Dr is the abbreviation of Doctor
اخْتِصارٌ كِتابي، مُختصَر
ABC BrE, ABC’s noun [plural] AmE the letters of the English alphabet as taught to children
ألفباء الإنجليزية، حُروف الهجاء الإنجليزية
abdicate 1 [I] to officially give up the position of being king or queen
1 يَتنازلُ عن العَرْش
2 abdicate responsibility formal to refuse to be responsible for something any longer — abdication /ˌæbdɪˈkeɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يتملَّصُ من المسئوليَّة - التَّنازُل عن العرش
abdomen technical the part of the body between the chest and the legs, which includes the stomach — abdominal /æbˈdɒmɪ(ə)nəl‖-ˈdɑː-/ adjective
بَطْن - مُتعلِّق بالبطن، بَطنيّ
abduct to take someone away illegally and by using force: Police believe that the woman has been abducted.abduction /-ˈdʌkʃən/ noun [U]
يَخْتَطِف - الاخْتِطاف
aberration an action, event, or type of behaviour that is different from what usually happens: a man of good character whose crime was regarded as just a temporary aberration
انْحِراف، خَلَل
abet → see aid and abet (AID2)
يُحَرِّض على الشَّرّ
abhor -rring, -rred formal to hate something because it seems morally wrong: He abhorred violence in any form.
يمقُت، يَبغُض
abhorrent formal behaviour or beliefs that are abhorrent seem very bad and morally wrong — abhorrence noun [U]
مَقيت، بَغيض - المَقْت
abide can’t abide sb/sth to hate someone or something very much: I can’t abide his stupid jokes.
يكرَه بشدَّة، لا يُطيق
abide by sth phr verb [T] to obey a law, agreement etc: You have to abide by the rules of the game.
يَلْتزم بِـ
abiding literary an abiding feeling or belief continues for a long time: her abiding love of the English countryside → see also LAW-ABIDING
دائِم، ثابِت
ability the mental skill or physical power to do something: a young girl with great musical ability | ability to do sth A manager must have the ability to communicate well.
مَقْدِرة، إمكانيَّة - القدرة على فعل شيء
abject 1 abject poverty/misery/failure when you are extremely poor, unhappy, or unsuccessful
1 فَقْرٌ مُدْقِع، بؤسٌ شَديد، فَشَلٌ ذَريع
2 abject behaviour shows that you are ashamed of what has happened: an abject apology
2 مُخْجِل، مُسَبِّب للخَجل
ablaze 1 burning with a lot of flames: The old house was quickly ablaze. | set sth ablaze (=make something burn with a lot of flames): The ship was set ablaze by the explosion.
1 مُشْتعِل - يُضْرِم النارَ في
2 very bright with colour or light: + with a garden ablaze with summer flowers
2 مُتَّقِد، ساطِع
able 1 able to do sth having the power, skill, time, money etc to do something: Will you be able to come tonight? | I was just able to reach the handle. → opposite UNABLE
1 قادِر على
2 intelligent or good at doing something: a very able student
2 ماهِر، قدير
ably skilfully or well: The director was ably assisted by his team of experts.
بكفاءة، باقْتِدار
abnormal different from what is normal, especially in a way that is strange, worrying, or dangerous: abnormal behaviour | abnormal levels of chlorine in the waterabnormally adverbabnormality /ˌæbnɔː-ˈmælɪ(ə)ti‖-nər-/ noun [C,U]
غير سَويّ، شاذّ - بطريقة شاذَّة - الشُّذوذ
aboard on or onto a ship, plane, or train: I swam out to the yacht and climbed aboard.
على ظَهْر الباخِرة، على مَتْن الطائرة، بالقِطار
abode formal the place where you live: right of abode (=the right to live in a country)
مَسْكن - حقُّ الإقامة
abolish to officially end a law, system etc: unfair laws that should be abolishedabolition /ˌæbəˈlɪʃən/ noun [U] the abolition of slavery
يُلغي، يُبْطِل - الإلْغاء
abominable extremely unpleasant or bad: an abominable noise — abominably adverb
كَريه - بدرجة ممقوتة
aborigine a member of the people who have lived in Australia from the earliest times
أحد سكان أستراليا الأصليِّين
abort 1 [T] to end a process or plan before it has finished because it would be too difficult or dangerous to continue: The space flight had to be aborted because of computer problems.
1 يُجْهِض فِكرة
2 [T] to deliberately end a PREGNANCY when the baby is still too small to live
2 يُجهِض الحمْل
abortion when a pregnancy is deliberately ended while the baby is still too small to live: have an abortion She was told about the dangers of having an abortion.
إجْهاض - تَتَعرَّضُ للإجْهاض
abortive an abortive action or attempt to do something is not successful
مُجْهِض، مُسبِّب للإجهاض
abound literary to exist in large numbers: a river where fish abound
يوجَد بأعدادٍ ضخمة، يَكثُر، يَحوي الكثير من
abound in/with sth phr verb to contain a lot of something: The park abounds with wildlife.
يزخَر بِـ، يعِجُّ بِـ
about 1 concerning or dealing with a particular subject or person: a book about how the universe began | all about (=everything about): Tell me all about it.
1 عن - كل ما يتعلَّق بِـ
2 BrE in many different directions or in different parts of a place; AROUND: Clothes were scattered about the room.
2 حَوْلَ، في كلّ الأرجاء
3 what about/how about spoken a) used to make a suggestion: How about coming to my house for a barbecue? | What about bringing a bottle of wine? b) used to ask someone’s opinion concerning something: What about Jack? We can’t just leave him here.
3 وماذا عن؟ ما رأيك في؟
about 1 a little more or less than a number or amount; APPROXIMATELY: I live about 10 miles from here.
1 تقريبًا
2 be about to do sth to be ready to start doing something: We were about to leave when Jerry arrived.
2 يوشِك أن
3 just about almost: Dinner’s just about ready.
3 غالبًا
4 BrE in many different directions or in different parts of a place; AROUND: People were lying about on the floor.
4 في اتِّجاهات مختلِفة
5 BrE near you in the place you are now; AROUND: Is Patrick about? There’s a phone call for him.
5 في مكان قريب
above 1 in or to a higher position than something else: Raise your arm above your head. | There’s a light above the entrance.
1 فَوْق
2 more than a number, amount, or level: Temperatures rose above zero today.
2 أكثر من
3 louder than other sounds: He couldn’t hear her voice above the noise.
3 أعلى من
4 above all formal most importantly: Above all, I would like to thank my parents.
4 أهمّ من كلّ شيء
5 above suspicion/criticism etc so honest or good that no one can think that you have done something wrong or criticize you
5 فوق مستوى الشُّبهات/النَّقد
6 higher in rank or more powerful than someone else: officers above the rank of lieutenant
6 أعلى مَرْتبة من
above 1 in a higher position than something else: The sound came from the room above.
1 أعلى من، فوق
2 more than a number, amount, or level: children aged 7 and above
2 زائِد على عدد أو كمِّيَّة أو مستوى
3 in an earlier part of something you are reading: Write to the address given above for more information.
3 أعلاه
above board something such as a business deal that is above board is honest and legal: Everything seems to be above board.
قانونِيّ، شَريف
abrasive 1 someone who is abrasive talks to people in a rude and unkind way: His abrasive manner offends some people.
1 وَقِح
2 having a rough surface that can be used to rub things off other surfaces
2 ذو سطح خَشِن، ساحِج، حاكّ
abreast 1 keep abreast of sth to know the most recent facts about a subject: I listen to the radio to keep abreast of the news.
1 يُلِمُّ بأحدث التَّفاصيل، يجاري
2 two/three/four abreast if people move forward two, three, or four abreast, they are all next to each other in a line: The cyclists were riding three abreast, so no one could pass them.
2 جنبًا إلى جنب، في صفٍّ واحد
abridged a book, play etc that has been abridged has been made shorter: the abridged version of the novelabridge verb [T] → compare UNABRIDGED
مختصَر - يختصِر
abroad in or to a foreign country: Did you enjoy living abroad? | go abroad He often has to go abroad on business.
بالخارج، خارجَ البلاد - يُسافر إلى الخارج
abrupt 1 sudden and unexpected: an abrupt change in the attitudes of voters
1 فُجائي
2 not polite or friendly, especially because you do not want to waste time: She was abrupt on the phone the first time we talkedabruptly adverbabruptness noun [U]
2 فَظّ - بِفَظاظة - الفظاظة، الجَفاء
abscess a place on your body that is swollen and contains a yellow liquid because of infection
خُراج
abscond formal to leave a place without permission, or leave somewhere after stealing something: The firm’s accountant had absconded with all the money.
يفرُّ سرًّا
absence 1 [C,U] when you are away from a place: How do you explain your absence? | + from frequent absences from work | in sb’s absence (=while they are away): The vice president will handle things in my absence.
1 غِياب - في غياب
2 [U] the lack of something: the absence of evidence in the murder case
2 نَقْص، عدم تَوْفير
absent 1 not at work, at school, at a meeting etc: Most of the class was absent with flu today. | + from absent from school
1 غائِب
2 absent look/smile/expression a look etc that shows you are not thinking about what is happening
2 شارِد، غير مُركِّز
absentee 1 formal someone who is supposed to be in a place but is absent
1 الغائِب
2 absentee landlord/owner the owner of a building or piece of land who lives far away
2 المالِك الغائب عن أرضه أو عَقاره
absenteeism regular absence from work or school without a good reason
التَّغيُّب عن المدرسة أو العمل بدون عُذر
absently in a way that shows you are not interested or not thinking about what is happening: Rachel smiled absently and went on with her work.
بدون اهتمام أو تركيز فيما يحدُث
absent-minded often forgetting or not noticing things because you are thinking of something else — absent-mindedness noun [U] — absent-mindedly adverb
شارِد الفكر أو العقل - شرود الفكر أو العقل - بشرود وبدون تركيز
absolute 1 complete and total: The show was an absolute disaster. | a ruler with absolute power
1 مُطلَق
2 definite and not likely to change: I can’t give you any absolute promises.
2 مُحدَّد ونهائيّ
absolutely 1 completely or totally: Are you absolutely sure? | absolutely no/nothing (=none or nothing at all): It was the school holiday and the children had absolutely nothing to do.
1 تمامًا، مُطلقًا - لا شيء ألبتة
2 Absolutely! spoken used to tell someone that you agree completely, or to emphasize that you mean ‘‘yes’’: ‘‘Do you really think so?’’ ‘‘Absolutely.’’
2 نعم، وبكلِّ تأكيد
3 Absolutely not! spoken used to tell someone that you disagree completely, or to emphasize that you mean ‘‘no’’
3 كَلّا ألبتة
absolve formal to formally say that someone should not be blamed for something, or to forgive them
يُحِلُّ، يُبْرئ
absorb 1 if something absorbs liquid, heat etc it takes in the liquid, heat etc through its surface: The towel absorbed most of the water.
1 يمتَصُّ
2 be absorbed in sth to be very interested in something that you are doing, watching, reading etc: I was completely absorbed in the book.
2 مُستَغرِق في
3 if something is absorbed into something else, it becomes part of that other thing or becomes mixed with it: the rate at which alcohol is absorbed into the blood | countries that had become absorbed into the Soviet Union
3 يندمِج
4 to hear, read, or learn information and understand it: She’s a good student who absorbs information quickly. — absorption /-ɔːpʃən‖-ɔːr-/ noun [U]
4 يَستوعِبُ - الامتصاص، الاستِغراق
absorbent something that is absorbent can take in liquids through its surface: absorbent sponges
ماصّ، ممتَصّ
absorbing so interesting that you do not notice or think about other things: an absorbing article about space travel
مُستحوِذ على الاهتمام، شادٌّ للانتباه
abstain 1 formal to not do something that you would normally enjoy doing: + from Patients were advised to abstain from alcohol.
1 يمتنع عن، يكفُّ عن
2 to deliberately not vote when something is being decided in a committee, parliament etc — abstention /əbˈstenʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يمتنع عن التَّصويت - الامتناع أو الكف عن
abstinence when someone stops doing something that they would normally enjoy doing, especially for religious reasons
التَّقشُّف، الزُّهد
abstract 1 based on ideas rather than specific examples or real events: Beauty is an abstract idea. | abstract arguments about justice
1 مُجرَّد، مَعْنويّ
2 abstract art consists of shapes and patterns that do not look like real things or people — abstraction /əbˈstrækʃən, æb-/ noun [C,U]
2 تَجريديّ - تجريد
absurd seeming completely unreasonable or silly: an absurd situation | an absurd hat — absurdly adverbabsurdity noun [C,U]
سَخيف، لامعقول - بسُخْف - السُّخْف
abundance formal a very large quantity of something: There is an abundance of creative talent. | in abundance (=in large numbers or quantities): Wild flowers grew in abundance on the hillside.
وَفْرة - بوفرة، بكمِّيّات كبيرة
abundant existing in large quantities: an abundant supply of fresh fruit
مُتوفِّر بكَمِّيّات كبيرة
abundantly 1 very: He made it abundantly clear that he was dissatisfied.
1 جدًّا، تمامًا
2 in large quantities: Poppies grew abundantly in the fields.
2 بكَمِّيّات كبيرة
abuse 1 [C,U] the wrong or bad use of something: + of The newspapers are calling the President’s action an abuse of power. | drug/alcohol abuse (=when people take illegal drugs or drink too much)
1 سوء استخدام - الإفراط في تعاطي المخدِّرات والمسكِرات
2 [U] cruel or violent treatment of someone, usually by a person who should look after them: child abuse a police investigation into reports of child abuse | sexual abuse victims of sexual abuse
2 إساءة المعامَلة - اغتصاب الأطفال (جنسيًّا) - الجرائِم الجنسيَّة
3 [U] rude and insulting things that someone says to another person
3 شَتْم، سِباب
abuse 1 to do cruel or violent things to someone: Each year more than 700,000 children are abused or neglected.
1 يَقْسو على
2 to use something too much or in the wrong way: Garton had abused his position as mayor by offering jobs to his friends.
2 يسيء الاستخدام
3 to say cruel or unkind things to someone
3 يسيء إلى شخص
abusive using words that are rude and insulting: an abusive letter
مُسيء، وَقِح
abysmal very bad: your son’s abysmal performance in the examinations — abysmally adverb
في غاية السُّوء - بطريقة سيِّئة
abyss 1 a very dangerous, frightening, or unhappy situation: the abyss of nuclear war
1 وَضْع خطير ورهيب
2 literary a very deep hole or space that seems to have no bottom
2 هُوَّة سحيقة
academic 1 connected with education, especially in a college or university: students’ academic achievements | the academic year (=the period of the year when there are school or university classes)
1 أكاديميّ، متعلِّق بالتَّعليم الجامعيّ - العام الدراسيّ
2 something that is academic is not important because it is not likely to happen or have any effect: We don’t have any money, so the question of where to go on holiday is purely academic.
2 غير ذي أهمية
3 good at studying: teaching the more academic children
3 ذو استعداد دراسيّ جيِّد
academic a teacher in a college or university
مدرِّس بالكليَّة أو الجامعة
academy 1 a school or college that trains students in a special subject or skill: a military academy
1 أكاديميَّة (هيئة تعليميَّة متخصِّصة)
2 an official organization whose purpose is to encourage the development of art, science, or literature
2 هيئة رسميَّة لتشجيع الفنون والآداب والعلوم
accelerate 1 [I] if a car driver accelerates, they start to go faster: Melissa accelerated as she drove onto the highway.
1 يَزيد من سرعة السَّيارة
2 [I,T] if a process accelerates or if you accelerate it, it starts to happen more quickly: a plan to accelerate economic growth — acceleration /əkˌseləˈreɪʃən/ noun [U]
2 يُعجِّل، يُسْرِع - الإسراع، التَّعجيل
accelerator the thing that you press with your foot in a car to make it go faster
دوّاسة البِنْزين في السَّيّارة، المُعَجِّل
accent 1 a way of pronouncing words that someone has because of where they were born or live: a strong northern accent
1 لُكْنة، لَهْجة
2 the accent the importance given to something: + on a training programme with the accent on safety
2 تَشْديد، تَأكيد
3 when you emphasize part of a word: + on The accent in the word ‘important’ is on the second syllable.
3 نَبْرة، تَشديد مقطع في الكلمة
4 a mark written above some letters, for example é or â
4 علامة نُطقية
accentuate to emphasize something or make it easier to notice
يُشدِّد أو يؤكد على شيء معيَّن
accept 1 [I,T] to take something or say yes to something that someone offers you: Please accept this small gift. | He’s been offered the job but can’t decide whether to accept. | accept an invitation We would be happy to accept your invitation.
1 يَقْبَل - يَقْبل دَعْوَة
2 [I,T] to agree to do something or to allow something to happen: The manager would not accept her resignation. | accept advice/suggestions Jackie won’t accept any advice.
2 يُوافِق - يَقْبَل نصيحَة/اقتِراحات
3 [T] to agree or admit or believe that something is true, especially an unpleasant fact: The teacher would not accept any excuses. | + that I accept that we’ve made mistakes, but it’s nothing we can’t fix.
3 يُوافِق على مَضَض
4 [T] to let someone join an organization, university course etc: I’ve been accepted at Harvard.
4 يَقْبَل شخصًا في هيئة أو جامِعة
5 [T] to let someone new become part of a group or society and treat them in the same way as other members: It was a long time before the other kids at school accepted him.
5 يَقبَل ويعامِل شخصًا كعضو في جماعة
6 [T] to decide that there is nothing you can do to change an unpleasant situation: Even when he was imprisoned, the Emperor would not accept defeat.
6 يُسَلِّم بالأمر الواقِع
7 [T] to let customers pay for something in a particular way: We don’t accept credit cards.
7 يَقْبَل طريقة معيَّنة لدفع النُّقود
8 accept responsibility/blame formal to admit that you are responsible for something bad that has happened: The company have accepted responsibility for the accident.
8 يتحمَّل المسئوليَّة أو اللّوم
acceptable 1 good enough: The essay was acceptable, but it wasn’t her best work.
1 يُمكن قَبوله
2 if a kind of behaviour is acceptable, people approve of it and think that it should be allowed: Smoking is no longer an acceptable habit. — acceptably adverbacceptability /əkˌseptə-ˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 مَقْبول - بطريقة مقبولة - القَبول، إمكانيَّة القَبول
acceptance 1 when you agree to accept someone’s offer or invitation: I was surprised at her acceptance of my offer.
1 قَبول، رِضا
2 when people agree that something is right or true or should be allowed to happen: + of After the revolution there was widespread acceptance of Marxist ideas.
2 قَبولٌ جماعيٌّ
3 when you decide that there is nothing you can do to change an unpleasant situation: The general mood was one of acceptance.
3 قَبول على مَضَض
4 when someone is allowed to become part of a group or society: + into the immigrants’ gradual acceptance into the community
4 انْدِماج
5 gain/find acceptance to become popular or liked
5 يجد قَبولًا لدى النّاس
accepted an accepted idea or way of doing something is one that most people think is right or reasonable
مقبول لدى الغالبِيَّة
access 1 the chance or right to see or use something: have access to Students need to have access to the computer system.
1 حَقّ استخدام شيء أو الوصول إليه - يجد مَدْخلًا لِـ..
2 the way in which you can enter a building or get to a place: + to The only access to the farm is along a muddy track. | gain access formal (=enter): The thieves gained access through the upstairs window.
2 السَّبيل إلى، الوصول إلى مكان - يصل، يَدْخُل
access to find and use information, especially on a computer: I couldn’t access the file.
يَصِل إلى معلومة ويستخدمها (خاصَّة بالكمپيوتر)
accessible 1 easy to reach, find, or use: The national park is not accessible by road. | the wide range of information that is accessible on the Internet
1 سَهْل الوصول إليه
2 easy to understand and enjoy: + to Buchan succeeds in making a difficult subject accessible to the ordinary reader — accessibility /əkˌsesɪ(ə)ˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U] → opposite INACCESSIBLE
2 سَهْل الفَهم - سُهولة الوصول إلى شيء
accessory 1 [usually plural] something such as a bag, belt, or jewellery that you wear or carry because they are attractive: a dress with matching accessories
1 كَمالِيّات
2 something that you can add to a machine, tool, car etc, which is useful or attractive
2 مُلحَقات، إضافات
3 law someone who helps a criminal
3 شَريك في جريمة
accident 1 a situation in which someone is hurt or something is damaged without anyone intending it to happen: Her parents were killed in a car accident. | I’m afraid he’s been involved in a serious accident. | it was an accident (=used to say that someone did not do something deliberately): I didn’t do it on purpose, it was an accident.
1 حادِثة، إصابة - كان أَمرًا عارضًا
2 by accident in a way that is not intended or planned: I discovered by accident that he’d lied to me.
2 بالمُصادَفة، مصادفةً
accidental happening without being planned or intended: accidental damage
عَرَضي، عارِض
accidentally if you accidentally do something, you do it without intending to do it: I accidentally set off the alarm.
بطَريقة عارِضة، عرضًا
accident-prone likely to have accidents: an accident-prone child
مُسْتَهْدَف للحوادث
acclaim to praise something a lot
يمدَح، يُثني على، يَسْتَحْسِن
acclaim a lot of public praise for someone or something: His first novel received widespread acclaim.
اسْتِحْسان الجمهور
acclaimed praised by a lot of people: highly/widely acclaimed Spielberg’s highly acclaimed movie, ‘Schindler’s List’
مُستَحسَن، مُثنًى عليه - قوبل باستِحسان شديد
acclimatize (also -ise BrE) /əˈklaɪmətaɪz/ also acclimate AmE /əˈklaɪmət‖ˈækləmeɪt, əˈklaɪmət/ verb [I,T] to become used to the weather, way of living etc in a new place, or to make someone do this: get acclimatized It takes the astronauts a few days to get acclimatized to conditions in space — acclimatization /əˌklaɪ-mətaɪˈzeɪʃən‖-tə-/ noun [U]
يَتَأَقْلَم، يُؤقْلِم - يَتأقلَم، يتعوَّد على - التأقلم
accolade a prize or praise given to someone or something because people think they are very good
ثَناء أو جائزة للإجادَة
accommodate 1 to have enough space for a particular number of people or things: The hall can accommodate 300 people.
1 يُوفِّر المكان لِـ، يَسْتَوْعِب
2 to give someone a place to stay, live, or work: A new hostel was built to accommodate the students.
2 يوفِّر سُبلَ المعيشة لشخص
3 formal to do what someone wants or provide them with what they need: If you need more time, we’ll try to accommodate you.
3 يُريح، يوفِّر لشخص حاجاتِه
accommodating helpful and willing to do what someone else wants
خَدوم، مُسْتَعدٌّ للمساعدة
accommodation also accommodations [plural] AmE a place to live, stay, or work in: The college will provide accommodation for all new students.
مكانٌ للمعيشة أو العمل
accompaniment 1 music played at the same time as someone sings or plays another instrument: a tune with a simple guitar accompaniment
1 عَزف مُصاحِب
2 formal something that is served or that happens at the same time as something else: White wine is an excellent accompaniment to fish.
2 شيء أو حدث مصاحِب لآخر
accompany 1 formal to go somewhere with someone, especially in order to help or look after them: Children under 12 must be accompanied by an adult.
1 يُرافِق
2 to play a musical instrument with someone who is playing or singing the main tune
2 يَعْزِف مُصاحبًا من يُؤدِّي النَّغمة الرَّئيسيَّة
3 to happen or exist at the same time as something else: Any increase in costs is always accompanied by a rise in prices.
3 يَحْدث مُتَزامِنًا مع حدث آخر
accomplice someone who helps a criminal to do something wrong or illegal
شَريكٌ في جَريمة أو إثْم
accomplish to succeed in doing something; achieve: The new government has accomplished a great deal.
يُنجِز، يُحقِّق
accomplished very skilful: an accomplished poet
ماهِر، حاذِق
accomplishment 1 [C] formal something you have achieved or are able to do well: Playing the piano is one of her many accomplishments.
1 إنجاز، مَهارة
2 [U] when you succeed in accomplishing something: the accomplishment of a lifelong ambition
2 نَيْل، تحصيل
accord 1 of your own accord without being asked or forced to do something: No one forced him to go. He left of his own accord.
1 عن طيب خاطِر
2 in accord (with sb/sth) formal agreeing with someone or something, or not different from something: The committee’s report is completely in accord with our suggestions.
2 مُتوافِق أو متَّفِق مع
3 [C] an official agreement
3 اتِّفاقٌ رسمِيّ
accord formal to treat someone or something in a special way, or give them special attention: On his return Gagarin was accorded a hero’s welcome.
يُولي اهْتِمامًا خاصًّا
accordance in accordance with formal done in a way that follows a particular system or rule: Safety checks were made in accordance with the rules.
طِبْقًا لِـ، تمشِّيًا مع
accordingly 1 in a way that is suitable for a particular situation: If you work extra hours, you will be paid accordingly.
1 طِبْقًا لهذا
2 formal as a result of something that has just been mentioned; therefore: We have noticed that the books are slightly damaged, and accordingly, we have reduced the price.
2 بِناء عليه
according/to 1 as shown by something or as said by someone: According to our records she never paid her bill. | According to Angela, he’s a great teacher.
1 بالرُّجوع إلى، بحَسَب
2 in the way that has been planned, or in a way that obeys the rules: Everything went according to plan and we arrived on time.
2 طبقًا لخطة موضوعة
3 based on a particular amount or system: You will be paid according to the amount of work you do.
3 بحَسَب، بموجِب
accordion a musical instrument like a box that you play by pulling the sides in and out while pushing buttons to produce different notes
أكورديون
accost if someone you do not know accosts you, they come up to you, and speak to you especially in a threatening way
يتهجَّم على، يُبادر بالتَّهديد
account 1 a written or spoken description of an event or situation: give an account of Can you give us an account of what happened? | by/from all accounts (=according to what everyone says): By all accounts Frank was once a great player.
1 وَصْف، تَقْرير - يُقدِّم وصفًا لِـ - بشهادة الجميع
2 an arrangement that allows you to keep your money in a bank and take amounts from it when you want to: He couldn’t remember his account number. | I’d like to withdraw £250 from my account. → see also BANK ACCOUNT, CHECKING ACCOUNT, CURRENT ACCOUNT, DEPOSIT ACCOUNT
2 حِساب مصرفي
3 take into account/take account of to consider or include particular facts when making a decision about something: They should have taken into account the needs of foreign students.
3 يَأْخذ في حِسابه، يعمل حسابًا لِـ
4 an arrangement with a shop that allows you to buy goods and pay for them later: Here are the books you ordered. Shall I charge them to your account?
4 شِراء على الحساب
5 a statement of money that you owe for things you have bought from a shop: settle your account (=pay what you owe): Accounts must be settled within 30 days.
5 كشف حساب - يُسدِّد حسابًا
6 on account of because of: Several people are late on account of the train strike.
6 بسبب
7 not on my/his etc account spoken used to tell someone that they need not do something if they are only doing it to please you: Don’t stay up late on my account.
7 ليس على حِسابي
8 on no account/not on any account formal used to emphasize that someone must not do something for any reason: On no account should anyone go near this man – he’s dangerous. → see also ACCOUNTS
8 مهما يَكُن السَّبب
account account for sth phr verb [T]
1 to be a particular amount or part of something: Oil and gas account for 60% of the country’s exports.
1 يُشَكل جزءًا من
2 to give a reason for something that has happened: How do you account for this sudden change of policy?
2 يُفَسِّر، يُعطي سببًا لِـ
3 to be the reason for something: If he really is taking drugs, that would account for his behaviour.
3 يُعَلِّل، يُوَضِّح
accountable responsible for the effects of your actions and willing to explain or be criticized for them: + for Managers must be accountable for their decisions. | hold sb accountable (=consider that someone is responsible for som ething): If students fail their exams, should their teachers be held accountable? — accountability /əˌkaʊntəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti noun [U]
مَسئول عن - يَعْتبره مسئولًا عن - المُساءَلَة
accountancy accountancy BrE, ac·count·ing /əˈkaʊntɪŋ/ AmE noun [U] the job of being an accountant
المحاسَبة
accountant someone whose job is to keep or check financial records
مُحاسِب
accounts a record of the money that a company or person has received and spent: the company’s accounts from last year → see also ACCOUNT1
حِسابات
accredited having official approval
مُصدَّق عليه من الجِهات الرَّسمِيَّة، مُعتمَد
accumulate 1 to gradually increase in quantity until there is a large quantity in one place: The dirt and dust had accumulated in the corners of the room.
1 يَتراكم
2 [T] to gradually get more and more possessions, money, knowledge etc: By the time he died Methuen had accumulated a vast collection of paintings — accumulation /əˌkjuːmjʊ(ə)ˈleɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يَجْمع، يُكَدِّس - التَّراكم، التَّكدُّس، الجَمع، التَّكديس
accuracy exactness or correctness: The bombs can be aimed with amazing accuracy. → opposite INACCURACY
دِقَّة، ضَبْط
accurate exactly correct: an accurate report of what happened → opposite INACCURATEaccurately adverb
دقيق، مَضبوط، مُحكَم - بِدِقَّة
accusation a statement saying that someone has done something wrong or illegal: make an accusation against sb Serious accusations have been made against him.
اتِّهام - يوجِّه اتِّهامًا لِـ
accuse to say that someone has done something wrong or illegal: accuse sb of doing sth Are you accusing me of stealing? —accuser noun [C]
يتَّهم - يتَّهم شخصًا بكذا - المُتَّهِم، المُدَّعي
accused the accused [singular or plural] the person or people who are being accused of a crime in a court of law
المتَّهَم، المُدَّعَى عليه
accusing showing that you think someone has done something wrong: She gave him an accusing look — accusingly adverb
يَحمِل معنى الاتّهامات - باتهام، مُتَّهِمًا
accustom accustom yourself to (doing) sth to make yourself become used to something: They’ll have to accustom themselves to working long hours.
يُعَوِّد نفسه على
accustomed formal be accustomed to (doing) sth to be used to something: She was accustomed to a life of luxury. | become/get/grow accustomed to Ed’s eyes quickly grew accustomed to the dark room.
مُتعوِّد على - يَتعوَّد على
ace 1 a playing card with one symbol on it, that has the highest or lowest value: the ace of spades
1 الآس (في ورق اللعب)
2 a first hit in tennis or volleyball that is too good for your opponent to hit back
2 الضَّربة الأولى في التنس أو الكرة الطائرة التي لا تُردّ
ace ace pilot/player informal someone who is an extremely good pilot, player etc — ace noun [singular] motorcycle ace Barry Sheene
لاعب/طيّار ممتاز - بطل السِّباق
ache 1 if part of your body aches, it feels painful: My legs are aching. | I ache all over.
1 يؤلِم
2 be aching to do sth to want to do something very much: Jenny was aching to go home.
2 يتطلَّع إلى
ache a continuous pain: headache/backache/toothache (=a continuous pain in your head, back, tooth etc) — achy adjective: My arm feels all achy.
ألم مستمرّ - صداع/ألم الظَّهر/ألم الأسنان - مُؤلِم
achieve to succeed in doing something good or getting the result you want: He will never achieve anything if he doesn’t work harder. | On the test drive Segrave achieved speeds of over 200 mph. —achiever noun [C] a high achiever (=someone who is very successful in their work or studies) — achievable adjective
يُنجِز - مُنجِز - قابِل للإنجاز
achievement 1 [C] something important that you achieve: Winning the championship is quite an achievement.
1 إنجاز
2 [U] when you succeed in doing or getting what you have worked for: the achievement of a lifetime’s ambition
2 تحقيق حُلْم كبير
acid 1 [C,U] a type of liquid chemical substance. A strong acid can burn holes in the things it touches: hydrochloric acid
1 حامِض، حَمْض
2 the acid test a situation that proves whether something is true or as good as it is supposed to be: It looks good, but will it work? That’s the acid test — acidic adjectiveacidity /əˈsɪdɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 امتحان حاسم - حامِضيّ - الحُموضة
acid 1 having a very sour or bitter taste
1 حامضي، ذو طَعْم حاذق
2 acid remark/comment something you say that uses humour in an unkind way
2 تَعليق لاذِع
acid rain rain that damages the environment because it contains acid, especially from factory smoke → see colour picture on page 516
مطرٌ حامِضيّ
acknowledge 1 to accept or admit that something is true or that a situation exists: + that Angie has acknowledged that she made a mistake. | acknowledge sth as These beaches are generally acknowledged as the best in Europe.
1 يَعْترف أو يقرُّ بِـ - يُقرُّ أو يُسَلِّم بأن - ينظر إلى شيء وكأنه
2 to officially accept that a government, court, leader etc has legal authority: They are refusing to acknowledge the court’s decision.
2 يَعترف رسميًّا بِـ
3 to write to someone telling them that you have received something they sent you: We must acknowledge her letter.
3 يُفيد بتسلُّم شيء
4 to show someone that you have seen them or heard what they have said: Tina walked straight past without acknowledging us.
4 يتظاهَر برؤية أو سَماع شخص
acknowledgement, acknowledgment 1 something that someone says, writes, or does to thank someone or to show that they have received something: I haven’t received an acknowledgement of my letter yet.
1 توجيه الشكر أو الإفادة بتسلُّم شيء
2 something that shows you admit or accept that something is true or that a situation exists: an acknowledgement of defeat
2 الاعتراف بِـ/قَبول الوضع القائم
acne a skin problem which is common among young people and causes small spots to appear on the face
حَبّ الشَّباب
acorn the nut of an OAK tree
جَوْز شجرة البَلّوط
acoustic 1 relating to sound and the way people hear things
1 سمعيّ
2 an acoustic musical instrument does not have its sound made louder electronically: an acoustic guitar
2 (آلة موسيقية) صوتها غير معدَّل إلكترونيًّا
acoustics 1 [plural] the way in which the shape and size of a room make it good or bad for hearing music or speeches
1 السَّمعيّات: خصائص الغرفة بالنسبة لانتقال الصوت فيها
2 [U] the scientific study of sound
2 الصَّوتيّات، علم الصَّوت والموجات الصوتيَّة
acquaintance 1 [C] someone you know, but not very well
1 شخص تعرِفه، أحد المعارِف
2 [U] when you know someone and have met them: make sb’s acquaintance (=meet someone): I’ve never made his acquaintance.
2 يتعرَّف بشخص
acquainted formal 1 be acquainted with sb to know someone, but not well: Roger and I are already acquainted. | get/become acquainted (=meet someone and start to know them): I’ll leave you two to get acquainted.
1 له مَعرِفة بِـ، يعرف شخصًا، يتعرَّف إلى
2 be acquainted with sth to know about something: My lawyer is already acquainted with the facts.
2 مُلِمّ بِـ، على دِراية بِـ
acquiesce formal to agree to do what someone wants or to let them do what they want, without arguing or complaining, even though you do not like it — acquiescence noun [U]
يُذعِن- إذْعان
acquire 1 to get something, especially by buying it: The Getty Museum acquired the painting for £6.8 million.
1 يحصل على
2 to learn knowledge or skills: Think about how you can use the skills you have acquired.
2 يكتسب معرفة أو مَهارات
acquisition 1 [U] the process of getting something: + of the acquisition of wealth
1 تَملُّك، إحراز، اقتناء
2 [C] something that someone has obtained, especially by buying it: a new acquisition
2 مُقتنيات
acquit decide in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a crime: Simons was acquitted of murder.
يُبرِّئ
acquittal an official announcement in a court of law that someone is not guilty
تبرئة، حُكْم بالبراءة
acre a unit for measuring an area of land, equal to 4840 square yards or about 4047 square metres
إكر، فدّان: مقياس لمساحة الأرض يساوي 4840 ياردة مربعةً أو 4047 مترًا مربعًا
acreage the area of a piece of land measured in acres
مساحة أرض بالفدان
acrid having a very strong and unpleasant smell that hurts your nose or throat: a cloud of acrid smoke
حادّ، لاذع، حِرّيف
acrimonious an acrimonious argument, meeting etc is one in which people feel very angry and speak angrily to each other: an acrimonious divorce — acrimoniously adverb
شَرِس، مشاكِس، جافٍ - بشراسة
acrimony formal very angry feelings between people, often strongly expressed
مَشاعِر حادة أو غاضِبة
acrobat someone who entertains people by doing difficult physical actions, for example balancing on a high rope, especially in a circus — acrobatic /ˌækrəˈbætɪk/ adjective
بَهْلَوان، لاعب السّيرك - بَهْلَواني
acrobatics movements or tricks like those of an acrobat
ألْعاب بَهْلوانية
acronym a word that is made from the first letters of a group of words. For example, NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
أوائِليَّة: كلمة تتكون من الحروف الأولى لمجموعة من الكلمات
across 1 from one side of something to the other side: The farmer was walking across the field towards us. | Vince looked out across the valley. | At its widest point, the river is two miles across. → see colour picture on page 808
1 عَبْر
2 reaching or spreading from one side of an area to the other: the only bridge across the river | The rain will spread slowly across southern England.
2 من جانب إلى الجانب الآخر
3 on or towards the opposite side of something: Andy lives across the road from us.
3 في الجانب المقابل
4 across the board affecting everyone in an organization: a pay increase of 8% across the board
4 له تأثير على كل فرد في المؤسَّسة
acrylic acrylic paints or cloth are made from a chemical substance
من الأكريلك، أكريلي
act 1 [I] to do something: Unless the government acts soon, more people will die. | act on advice/orders/instructions (=do what sb says): We’re acting on the advice of our lawyer.
1 يَعمل، يتَصرف - يتصرف طبقًا لنصيحة أوامر تعليمات
2 [I] to behave in a particular way: Nick’s been acting very strangely recently.
2 يتصرف بطريقة معينة
3 [I,T] to perform as a character in a play or film: Mike got an acting job on TV.
3 يمثِّل دورًا في مسرحية أو فيلم
4 act as sb to do a job which is not your usual one: My brother speaks French – he will act as interpreter.
4 يقوم بعمل مغاير لعمله
5 [I] to have a particular effect: act as sth Salt acts as a preservative.
5 يقوم بِتَمثيل ما حَدَث
act sth ↔ out phr verb [T] to show how an event happened by performing it like a play
act 1 [C] something that someone has done: an act of kindness | a criminal act
1 عَمَل
2 [C] also Act a law that has been officially passed by the government: The Criminal Justice Act
2 قانون
3 [C] also Act one of the main parts into which a play, OPERA etc is divided: Hamlet kills the king in Act 5.
3 فَصْل في مسرحية أو أوبرا
4 [C] one of the short pieces of entertainment in a television or theatre show: a comedy act
4 فاصِل ترفيهيّ قصير في التليفزيون أو العرض المسرحيّ
5 [singular] when someone pretends to have feelings that they do not have: He doesn’t care, Laura – it’s just an act.
5 شعور مُصطنَع
6 get your act together informal to start to do things in a more organized or effective way: If Julie doesn’t get her act together, she’ll never graduate.
6 يُرَتِّب أموره
7 get in on the act informal to try to get advantages from an activity that someone else has started
7 استفادَ من أعمال من سبقوه
acting acting manager/director etc someone who does the job of the manager etc while the person who usually does it is not there, or until a new manager etc is chosen
قائم بأعمال المدير، مدير بالإنابة
acting the job or skill of performing in plays or films
فنُّ التَّمثيل
action 1 [U] when you do something in order to deal with a situation or for a particular purpose: We’ve talked enough. Now is the time for action. | take action (=do something to deal with a problem): The government must take action before it’s too late. | course of action (=something you could do to deal with a situation): The best course of action would be to tell her the whole story. | put sth into action (=do things to make something happen): When will you start putting your plan into action?
1 العمل - يتَّخذ إجراء - تصرُّف، سلسلة من الإجراءات - يضع موضع التَّنفيذ
2 [C] something that you do: You shouldn’t be blamed for other people’s actions. | Tanya’s prompt action saved his life.
2 تصرُّف
3 be out of action if someone or something is out of action, they cannot move or work because they are injured or broken: My car’s out of action again. | put sb/sth out of action The accident has put Jim out of action for two weeks.
3 عاطِل، مُتعطِّل - يُقعِد عن العمل
4 [U] the effect that a natural or chemical process has on something: cliffs worn away by the action of the waves
4 فِعل، تفاعُل
5 the action informal exciting and important things that are happening: New York’s where the action is.
5 الصَّخب، الحياة الصَّاخبة
6 in action doing a particular job, activity, or sport: a chance to see top ski jumpers in action
6 أثْناء القِيام بالعَمل
7 [C,U] fighting during a war: in action Ann’s husband was killed in action.
7 أثْناء القِتال
action-packed an action-packed film or story has a lot of exciting things happening
مُزدَحِم بالأحداث المثيرة
action replay BrE when an interesting part of a sports event is shown again on film or television immediately after it happens; INSTANT REPLAY AmE
إعادة عَرض مَشهد
activate formal to make something start working: This switch activates the alarm — activation /ˌæktɪ(ə)ˈveɪʃən/ noun [U]
يُنشِّط- التَّنشيط
active 1 always doing things, or always ready and able to do things: Grandpa’s very active for his age. | an active member of the Labour Party
1 نَشِط
2 technical an electronic system that is active is ready to work: The alarm is now active.
2 جاهِز للعَمَل
3 an active VOLCANO is likely to send up fire and smoke
3 نَشِط (للبركان)
4 if a verb or sentence is active, the person or thing doing the action is the SUBJECT of the verb. In the sentence ‘The boy kicked the ball’, the verb ‘kick’ is active. → compare PASSIVE1.
4 مَبني للمَعْلوم
active the active (voice) the active form of a verb → compare PASSIVE2
صيغة المبني للمعلوم
actively in a way that involves doing things to try to make something happen: The government has actively encouraged immigration.
بنشاط، بطريقة نَشِطة، بِفَعالِيَّة
activist someone who works to achieve social or political change
ناشِط: يَعمل من أجل تغيُّر سياسيّ أو اجتماعيّ
activity 1 [C,U] things that someone does, especially for pleasure or to try to achieve something: after-school activities | an increase in terrorist activity
1 نَشاط
2 [U] a situation in which a lot of things are happening and people are moving around: There’s been a lot of activity on the stock exchange. → opposite INACTIVITY
2 حَرَكَة، هِمَّة
actor someone who performs in a play or film
مُمثِّل
actress a woman who performs in a play or film
مُمثِّلة
actual real, especially when compared with what you believed, expected, or intended: Were those his actual words? | The actual cost is a lot higher than we’d thought.
حقيقيّ، فعليّ، عمليّ
actually 1 used when you want to say what really happens or is really true: Did she actually say that in the letter? | the people who actually run the country
1 فِعْلًا
2 used when you want to say something that may seem strange or surprising or is different from what people imagine: He may look young, but actually he’s 45.
2 في الواقِع
3 used in order to be polite when you are disagreeing with someone: ‘‘Great! I love French coffee!’’ ‘‘It’s German actually.’’
3 في الحَقيقة
acumen the ability to think quickly and make good decisions: business acumen
الفِطنة، الذكاء، الحِذْق
acupuncture a way of stopping pain or treating an illness by putting thin needles into someone’s body
العلاج بالإبر الصّينيَّة
acute 1 very serious or severe: acute pain | an acute shortage of medical staff
1 حادّ، شَديد
2 good at understanding things quickly and clearly: Simon’s manner concealed an agile and acute mind.
2 حادّ الذَّكاء
3 good at noticing small differences in sound or smell
3 دَقيق الملاحَظة
4 technical an acute disease or illness becomes dangerous very quickly: acute tuberculosis → compare CHRONIC
4 عُضال
5 technical an acute angle is less than 90 degrees
5 حادّ (الزّاوية)
acutely very strongly or painfully: She was acutely embarrassed when she realized her mistake.
بشِدَّة، بِعُنْف، بحِدَّة
ad informal an advertisement
إعْلان
AD Anno Domini; used to show that a date is a particular number of years after the birth of Christ: Attila died in 453 AD. → compare BC
في السَّنة الميلادية، حَسَب التَّقويم الميلاديّ
adage a well-known phrase that says something wise; PROVERB
مَثل، حِكْمة
adamant formal determined not to change your opinion, decision etc: Taylor is adamant that he is not going to quit. —adamantly adverb
صُلْب الرَّأي - بعناد
Adam’s apple the part of your body at the front of your neck that sticks out slightly and moves when you talk or swallow
تُفاحة آدم، جَوْزَة الحَلْق
adapt 1 [I] to change your behaviour or ideas to fit a new situation: + to Old people find it hard to adapt to life in a foreign country.
1 يتَكيف
2 [T] to change something so that it is suitable for a new need or purpose: The car’s engine had been adapted to take unleaded fuel.
2 يُلائم، يُعدِّل
3 [T] to change a book or play so that it can be made into a film or television programme
3 يُعدِّل كِتابًا أو مَسْرحية، يُعِدُّ
4 be well adapted to sth to be especially suitable for something: Alpine flowers are well adapted to the cold winters.
4 يكون مُناسِبًا لِـ
adaptable able to change and be suitable or successful in new and different situations — adaptability /əˌdæptəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
قابِل للتَّكَيُّف - قابِلية التكيُّف
adaptation 1 [C] a play or film that is based on a book: a film adaptation of Zola’s novel
1 اقتِباس
2 [U] when something changes or is changed to make it suitable for a new situation: adaptation to the environment
2 تَواؤُم، تكيُّف
adapter, adaptor 1 something used to connect two pieces of equipment that are of different sizes
1 وُصْلة مُهايِئَة
2 BrE a special plug that makes it possible to connect more than one piece of equipment to the electricity supply
2 قابِس لتَشْغيل أكْثَر من جهاز
add 1 [T] to put something with something else or with a group of other things: add sth to sth Do you want to add your name to the mailing list? | Add one egg to the mixture.
1 يَجمع، يُضيف
2 [T] to put numbers or amounts together to calculate the total: If you add 5 and 3 you get 8.
2 يجمع أرقامًا لاستِخْلاص المجموع
3 [I,T] to increase the amount, cost, or degree of something by putting something more with it: Sales tax adds 15% to the bill. | + to Darkness just adds to the spooky atmosphere.
3 يزيد بالإضافة
4 [I,T] to say more about something when you are speaking: + that The judge added that this case was one of the worst she had ever seen.
4 يضيف إلى الحديث
5 add insult to injury to make a situation even worse for someone who has already been badly or unfairly treated
5 يَزيد الطين بلة
add sth ↔ on phr verb [T] to increase the size or amount of something by adding another part or amount: They’re going to add on another bedroom at the back. | + to VAT at 17.5% will be added on to your bill.
يزيد بالإضافة
add up phr verb
1 [I,T add sth ↔ up] to put numbers or amounts together and then calculate the total: Add your scores up and we’ll see who won.
1 يجمع، يحسُب المجموع
2 not add up to not seem true or reasonable: His story just doesn’t add up.
2 يبدو غير معقول
adder a small poisonous snake
أفْعى، ثُعْبان سامّ
addict 1 someone who is unable to stop taking drugs: a heroin addict
1 مُدمِن مُخدِّرات
2 informal someone who likes something very much and does it a lot: game-show addicts
2 مُدمِن شيء بذاته
addicted 1 unable to stop taking a drug: + to Marvin soon became addicted to sleeping pills.
1 مُدمِن
2 informal doing something a lot because you like it very much: My children are completely addicted to computer games.
2 مُدمِن لشيء معين
addiction when you need to have alcohol or drugs regularly because you are addicted to them
الإدْمان
addictive making you addicted to something: a highly addictive drug
يدفع إلى الإدْمان
addition 1 in addition used to add another fact to what has already been mentioned: The school has 12 classrooms. In addition there is a large office that could be used for meetings. | + to In addition to her teaching job, she plays in a band.
1 وفوق هذا، وإلى جانِب هذا، بالإضافة إلى
2 [U] the process of adding together several numbers or amounts to get a total
2 جَمْع الأرقام
3 [C] something that is added: The tower is a later addition to the cathedral.
3 إضافة
additional added to what is already there: There’s an additional charge for baggage over the weight limit — additionally adverb
إضافيّ - بدرجة زائدة
additive a chemical that is added to a food or drink to improve its taste or colour, or to keep it fresh
مُضافَة، مادَّة إضافة تَحسينيَّة
address 1 the details of where someone lives or works, including the number of the building, name of the street and town etc: I forgot to give Damien my new address.
1 عُنوان
2 a formal speech: the Gettysburg Address
2 خِطاب رَسْميّ
address 1 formal to speak directly to a person or a group: A guest speaker then addressed the audience. | address sth to sb You should address your question to the chairman.
1 يُخاطِب - يوجِّه حديثه إلى
2 to write a name and address on an envelope, package etc: address sth to sb There’s a letter here addressed to you.
2 يكتب الاسْم والعُنْوان على الظَّرْف - يُوجِّه، يعنوِن
3 formal to pay attention to a problem and try to deal with it: an education policy that fails to address the needs of disabled students
3 يَلتفِت إلى
4 to use a particular name or title when speaking or writing to someone: address sb as The President should be addressed as ‘‘Mr. President.’’
4 يستخدم لقبًا أو اسمًا معينًا في الخطاب - يُخاطِب شخصًا بلقب مُعيَّن
adept good at doing something that needs care or skill: + at He became adept at cooking her favourite Polish dishes — adeptly adverb
ماهِر، بارِع - بِمَهارة
adequate 1 enough for a particular purpose: Her income is hardly adequate to pay the bills.
1 كافٍ، وافٍ بالغَرض
2 fairly good, but not excellent: The critics described his performance as ‘‘barely adequate’’. → opposite inadequate — adequacy noun [U] — adequately adverb
2 مُناسِب، جَيِّد نوعًا ما - كِفاية - بدرجة كافِية
adhere to stick firmly to something: + to Make sure the paper adheres firmly to the wall.
يَتمسَّك أو يَتشبَّث بِـ
adhere to sth phr verb [T] to continue to behave according to a particular rule, agreement, or belief: Not all the countries adhered to the treaty.
يَلتزِم بِـ
adherence when you behave according to particular rules, ideas, or beliefs
التَّمسُّك أو التَّشبُّث بِـ
adherent someone who agrees with and supports a particular idea, opinion, or political party
موالٍ، تابِع، مُعَضِّد، مُؤيِّد
adhesion when one thing sticks to another thing
التِصاق
adhesive a substance such as glue that can stick things together — adhesive adjective: adhesive tape
مادة لاصِقة - لاصِق، دَبِق، لازِق
ad hoc done or arranged only when a situation makes it necessary, and without any previous planning: I’d been working for him on an ad hoc basis — ad hoc adverb
مُرْتَجَل - عَفْويًّا، لهذا الغَرَض
adjacent formal next to something: a door leading to the adjacent room | + to buildings adjacent to the palace
مُجاوِر
adjective a word that describes a noun or PRONOUN. In the sentence ‘I bought a new car’, ‘new’ is an adjective. — adjectival /ˌædʒɪ(ə)kˈtaɪvəl◂/ adjective: an adjectival phrase
صِفة، نعت - مُتعلِّق بالصفة، وصفيّ
adjoining next to something, and connected to it: an adjoining office — adjoin verb [T]
مجاوِر ومتَّصل بِـ - يجاور
adjourn to stop a meeting for a short time or until a later date: The committee adjourned for an hour — adjournment noun [C,U]
يؤجِّل، يفُضّ اجتماعًا - التأجيل، إرجاء الاجتماع
adjudicate formal to be the judge in a competition or make an official decision about a problem or argument: The European Court was asked to adjudicate in the dispute — adjudicator noun [C] — adjudication /əˌdʒuːdɪˈkeɪʃən/ noun [U]
يُصدِر حُكمًا - القاضي، المحكَّم - الحُكم
adjust 1 [T] to change or move something slightly so that it is in the right position: Where’s the lever for adjusting the car seat?
1 يُعدِّل مِنْ وَضْع
2 [I] to make small changes to the way you do things in order to get used to a new situation or condition: + to We’re gradually adjusting to the new way of working — adjustable adjective: an adjustable lamp
2 يُعدِّل الطريقة حتى تلائم وضعًا جديدًا - قابِل للتعديل
adjustment 1 a small change made to a machine, plan, or system: make adjustments to sth I’ve made a few adjustments to our original calculations.
1 تعديل - يقوم بتعديلات بسيطة
2 a change in the way you behave or think: make adjustments You have to make some adjustments when you live abroad.
2 تغيُّر في السلوك أو التفكير - يُجري تغييرات أو تعديلات
ad-lib to say something in a speech or a performance without preparing or planning it: She forgot her lines and had to ad-lib — ad lib adjective, adverbad-lib noun [C]
يَرْتجل - مُرتجَل ؛ بارتجال - الارتجال
administer 1 to manage the affairs of a company, government etc: officials who administer the transport system
1 يدير
2 to organize the way a test or punishment is given, or the way a law is used
2 يُجري (اختبارًا)، ينزل (عِقابًا)، يُطبِّق (قانونًا)
3 formal to give someone a drug or medical treatment: The medicine was administered in regular doses.
3 يُعطي الدواء أو العلاج
administration 1 the work of managing the affairs of a company, government etc: Have you any experience in administration?
1 الإدارة
2 the administration especially AmE the part of the national, state, or city government that is controlled by the president, GOVERNOR, or MAYOR: the Kennedy Administration
2 الإدارة الأمريكية
administrative connected with managing a company, country etc: The job is mainly administrative. —administratively adverb
إداريّ - بطريقة إدارية
administrator someone who manages the affairs of a government department, organization etc
الإداريّ، المدير
admirable something that is admirable deserves to be praised and admired: an admirable achievementadmirably adverb
مُثيرٌ للإعجاب - بدرجة تُثير الإعجاب
admiral an officer who has a very high rank in the Navy
فريق بحري، مشير بحري، أميرال، أمير البحر
admiration when you respect and admire something or someone: + for Dylan had a deep admiration for Picasso’s later work.
الإعجاب بِـ
admire 1 to have a very good opinion of someone because of their good qualities or their achievements: admire sb for sth I always admired my mother for her courage and patience.
1 يُعجَب بِـ - يعجَب بصفة في شخص
2 to look at someone or something and think how beautiful or impressive they are: We stopped halfway up the hill to admire the view — admirer noun [C] My teacher was a great admirer of Shakespeare.
2 يُعبِّر عن إعجابه - المعجَب
admissible formal acceptable or allowed, especially in a court of law: admissible evidence → opposite INADMISSIBLE
مقبول، مسموح به
admission 1 [C] when you admit that something bad or unpleasant is true: + of If he resigns, it will be an admission of guilt.
1 اعتراف، تسليم
2 [C,U] permission that is given to someone to study at a college, be treated in a hospital, join a club etc: + to Tom has applied for admission to Oxford next year.
2 إذن بالدُّخول أو الالتحاق
3 [U] the price charged when you go to a film, sports event, concert etc: Admission $6.50.
3 أجر الدُّخول، ثمَن التَّذكِرة
admit 1 [I,T] to agree or say that something is true, although you do not want to: He was wrong, but he won’t admit it. | + (that) You may not like her, but you have to admit that Sheila is good at her job. | + to He’ll never admit to the murder.
1 يُسلِّم مُرْغَمًا بِـ، يُقِرُّ بِـ
2 [T] to let someone or something enter a place or join a club or organization: Only ticket holders will be admitted into the stadium.
2 يسمح بالدُّخول أو الالتحاق
3 be admitted to be taken into hospital because you are ill
3 يُسمح له بدخول المستشفى للعلاج
admittance permission to enter a place: Journalists were refused admittance to the meeting.
إذن أو تصريح بالدُّخول
admittedly used when you are admitting that something is true: Admittedly, it’s not a very good photograph, but you can recognize who it is.
مع التَّسليم والاعتراف بأن
admonish literary to tell or warn someone that they have done something wrong — admonishment noun [C,U]
يُحذِّر، ينصح - التَّحذير، النصيحة
ado without more/further ado without any more delay
بدون أدنى تأخير
adolescence the period when a young person is developing into an adult, usually between the ages of 12 and 17
المُراهَقَة
adolescent a young person who is developing into an adult — adolescent adjective
المُراهِق - مراهِق
adopt 1 to let someone else’s child become a part of your family and make him or her legally your daughter or son: Melissa was adopted by the Simpsons when she was only two.
1 يتبنّى طفلًا
2 to begin to use a particular plan or way of doing something: The police are adopting more forceful methods.
2 يتبنّى فكرة
3 to formally approve a suggestion: The committee voted to adopt our proposals — adopted adjective: their adopted daughter
3 يوافِق على اقتراح - متبنًّى
adoption 1 [U] when you decide to use a particular plan or method: improvements that followed the adoption of new technology
1 تبنّي فِكرة
2 [C,U] when someone adopts someone else’s child: Children of parents who had died were offered for adoption.
2 تبنّي طِفل
adorable very attractive: an adorable little puppy
رائع، فاتِن، جذَّاب جدًّا
adoration great love and admiration
الحُبّ لدرجة العبادة
adore 1 to love and admire someone very much: Tim absolutely adores his older brother.
1 يحبُّ بشدة
2 to like something very much: I adore this place. It’s so peaceful here.
2 يعجب جدًّا بشيء
adorn formal to decorate something and make it more attractive: The church walls were adorned with beautiful carvings. —adornment /əˈdɔːnmənt‖-ɔːr-/ noun [C,U]
يُزيِّن، يُجمِّل - زينة، تجميل
adrenalin a chemical produced by your body that gives you more energy when you are frightened, excited, or angry
مادة الأدرِينالين
adrift 1 a boat that is adrift is not tied to anything, and is moved around by the ocean or wind
1 منساقًا مع التيار، على غير هدى
2 come adrift if something comes adrift, it becomes separated from the thing it should be fastened to
2 يَنفصِل عن الأصل
adroit able to use your hands skilfully or to think and use words quickly: an adroit negotiator — adroitly adverb
ماهِر، حاذِق - بمهارة، بحِذق
adulation when someone receives more praise and admiration than they deserve
مُداهَنة، تملُّق
adult a fully grown person or animal
البالِغ، الرّاشِد، المُكتمل النُّمو
adult 1 fully grown: an adult male frog
1 مُكتمل النمو
2 typical of an adult: an adult view of the world
2 بالِغ، راشِد
3 adult films, magazines etc are about sex and are not suitable for children
3 للكبار فقط
adultery when someone who is married has sex with someone who is not their husband or wife — adulterous adjective
الزِّنا - زانٍ
advance 1 in advance if you do something in advance, you do it so that something is ready or available at the time in the future when it will be needed: a delicious dish that can be prepared in advance
1 مُقدَّمًا
2 [C,U] when something is discovered, invented, or improved, with the result that there is progress: effective drugs and other advances in medicine
2 تقدُّم، تحسُّن
3 [C] a movement forward to a new position, especially by an army: Napoleon’s advance towards Moscow
3 تحرُّك إلى الأمام
4 [C, usually singular] money paid to someone before the usual time: + on Could I have a small advance on my salary? → see also ADVANCES
4 سُلفَة، قَرْض
advance 1 [I,T] if scientific knowledge advances, or if it is advanced, it develops and improves: research to advance our understanding of genetics
1 يتقدَّم، يتحسَّن، يُحسِّن
2 [I] to move forward to a new position: + on Viet Cong forces were advancing on Saigon.
2 يتحرَّكُ إلى الأمام، يتقدَّم
3 [T] to suggest a plan or idea so that people can consider it: new proposals advanced by the Spanish delegation — advancement noun [C,U] the advancement of science
3 يَطْرَح، يقدِّم خُطة أو فكرة للنَّظر - التَّقدم
advance done or given before an event: advance warning/notice/booking advance warning of a hurricane | You can make an advance booking with your credit card. (=buy a ticket before a performance, journey etc)
سابِق، مُبَكِّر - تحذير أو إنذار أو حجز مبكر
advanced 1 using the most modern ideas, equipment, and methods: the most advanced computer on the market
1 مُتقدِّم، مُتطوِّر، راقٍ
2 advanced Physics/Mathematics/Chemistry etc Physics, Mathematics etc at a high level: a course in Advanced Computer Studies
2 الفيزياء، الرِّياضيات، الكيمياء .. إلخ المتقدِّمة
advances attempts to start a sexual relationship with someone: He became violent when the girl rejected his advances.
مبادَرات غرامية، تحرُّشات جنسيَّة
advantage 1 something that helps you to be better or more successful than other people: + of the advantages of a good education | + over Her computer training gave her an advantage over the other students.
1 ميزَة
2 a way in which something is good or useful: Good public transport is just one of the advantages of living in a big city.
2 مَنفعَة، مَصلحَة
3 take advantage of sth/sb a) to use a situation to help you do or get something you want: We took advantage of the good weather by going for a picnic. b) to unfairly use a person in order to get something for yourself: I don’t mind helping, but I resent being taken advantage of.
3 (أ) يستفيد من شخص أو شيء (ب) يَستغلّ شخصًا لمصلحته
4 to your advantage helpful and likely to make you richer or more successful
4 في صالحك، من أجل منفعتك
advantageous helpful and likely to make you more successful
نافع، مُكسِب
advent the advent of sth when something important first starts to exist or to be used by a lot of people: the advent of television | the advent of communism
مجيء، ظهور
adventure an exciting experience in which dangerous or unusual things happen: a book about her adventures in South America
مُغامَرة، مُخاطَرة
adventurer someone who travels to new places, doing exciting things
المغامِر
adventurous 1 also adventuresome AmE wanting to do new, exciting, dangerous things
1 محبٌّ للمغامَرة، مُخاطِر
2 exciting and involving danger: an adventurous expedition up the Amazon —adventurously adverb
2 مُثير وخطير - بدرجة مثيرة، بطريقة مغامِرة
adverb a word that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a sentence. For example, ‘slowly’ in ‘He walked slowly’ and ‘very’ in ‘It was a very good book’ are adverbs — adverbial /ədˈvɜːbiəl‖-ɜːr-/ adjective
الظَّرْف، الحال - متعلق بالظرف أو الحال
adversary formal an enemy or someone you are competing against
العدوّ، المنافِس
adverse formal
1 adverse conditions/effects conditions or effects that are bad and cause problems: adverse weather conditions
1 ظروف مُعاكِسَة، تأثيرات غير مواتية
2 adverse publicity/comment etc when people criticize something or someone and say that they are not very good — adversely adverb
2 دِعاية أو تعليق مضاد - بطريقة معاكسة
adversity difficulties or problems in your life: showing courage in times of adversity
الشِّدة، الصعوبات
advert BrE an advertisement
الإعلان
advertise 1 [I,T] to tell people about a product, or service in order to persuade them to buy it or use it: a poster advertising sportswear | I saw your car advertised in the evening paper.
1 يُعلِن عن منتج أو خدمة
2 [I] to make an announcement in a newspaper, asking for someone to work for you or for something that you need: + for RCA is advertising for an accountant — advertiser noun [C]
2 يعلن في الصُّحُف - المُعلِن
advertisement a set of words or pictures in a newspaper, magazine etc, or a short film on television that advertises a product → compare COMMERCIAL2
إعلان في صحيفة أو على شاشة التليفزيون
advertising the business of advertising things on television, in newspapers etc
فنّ الإعلان في التليفزيون والصحف ...إلخ
advice what you say to someone when you tell them what you think they should do: + on/about a book that’s full of advice on babycare | give (sb) advice Let me give you some advice. Don’t write so fast. | ask sb’s advice (=ask them what to do): Beth decided to ask her doctor’s advice. | take/follow sb’s advice (=do what they advise you to do): Did you take your father’s advice? | piece of advice He offered me one piece of advice that I’ve never forgotten.
النصيحة - ينصح، يقدِّم النصح - يطلب النصيحة، يستشير - يأخذ بالنصيحة - النصيحة
advisable something that is advisable should be done in order to avoid problems or risks: It is advisable to wear a safety belt at all times. → opposite inadvisable — advisability /ədˌvaɪzəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
مُستَحسَن، مُستَصوَب، مناسب - الاستحسان، الاستصواب
advise 1 [I,T] to tell someone what you think they should do: advise sb to do sth The doctor advised me to take more exercise. | advise (sb) against doing sth (=tell someone not to do something): His lawyers had advised against making a statement to the press. | advise (sb) on sth Franklin advises us on financial matters.
1 ينصح - يوصي بِـ - يشير بألا - يُطلع، يُبصِّر
2 [T] formal to officially tell someone something: You will be advised when the work is completed.
2 يُخطِر بطريقة رسميَّة
adviser, advisor someone whose job is to give advice about a subject: + on the President’s adviser on foreign affairs
المستشار، الناصح
advisory having the purpose of giving advice: an advisory committee
استشاري
advocate to suggest or say that you strongly support a particular way of doing things: Buchanan advocates tougher trade policies — advocacy /-kəsi/ noun [U]
يُدافِع، يُناصِر- دِفاع، مُناصَرَة
advocate 1 someone who strongly supports a particular way of doing things: + of an advocate of prison reform
1 المُدافِع، المُناصِر
2 law a lawyer who speaks for someone in a court of law and tries to prove they are not guilty
2 المحامي
aerial from a plane or happening in the air: aerial photos | aerial attacks
هوائي، جوي
aerial BrE a piece of metal or wire used for receiving radio or television SIGNALS; ANTENNA AmE → see colour picture on page 149 and picture at CAR
هوائي التليفزيون أو الراديو
aerobic aerobic exercise makes your heart and lungs stronger
متعلق برياضة الإيروبكس (الرياضة التَّنَفُّسِيَّة)
aerobics active physical exercise done to music, usually in a class: Are you going to aerobics tonight? (=to an aerobics class)
رياضة الإيروبكس (تمارس على أنغام الموسيقى)
aerodynamics the scientific study of how objects move through the air — aerodynamic adjective
عِلمُ الدّيناميكا/الحركة الهوائية - حَرَكيّ هَوائي
aeroplane BrE noun [C] a flying vehicle with wings and an engine; airplane AmE → see colour picture on page 1333
الطائرة
aerosol a small metal container from which a liquid can be forced out by pressing a button: an aerosol hairspray → see picture at spray
إيروسول، مِرَشَّة سائل (بضغط غاز الفريون)
aerospace the design and production of aircraft and space vehicles: the aerospace industry
تصميم وإنتاج الطائرات ومَرْكَبات الفضاء
aesthetic also esthetic AmE relating to beauty and the study of beauty: the aesthetic qualities of literature —aesthetically /-kli/ adverb: aesthetically pleasing
جمالي، خاصٌّ بعلم الجَمال - من الناحية الجماليَّة
aesthetics also esthetics AmE the study of beauty, especially beauty in art
عِلْم الجمال
afar from afar literary from a long distance away
من بعيد، عن بعد
affable friendly and easy to talk to: an affable guy —affably adverb
ودود، أنيس - بِوُدٍّ
affair 1 an event or a set of related events, especially unpleasant ones: The Watergate affair brought down the Nixon administration.
1 أَمْر، قضية، واقِعة
2 a secret sexual relationship between two people, when at least one of them is married to someone else: have an affair Ed’s having an affair with his boss’s wife.
2 عَلاقة غرامية - على علاقة جنسيَّة مع
3 be sb’s affair if something is your affair, you do not want other people to know about it or become involved in it
3 مُهتمُّ بِـ، مَعنِيّ بِـ، يكون شغله الشاغل
affairs situations or subjects that a person, business, or government has to deal with: the company’s financial affairs | affairs of state (=government business)
شئون - شُئون الدَّولة
affect 1 to cause a change in someone or something, or to change the situation they are in: a disease that affects the heart and lungs | Help is being sent to areas affected by the floods.
1 يؤثِّر في، يَفعل في
2 to make someone feel strong emotions: She was deeply affected by the news of Paul’s death. → compare EFFECT2.
2 يؤثِّر عاطفيًّا
affectation unnatural or insincere behaviour
تَظاهُر، تصنُّع
affected speaking or behaving in a way that is not sincere or natural: Olivia spoke in a high, affected voice.
مُصطَنَع، مُتكلَّف
affection a feeling of gentle love: + for Barry felt a great affection for her.
عاطفة، حبّ
affectionate behaving in a way that shows you love someone: an affectionate child — affectionately adverb
مُحبّ، ودود - بِمحبَّة، بودّ
affiliate be affiliated with/to to be officially connected with, or controlled by a larger organization: a TV station affiliated to CBS — affiliation /əˌfɪliˈeɪʃən/ noun [C,U] What are the group’s political affiliations?
يَتْبَعُ، ينتسب إلى - الارتباط، الانتساب
affinity 1 [singular] a feeling that you like and understand someone because you are similar: + for/with/between She felt a natural affinity for these people.
1 تقارُب، تفاهُم
2 [C,U] when two things are very similar or closely related to each other
2 تطابُق، تشابُه
affirm formal to say definitely that something is true: The President affirmed his intention to reduce taxes. —affirmation /ˌæfəˈmeɪʃən‖ˌæfər-/ noun [C,U]
يُؤكِّد - التَّأكيد
affirmative formal meaning ‘‘yes’’: an affirmative answer | answer in the affirmative (=say ‘‘yes’’) — affirmatively adverb
تَوكيديّ - يَردّ بالإيجاب - بإيجاب
affix formal to fasten or stick something to something else: A recent photograph should be affixed to your form.
يُلصِق، يُثبِّت
afflict formal if you are afflicted by a disease or problem, it affects you badly: Towards the end of his life he was afflicted with blindness. | a country afflicted by famine
يُصيب، يبتلي
affliction formal something that causes suffering or pain
كَرْب، بلاء
affluent rich: an affluent suburb of Paris — affluence noun [U]
ثريّ، موسِر - الثَّراء
afford 1 can afford a) to have enough money to pay for something: I wish we could afford a new computer. | I can’t afford to buy a new car. b) if you cannot afford to do something or let something happen, you must not do it or let it happen because it will cause problems: We can’t afford to offend our regular customers.
1 (أ) يَقدر ماليًّا (ب) يَستَطيع، يُمكِنُه
2 formal to provide something: The walls afforded some protection from the wind.
2 يوفِّر
affordable something that is affordable is not too expensive, and ordinary people are able to pay for it: a list of good affordable hotels
مُتاح، في متناول الإنسان العادي
affront something that makes you feel offended or insulted: + to The accusation was an affront to his pride.
إهانة، إساءة
afield far/further afield far or further away: As he grew more confident, he started to wander further afield.
بعيدًا
afloat 1 floating on water
1 طافٍ، عائِم
2 keep/stay afloat to have enough money to pay your debts and continue in business: She had to borrow more money just to keep the company afloat.
2 يستطيع أن يسدد ديونه ويستمر في العمل
afraid 1 I’m afraid spoken used when you are politely telling someone something that may annoy, upset, or disappoint them: I won’t be able to come with you, I’m afraid. | + (that) I’m afraid this is a no smoking area. | ‘‘Are we late?’’ ‘‘I’m afraid so.’’ (=yes) | ‘‘Are there any tickets left?’’ ‘‘I’m afraid not.’’ (=no)
1 يُؤسِفُني أن، معذرة
2 frightened because you think someone or something is unpleasant or will hurt you: I could see by the look in his eyes that he was afraid. | + of Small children are often afraid of the dark.
2 خائف
3 frightened or worried that something bad may happen: afraid of doing sth A lot of people are afraid of losing their jobs. | + (that) I didn’t say anything because I was afraid the other kids would laugh at me. | afraid for sb/sth (=worried that something bad will happen to someone): I thought you were in danger and I was afraid for you.
3 مذعور، قَلِق - خائف من شيء، قَلِقٌ على شخص أو شيء
afresh start afresh to start again from the beginning: We decided to move to Sydney and start afresh.
يبدأ من الصفر، يبدأ من جديد
after 1 when a particular time or event has happened: What are you doing after class? | after that (=used to say what happens next): Then we went to the museum. After that, we had lunch. | an hour/2 weeks etc after sth We left an hour after daybreak.
1 بعد - بعد ذلك - بعد ساعة/أسبوعين
2 following someone or something in a set or list of things: Whose name is after mine on the list?
2 عَقِبَ
3 after 10 minutes/3 hours etc when 10 minutes etc have passed: After a while, the woman returned.
3 بعد مدة ...
4 AmE used to say how many minutes past the hour it is when saying the time: It’s 10 after five.
4 في حساب الزمن: كذا دقيقة بعد الساعة كذا
5 day after day/year after year etc continuing for a very long time: Day after day we waited, hoping she’d call.
5 يومًا بعد يوم/سنة بعد أخرى
6 one after the other when each one immediately follows the one before: We led the horses one after the other out of the barn.
6 واحدًا بعد الآخر
7 because of something that has happened: I’m surprised he came, after the way you treated him.
7 بسبب
8 in spite of something: After all the trouble I had, Reese didn’t even say thank you.
8 بالرَّغم من
9 be after sb to be looking for someone: The FBI is after him for fraud.
9 يتعقَّب
10 be after sth to be trying to get something that belongs to someone else: You’re just after my money!
10 يحاول الحصول على شيء لا يخصه
11 after all a) in spite of what you thought was true or expected to happen: Rita didn’t have my pictures after all. Jake did. | It didn’t rain after all. b) used when you are saying something that shows that what you have just said is right: Don’t shout at him – he’s only a baby, after all.
11 (أ) مع كل هذا، بالرغم من ذلك (ب) وهذا صحيح
12 be called/named after sb to be given the same name as someone else: She was named Sarah, after my grandmother. → compare BEFORE1, SINCE2.
12 يُسَمّى باسم
after at a later time than the time something happens: Voitek left Poland after the war. | 10 days/2 weeks after He discovered the jewel was a fake a month after he bought it.
بعد مُضِيِّ ... - بعد مُرورِ عَشرة أيام/أسبوعين
after later than someone or something else: Gina came on Monday; I got here the day after.
التالي
after-effect an unpleasant effect that remains after the condition or event that caused it: + of the after-effects of his illness
آثار لاحقة، نتيجة تالية
afterlife the life that some people believe you have after you die
الحياة بعد الموت
aftermath the situation after an accident, storm, war etc when people are still dealing with what happened: in the aftermath of the refugee crisis in the aftermath of the civil war
عاقبة، أثر
afternoon the period of time between 12 o’clock and the evening: We should get there at about three in the afternoon. | There are no afternoon classes today. | this afternoon (=today in the afternoon): Can you go swimming this afternoon?
بعد الظُّهر - بعد ظهر اليوم
aftershave a liquid with a pleasant smell that a man puts on his face after he SHAVES
كريم بعد الحلاقة
aftertaste a taste that stays in your mouth after you eat or drink something: a drink with a sour aftertaste
مذاق الطعام أو الشَّراب المتبقي في الفم
afterthought something that you think of and mention or add later
فكرة تَطرأ فيما بعد
afterwards also afterward AmE adverb later, after something else has happened: 2 days/5 weeks etc afterwards We met at school but didn’t get married until two years afterwards.
فيما بعد، بعدئذٍ - بعد يومين أو خمسة أسابيع ... إلخ
again 1 one more time: Could you say that again? I can’t hear. | I’ll never go there again. | I’m sorry, Mr Kay is busy. Could you call again later? | once again (=again, for at least the third time): Once again the Americans are the Olympic champions.
1 ثانية - مرة أخرى
2 in the same condition, situation, or place as before: I can’t wait for Jamie to be well again. | Susan’s home again, after studying in France.
2 في نفس الظروف أو المَكان
3 again and again many times: Say it again and again until you learn it.
3 المرة تلو المرة
4 all over again repeating something from the beginning: The tape broke, so we had to record the programme all over again.
4 إعادة العمل من بدايته (من الأول مُجدَّدًا)
5 then/there again spoken used to add a fact or opinion to what you have just said: Carol’s always had nice clothes – but then again she earns a lot.
5 بالإضافة، وفوق هذا
against 1 opposed to or disagreeing with an idea, plan, system etc: Most people are against fox-hunting.
1 ضدّ
2 fighting or competing with someone or something: Sampras is playing against Becker in the final. | the battle against inflation
2 في مُواجهة، ضِدّ
3 against the law/the rules not allowed by the law or the rules: It is against the law to sell alcohol to children.
3 مُخالِف للقانون أو القواعد
4 against sb’s wishes/advice/orders etc if you do something against someone’s wishes etc, you do it even though they tell you not to do it: She got married to him against her parents’ wishes.
4 ضد رغبات شخص أو نصيحته أو أوامره
5 touching a surface: The cat’s fur felt soft against her face. | Sheldon leaned lazily back against the wall. → see colour picture on page 808
5 مُلامِس لسطح
6 have sth against sb/sth to dislike or disapprove of someone or something: I have nothing against people making money, but they ought to pay taxes on it.
6 يُبدي اعتراضًا أو يحمل كراهية لِـ
7 in the opposite direction to the movement or flow of something: sailing against the wind
7 ضد التيار
8 protecting you from harm or damage: a cream to protect against sunburn
8 للوِقاية من ضَرَر
age 1 [C,U] the number of years that someone has lived or that something has existed: games for children of all ages | Patrick is about my age. (=he is about the same age as me) | at the age of 12/50 etc Jamie won his first tournament at the age of 15. | 4/15 etc years of age formal (=4, 15 etc years old) | for his/her age (=compared with other people the same age): Judy’s very tall for her age.
1 عُمْر، سِنّ - في سنِّ كذا - يبلغ من العمر - بالنسبة لِسِنِّه/لِسِنِّها
2 under age not old enough to be legally allowed to do something: I can’t buy you a drink, you’re under age.
2 قاصِر، دون السنِّ القانونيَّة
3 [U] when something is old: a letter that was brown with age
3 القِدَم
4 [C] a particular period of history: the computer age | the history of painting through the ages
4 عصر، حِقْبة تاريخيَّة
5 come of age to reach the age at which you are legally considered to be an adult
5 يبلغ السِّنَّ القانونيَّة
6 age group the people who are a particular age, considered as a group: a book for children in the 8-12 age group → see also AGES, OLD AGE
6 مجموعة عمريَّة
age to become older and weaker, or make someone seem older and weaker: He has aged a lot since his wife died — ageing BrE aging AmE adjective: an aging rock star
يتقدَّم في السِّنِّ - مُتقدِّم في السِّنّ
aged aged 5/15 etc 5, 15 etc years old: a class for children aged 12 and over
بالغ من العمر، عُمْره
aged 1 very old: his aged parents
1 كبير في السنّ، مُتقدِّم في السنّ، مُسِنّ
2 the aged old people: the cost of caring for the sick and aged
2 المُسنّون
ageless never seeming old or old-fashioned: ageless fashions
لا يَشيخُ، لا يَتَقادَمُ
agency 1 a business that arranges services for people: I got this job through an employment agency.
1 وكالة، توكيل
2 an international organization or government department that does a particular job: the UN agency responsible for helping refugees
2 هيئة دولية أو مصلحة حكوميَّة
agenda 1 a list of the subjects to be discussed at a meeting: on the agenda The next item on the agenda is finances.
1 جدول أعمال
2 be on the agenda if something is on the agenda, there is a plan to do something about it: sth is high on the agenda (=people think something is very important and plan to deal with it soon): Health care reforms are high on the President’s agenda.
2 موضوع مطروح للمناقشة - من أهم بنود جدول الأعمال
agent 1 a person or company whose job is to deal with someone else’s business for them: Our agent in Rome handles all our Italian contracts.
1 وكيل
2 someone who works for a government and tries to get secret information about another country or organization: a secret agent
2 عميل
age-old hundreds of years old: age-old customs and traditions
عُمره/عُمْرها مئات السنين
ages informal a long time: for ages I haven’t seen Lorna for ages.
أمد، زمن طويل - لوقت طويل
aggravate 1 to make a bad situation worse: The doctors say her condition is aggravated by stress.
1 يزيد الأمر سوءًا، يُفاقِم
2 to annoy someone: He really aggravates me sometimes — aggravating adjective — aggravation /ˌægrəˈveɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يُضايِق - مُسبِّب للضّيق، مُشدِّد - ضيق، تشديد
aggregate a total — aggregate adjective
الكُلّ، المَجموع - مُتَجَمِّع، إجمالي
aggression angry or threatening behaviour or feelings that often result in fighting: The bombing was an unprovoked act of aggression.
العُدوان
aggressive 1 behaving in an angry or threatening way, as if you want to fight or attack someone: After a few drinks he became very aggressive.
1 عُدواني
2 very determined to succeed: aggressive sales techniques — aggressively adverbaggressiveness noun [U]
2 مُصمِّم على الفوز - بطريقة عدائيَّة - العُدوانيَّة
aggressor a person or country that begins a fight or war with another person or country
المُعْتدي
aggrieved feeling angry or unhappy because you think you have been unfairly treated
غاضِب أو تَعِس بسبب الظلم
aghast suddenly feeling or looking shocked: She stared at him aghast.
مَشْدوه، مَذْهول
agile 1 able to move quickly and easily: as agile as a monkey
1 خَفيف الحَركة
2 able to think quickly and intelligently: old people who are still mentally agile — agility /əˈdʒɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 سَريع التَّفكير والذَّكاء - سُرْعة الحَركة أو التَّفكير
agitate to protest in order to achieve social or political changes: workers agitating for higher pay — agitator noun [C]
يَحتجُّ بهَدَف إحْداث تغيير سياسيّ أو اجتماعيّ - ثائِر
agitated very anxious, nervous, or upset: You really shouldn’t get so agitated — agitation /ˌædʒɪ(ə)ˈteɪʃən/ noun [U]
قَلِق، مُضطرِب - الاضطراب
agnostic someone who believes that it is not possible to know whether God exists → compare ATHEISTagnostic adjective — agnosticism /-tɪ(ə)sɪzəm/ noun [U]
مُعتنِق مذهب اللا أدريَّة - لا أدرِيّ - مذهب اللا أدريَّة
ago used to say how far back in the past something happened: 10 years/a moment/a long time ago Jeff left an hour ago. | We went there a long time ago.
منذ - منذ عشر سنوات/لحظة/وقت طويل
agonize (also -ise BrE) to think and worry for a long time about a decision that you have to make: + about/over Jane had been agonizing all day about what to wear.
يتألَّم، يتعذَّب - يَعول الهمّ
agonizing (also -sing BrE) extremely painful or difficult: an agonizing decision — agonizingly adverb
مُؤلِم جدًّا - بألم مُبرِّح
agony very severe pain or suffering: in agony The poor man was in agony.
الألم المُبرِّح - شاعر بآلام مُبرِّحة
agree 1 [I,T] to have the same opinion about something: + with I agree with Karen. It’s much too expensive. | + that Everyone agreed that the new rules were stupid. | + about/on My first husband and I never agreed about anything. → opposite DISAGREE
1 يتفقُ مع، يُجمِع على، يَتَّفق على
2 [I,T] to make a decision together after discussing something: agree to do sth They agreed to share the cost of the party. | + on We’re still trying to agree on a date for the wedding. | + that It was agreed that Mr Rollins should sign the contract on May 1st.
2 يتَّفقون على قرار - يتَّفقون على شيء - يوافِق على أن
3 [I,T] to say yes when someone suggests a plan or asks you to do something: agree to do sth She agreed to stay at home with Charles. | + to The boss would never agree to such a plan.
3 يقول نعم - يُوافِق على شيء - يُوافِق على عمل شيء
4 [I] if two pieces of information agree, they say the same thing: + with Your story doesn’t agree with what the police have said.
4 يَتطابَق - يتَّفقُ مع
agree with sb/sth phr verb [T]
1 to believe that something is right: agree with sth I don’t agree with hitting children.
1 يتَّفق مع شخص - يوافق على شيء
2 not agree with sb to make someone ill: Some dairy products don’t agree with me.
2 لا يناسب
agreeable 1 pleasant or enjoyable: very agreeable weather
1 مُحبَّب إلى النَّفْس
2 be agreeable to sth formal to be willing to do something or to let it be done: Are you sure Johnson is agreeable to the idea? — agreeably adverb: I was agreeably surprised.
2 راغِب في عمل شيء - بطريقة مُحبَّبة
agreed 1 an agreed price, method, arrangement etc is one that people have discussed and accepted
1 مُتَّفق عليه
2 be agreed if people are agreed, they have decided together what to do: Are we all agreed on the date for our next meeting?
2 مُتَّفقون تمامًا
agreement 1 [C] an arrangement or promise to do something, made by two or more people, countries, organizations etc: a trade agreement | come to/reach an agreement Lawyers on both sides finally reached an agreement today.
1 اتِّفاق - يَتوصَّل إلى اتِّفاق
2 [U] when two or more people have the same opinion as each other: in agreement Not all scientists are in agreement with this theory. → opposite DISAGREEMENT
2 تَطابُق، موافقة - على اتفاق
agriculture the work of growing crops and keeping animals on farms for food, and the methods that are used — agricultural /ˌægrɪˈkʌltʃərəl◂/ adjective
الزراعة - زراعي
aground if a ship runs aground, it gets stuck in water that is not very deep
جانِحًا، مُرتطِمًا بالأرض
ah used when you feel surprise, sympathy, dislike, pleasure etc: Ah, what a lovely baby!
آه (صيحة تَنُمُّ عن الدَّهشة، السُّرور .. إلخ)
aha used when you suddenly understand or realize something: Aha! So that’s where you’ve been hiding!
آه (للدَّهشة أو السُّخرية)
ahead 1 in front of someone or something: Joe ran ahead to see what was happening. | + of Do you see that red car ahead of us? | up ahead Just up ahead on the right is my old school.
1 في المقدِّمة، أمام
2 in or into the future: look/plan ahead In this type of business it’s important to plan ahead.
2 في المستقبل - ينظر/يخطِّط للمستقبل
3 before someone arrives or finishes: + of There were four people ahead of me at the doctor’s.
3 قبل شخص، أمامه في التَّرتيب
4 go ahead spoken used to tell someone they can do something: Go ahead – help yourself to a drink.
4 ابدأ العمل، تَصَرَّفْ
5 making more progress than other people or things: + of Jane is well ahead of the rest of her class.
5 مُتقدِّم على
6 more successful than another player or team in a game, competition etc
6 متفوِّق
7 to be successful in your job or in what you are doing
7 ناجح في العمل
8 ahead of schedule/time before the time that was planned or arranged: The building was completed ahead of schedule.
8 قبل الموعد المحدد
aid 1 [U] money, food, or services that are given by an organization to help people: The UN is sending aid to the earthquake victims. | overseas aid
1 معونة
2 with the aid of using something to help you do something: bacteria viewed with the aid of a microscope
2 بمساعدة
3 in aid of in order to collect money for a group of people who need help
3 لصالح
4 [C] a thing that helps you do something: notebooks and study aids
4 مُعينات، وسائل
5 come/go to the aid of sb to help someone: She went to the aid of an injured man.
5 يسرع لإغاثة شخص
aid 1 to help or give support to someone
1 يُعين، يُؤيِّد
2 aid and abet law to help someone do something illegal
2 يُحرِّض على ارتِكاب الجَريمة ويُشارِك فيها
aide also aid AmE someone whose job is to help someone in a more important position, especially a politician: a White House aide to President Nixon
المُساعِد
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; a very serious disease that stops your body from defending itself against infection
مرض الإيدز
ailing weak or ill, and not getting stronger or better: the country’s ailing economy | his ailing mother
عَليل، مُتوعِّك
ailment an illness that is not very serious: people suffering from minor ailments
وَعْكة
aim 1 [I] to plan or intend to achieve something: + for/at We’re aiming for a gold medal in the Olympics. | aim to do sth If you’re aiming to become a doctor, you’ll have to study hard.
1 يَنْوي - يَهدِف إلى
2 be aimed at sb if something is aimed at someone, it is made or done so that certain people will like it or be influenced by it: a TV commercial aimed at teenagers | Was that criticism aimed at me?
2 مُوجَّه إلى شخص أو فئة
3 [I,T] to point a weapon at someone or something that you want to hit: + at The gun was aimed at his head.
3 يُصوِّب سِلاحه نحو
4 be aimed at doing sth to be intended to achieve something: a program aimed at creating more jobs
4 يهدِف إلى تحقيق غرض معين
aim 1 [C] a purpose that you are hoping to achieve: The main aim of the course is to improve your spoken English. | I flew to California with the aim of finding a job.
1 غَرَض، هَدَف
2 take aim to point a weapon at someone or something: + at He took aim at the pigeon and fired.
2 يُسَدِّد إلى، يُصوِّب نحو
3 [U] someone’s ability to hit something by throwing or shooting something at it: Mark’s aim wasn’t very good.
3 التَّصويب
aimless without a clear purpose or reason — aimlessly adverb: The boys had been wandering around aimlessly.
بدون هَدَف - بطريقة عَشْوائيَّة
ain’t spoken a short form of ‘am not’, ‘is not’, ‘are not’, ‘has not’, or ‘have not’ that many people think is not correct: Ain’t that the truth!
اختِصار لِـ: ‘am not’, ‘is not’, ‘are not’, ‘has not’, ‘have not’
air 1 [U] the mixture of gases which we breathe and which surrounds the Earth: fresh air (=clean air): Let’s go outside and get some fresh air.
1 الهواء - الهواء النقي
2 the air the space above the ground or around things: David threw the ball up into the air.
2 الفَضاء المُحيط
3 by air travelling by plane: Most people travel to the islands by air.
3 السَّفر بالطّائِرة
4 air travel/safety etc involving planes or connected with flying: the world’s worst air disaster
4 كل ما يتعلَّق بالطيران/السلامة الجويَّة
5 [singular] a general appearance or feeling: + of There was an air of mystery about her.
5 شعور، مظهر
6 be on/off the air to be broadcasting or not broadcasting on the radio or on television
6 على الهواء/الميكروفون مُغلق
7 it’s up in the air spoken used to say that something has not been decided yet, and no one is certain about what will happen → see also thin air (THIN1), AIRS
7 في مَهبّ الريح
air 1 [I,T] also air out AmE if clothes air, or if you air them, you dry them in a warm place where there is plenty of fresh air: Hang your sweater up to air.
1 يهوِّي، يُعرِّض الملابس للهواء لتجفّ
2 [T] also air sth ↔ out to make a room smell fresh by letting air from outdoors flow through it
2 يُجدِّد هواء الغرفة
3 [T] to make your opinions, ideas, complaints etc known to other people: Everyone will get a chance to air their views.
3 يَنشُر بين الناس
4 [T] to broadcast a programme on television or radio: Star Trek was first aired in 1966 — airing noun [singular]
4 يذيع بَرْنامجًا بالراديو أو التليفزيون - إذاعة
airbag a bag in a car that fills with air to protect people in an accident
كيس هَواء: بالسيارات، لحماية الراكب عند وقوع حادِث
airborne flying or floating in the air
مَحْمول بالهَواء، في الهَواء
air conditioner a machine that makes the air in a room, car etc stay COOL
جِهاز تَكْييف الهَواء
air conditioning a system that makes the air in a room, building etc stay cool — air conditioned adjective
تَكْييف الهواء - مُكيَّف الهَواء
aircraft aircraft a plane or any vehicle that can fly
طائِرة
aircraft carrier a type of ship that has a large flat surface that planes fly from
حامِلة طائِرات
airfare the price of a plane trip
أسْعار الرِّحلات الجويَّة
airfield a place that military planes or small planes fly from
مَطار حربيّ
air force the military organization of a country that uses planes when fighting a war
القُوّات الجَويَّة
airhead informal an insulting word for someone who seems stupid
غبي
air hostess BrE a woman who looks after the passengers in a plane
مُضيفة جويَّة
airily in a way that shows you do not care very much about something: ‘‘Oh, just do whatever you want,’’ she said airily.
باسْتِخفاف، بدون اكتراث
airing cupboard BrE a warm cupboard where sheets and clean clothes are kept
دولاب لتهوية الملابس
airless without fresh air
سيِّئ التهوية
airlift when people or things are taken to a place by plane, because it is too difficult or dangerous to get there by road — airlift verb [T] Thirty villagers were airlifted to safety.
جسر جَوّي، نَقل جوي - ينقل جوًّا
airline a company that provides a regular service to carry passengers to different places by plane
شركة طيران، خط جوي
airliner a large plane for passengers
طائرة ركّاب
airmail the system of sending letters, packages etc by plane: Did you send Grandma’s present by airmail?
البريد الجوي
airman airmen someone who has a low rank in a country’s AIR FORCE
ذو رتبة صغيرة في السِّلاح الجوي
airplane AmE a vehicle that flies by using wings and one or more engines; AEROPLANE BrE → see colour picture on page 1333
طائرة
airport a place that you arrive at or leave from when travelling by plane → see colour picture on page 1333
ميناء جوي
air raid an attack by enemy planes
غارة جويَّة
airs a way of behaving and talking that someone has because they want to seem more important than they really are: put on airs Monica has been putting on airs ever since she moved to Beverly Hills.
خُيَلاء، زَهْو - يَتَكلَّف العظمة
airship an old type of aircraft consisting of a large balloon filled with gas and an engine below
مُنْطاد
airspace the sky above a particular country, which is controlled by that country
المَجال الجَوّي
air strike an attack by military planes against an enemy
هُجوم جَوّيّ
airstrip a long narrow piece of land that planes can fly to and from
مَدْرَج طائرات، مَهْبِط طائرات
airtight completely closed so that air cannot get in or out: airtight containers
سَدود للهواء، كَتيم للهواء
air time the amount of time that a radio or television station allows for a particular song, advertisement etc to be broadcast
الوقت المُحدَّد للإذاعة على الهواء
airy an airy room, building etc has a lot of space and fresh air
جيد التهوية
airy-fairy BrE informal airy-fairy ideas are not at all clear or practical
مُبهَم، غير عملي
aisle a long space where you can walk between rows of seats in a theatre, church, bus, plane etc
مَمرّ، مَمْشى (بين المقاعد)
ajar a door or window that is ajar is not completely closed
مُوارَب
aka the written abbreviation of ‘also known as’; used when giving someone’s real name together with the name they are known by: John Phillips, a.k.a. The Mississippi Mauler
الاختصار الكتابي لِـ ‘also known as’، أي: المَعْروف بِـ
akin formal akin to sth similar to something: His music is much more akin to jazz than rock.
قَريب من، شَبيه بِـ
à la carte French if food in a restaurant is ب la carte, each dish has its own separate price
لكل طبق بقائمة الطعام سعره
alacrity with alacrity literary quickly and eagerly
بِهمَّة ونشاط
alarm 1 [U] a feeling of fear or anxiety because something dangerous might happen: Calm down! There’s no cause for alarm.
1 انزعاج
2 [C] something such as a bell, loud noise, or light that warns people of danger: a fire alarm | a car alarm (=one protecting your car)
2 إنذار، تنبيه
3 [C] informal an alarm clock
3 مُنَبِّه، ساعة مُنَبِّهة
4 raise/sound the alarm to warn everyone about something bad or dangerous that is happening: They first sounded the alarm about the problem of nuclear waste in 1955.
4 يُطلق صَيْحات التَّحذير
5 false alarm when people think something dangerous is going to happen, but this is a mistake
5 إنذار كاذِب
alarm to make someone feel very worried or anxious — alarmed adjective: There’s no need to look so alarmed.
يُزعِج - مُنزعِج
alarm clock a clock that makes a noise at a particular time to wake you up
مُنبِّه، ساعة مُنَبِّهة
alarming very frightening or worrying: an alarming increase in violent crime
مُخيف، مُزعِج
alarmist making people worried about dangers that do not exist: alarmist reports about communist spies — alarmist noun [C]
مُثير للقلق - الشَّخْص المُثير للقَلَق
alas literary used when you are very sad about something
وا أسفاه، يا للحسرة
albatross a very large sea bird
قَطْرَس، قادوس (طائر بحري)
albeit formal although
مع أنّ، لو أنّ
albino a person or animal born with very white skin, white hair, and pink eyes
أَمْهَق، مُغرِب
album 1 a group of songs recorded by a particular performer or group on a record, CD or TAPE: Do you have the Clash’s first album?
1 ألبوم أغانٍ مُسجَّلة
2 a book in which you put photographs, stamps etc
2 ألبوم صُوَر أو طَوابِع
alcohol 1 drinks such as beer, wine, WHISKY etc that can make you drunk: We do not serve alcohol to people under 21.
1 مَشْروبات كُحوليَّة
2 a colourless liquid contained in drinks that make you drunk
2 كحول
alcoholic 1 containing alcohol: an alcoholic drink → opposite NON-ALCOHOLIC
1 كحولي
2 unable to stop the habit of drinking too much alcohol: She divorced her alcoholic husband.
2 سِكِّير، مُدمِن
alcoholic someone who cannot stop the habit of drinking too much alcohol: His father was an alcoholic.
مُدمِن المُسْكِرات
alcoholism the medical condition of being an alcoholic
إدْمان الخَمْر
alcove a small place in a wall of a room that is built further back than the rest of the wall
كَوَّة
ale a type of beer
جِعَة
alert 1 always watching and ready to notice anything strange, unusual, dangerous etc: + to Cyclists must always be alert to the dangers of overtaking parked cars.
1 مُنتبِه، مُتيقِّظ
2 able to think quickly and clearly: I knew that I had to remain wide awake and alert.
2 قادِر على التفكير بسُرعة و وُضوح
alert to warn someone of a problem or of possible danger: As soon as we suspected it was a bomb, we alerted the police.
يُنبِّه
alert 1 be on the alert to be ready to notice and deal with a problem: Police are on the alert for trouble.
1 يكون مُنتبِهًا
2 [C] a warning to be ready for possible danger: a flood alert
2 إنْذار، تَحْذير
A level an examination in a particular subject taken in England and Wales, usually at the age of 18
امتِحان المستوى «أ» يُجرى لسنّ 18
algae a plant without stems or leaves that lives in or near water
طَحالِب
algebra a type of mathematics that uses letters and signs to show numbers, amounts etc — algebraic /ˌældʒɪ(ə)ˈbreɪ-ɪk◂/ adjective: algebraic formulae
الجَبْر- جَبْري
alias used to talk about someone’s real name together with another name they use: the spy Margaret Zelle, alias Mata Hari
الشَّهير بِـ
alias a false name, usually used by a criminal
اسْم مُسْتعار، اسم شهرة
alibi proof that someone was not where a crime happened and is therefore not guilty of the crime
دليل وجود الشَّخص في مَكان آخَر وَقْت وقوع الجريمة
alien 1 very different and strange: + to Her way of life is totally alien to me.
1 غريب
2 relating to creatures from other worlds: alien life-forms
2 مُنتمٍ لكائِنات من عوالِم أخرى
alien 1 formal a foreigner who is not a citizen of the country where he or she is living
1 الأجنبي
2 a creature that comes from another world: a film about aliens from Mars
2 كائن من عالم آخر
alienate 1 to make someone stop supporting you
1 يَصرِف عن، يُنفِّر
2 to make someone feel they no longer belong to your group: We don’t want to alienate kids who already have problems at school — alienation /ˌeɪliəˈneɪʃən/ noun [U] a feeling of alienation from society
2 يُبعِد، يُقصي - الاغتراب
alight 1 burning: set sth alight (=make something burn): Several cars were set alight by rioters.
1 مُشتعِل، يُشعِل النار في
2 someone whose face or eyes are alight is happy or excited
2 مُشرِق
alight formal
1 if a bird, insect etc alights on something, it stops flying and comes down on to it
1 يَهبِط، يَحُطّ
2 to step out of a vehicle at the end of a journey: She alighted from the train.
2 يَنزِل، يَترجَّل
align 1 align yourself with sb to support another political group or country because you have the same aims: Five Democrats have aligned themselves with the Republicans on this issue. | be aligned with sb a country politically aligned with the West
1 يَسير على نفس الخطّ - سائِر على نفس الخطّ
2 to arrange something so that it is in the same line as something else — alignment noun [C,U]
2 يَصُفّ، يُنَظِّم في صَفّ - تراصُف، صَفّ، محاذاة، اصطِفاف
alike almost exactly the same; similar: All the new cars look alike to me.
شَبيه، مُماثِل
alike 1 in a similar way, or in the same way: When we were younger we dressed alike.
1 بطريقة مُشابِهة
2 used to say that two people or groups both do something: The new rule was criticized by teachers and students alike.
2 كلاهما
alimony money that someone has to pay regularly to their former wife or husband after a DIVORCE
النَّفقة
alive 1 living and not dead: They didn’t expect to find anyone alive after the explosion.
1 حيّ, على قيد الحياة
2 continuing to exist: keep sth alive ancient traditions that are kept alive in country villages
2 باقٍ - يُبقيه فعالًا أو نَشيطًا
3 if a place is alive, there is a lot of movement, activity, or excitement there: + with The stadium was alive with excitement. | come alive The streets come alive after ten o’clock.
3 زاخِر بالحَياة - يَمتلئ بالحَركة
4 be alive and well to be healthy or successful: The British novel is still alive and well in the 1990s.
4 في صِحَّة جيدة وناجِح
all 1 the whole of an amount or period of time: Have we spent all the money? | I’ve been waiting all day for him to call. | He was wearing a black leather jacket. That’s all I can remember. (=it is the only thing I remember) | + of All of this land belongs to me. | all the time (=continuously or very often): Bill talks about work all the time.
1 كُل، جَميع - كل الوَقْت
2 every person or thing in a group of people or things: Did you answer all twenty questions. | We all wanted to go home. | + of Listen, all of you, I have an important announcement.
2 كل شَخْص أو كل شَيْء
3 very many different types of things, people, or places: You can buy all kinds of things in the bazaar.
3 العَديد من النّاس أو الأشْياء
4 (not) at all used to say that something is not even slightly true, or to ask if something is even slightly true: The place hasn’t changed at all. | Was anyone at all interested in my idea?
4 (كلّا) على الإطْلاق
5 for all ... in spite of something: For all his faults, he was a good father.
5 بالرَّغم من
6 all told including every person or thing: There were seventeen of us, all told. → see also after all (AFTER1), all the same (SAME), in all (IN1)
6 شامِل جَميع الأشْخاص أو الأشْياء
all 1 completely: Ruth was sitting all alone. | The judges were dressed all in black.
1 تمامًا، كُلِّية
2 all over a) in every part of a place: We’ve been looking all over for you. | There were papers all over the floor. b) finished: I’m just glad it’s all over.
2 (أ) في جَميع الأرْجاء (ب) انْتَهى
3 5 all/20 all etc used to say that the two players or teams in a game both have the same number of points: The score was 2 all at half-time.
3 تَعادُل في عدد الأهْداف
4 all but almost completely: It was all but impossible to find anywhere to park.
4 تقريبًا
5 all along during all of a period of time: I knew all along that I couldn’t trust him.
5 كُل الوَقْت
6 all in all used when you are giving your opinion about the whole of a situation, event, book, film etc: All in all, I think the festival was a big success.
6 عُمومًا
7 all the better/easier etc used to emphasize that something was better or easier etc because of the situation: The job was made all the easier by having the right tools. → see also ALL RIGHT1.
7 الأحْسَن، الأسْهَل
Allah the Muslim name for God
الله
all-around AmE good at doing many different things, especially in sports; ALL-ROUND BrE: the best all-around player
بارع في نواحٍ مُتعدِّدة
allay formal allay sb’s worries/fears/suspicions etc to make someone feel less worried, frightened etc: I did my best to allay her fears.
يُقلِّل، يخفِّف
all clear the all clear permission to begin doing something: We have to wait for the all clear from the safety committee before we can start.
إشارة زَوال الخَطر
allegation a statement that someone has done something bad or illegal, which is not supported by proof: allegations that the police had tortured prisoners
ادِّعاء، زَعْم
allege to say that something is true without showing proof: Baldwin is alleged to have killed two people.
يدَّعي، يَزْعُم
alleged supposed to be true, but not proved: the group’s alleged connections with organized crime — allegedly /əˈledʒɪ(ə)dli/ adverb
مَزْعوم - بادِّعاء
allegiance loyalty or support given to a leader, country, belief etc: allegiance to the flag
وَلاء، إخْلاص
allegory a story, poem, painting etc in which a moral lesson is taught by showing goodness, evil, hope etc as people, places, or events — allegorical /ˌælɪ(ə)ˈgɒrɪkəl‖-ˈgɔːr-/ adjective
قصة رمزيَّة، قِصَّة مجازية - رَمزيّ، مَجازيّ
allergic 1 having an allergy: + to Are you allergic to anything?
1 حَسّاس لِـ
2 caused by an allergy: an allergic reaction to the bee sting
2 ناتج عن الحَساسيَّة
allergy a condition that makes you ill when you eat, touch, or breathe a particular thing: + to an allergy to peanuts
الحساسية
alleviate formal to make something less bad or severe: Aspirin should alleviate the pain. | The road was built to alleviate traffic problems.
يُخفِّف من حِدَّة
alley also al·ley·way /ˈæliweɪ/ noun [C] a narrow street between buildings
طُرْقة، زُقاق
alliance an agreement between countries or groups of people to work together or support each other: + between the alliance between students and factory workers in 1968 | + with Britain’s alliance with its NATO partners
حِلْف، تَحالُف
allied 1 Allied belonging to the countries that fought together against Germany in the First or Second World War: attacks by Allied armies
1 ينتمي إلى الْحُلَفاء في الحرب العالمية الثانية
2 be allied to/with sth to be joined or connected with something: a science that is closely allied to sociology
2 مُتحالِف مع، مُرتبِط بِـ
alligator a large animal like a CROCODILE that lives in the US and China
التِّمساح الأمريكي
alliteration the use of a series of words that begin with the same sound in order to make a special effect, for example in ‘Round the rocks runs the river’
التَّجانُس الاستِهلالي
allocate to decide to allow a particular amount of money, time etc to be used for a particular purpose: allocate sth for sth The hospital has allocated $500,000 for AIDS research.
يُخصِّص مالًا أو وقتًا لِـ
allocation 1 [C] an amount of something that is allocated
1 مِقدارُ الشيء المُخصَّص
2 [U] the decision to allocate something: the allocation of state funds to the university
2 التَّخصيص
allot tted, -tting to give something to someone as their share. or to allow an amount of time for something: Each person was allotted two tickets.
يُخَصِّص، يُحدِّد
allotment 1 [C,U] when an amount of something is given to someone as their share: the allotment of funds
1 تَحديد، تَخْصيص
2 [C] a small area of land that people in Britain can rent for growing vegetables
2 قطعة أرض
all out go all out to try with a lot of effort and determination: We’ll be going all out to win — all-out adjective: an all-out effort
يحاول بعزمٍ وتَصْميم - كُلُّهُ عَزم وتَصميم
allow 1 to give someone permission to do something or have something: be allowed Smoking is not allowed in the library. | allow sb sth We’re allowed four weeks holiday a year. | allow sb to do sth My parents would never allow me to stay out late. | allow sb in/out/up etc You’re not allowed in here.
1 يَسْمَح بِـ، يَأْذَن لِـ
2 to make it possible for something to happen or for someone to do something, especially by not trying to stop it: allow sb/sth to do sth We mustn’t allow the situation to get any worse.
2 يُصرِّح بِـ
3 to plan that a particular amount of time, money etc will be needed for a particular purpose: Allow 14 days for delivery. | allow yourself sth Allow yourself two hours to get to the airportallowable /əˈlaʊ(ə)bəl/ adjective
3 يُراعي - مَسْموح به
allow for sth phr verb [T] to include the possible effects of something in your plans so that you can deal with them: Even allowing for delays, we should finish early.
يأخذ في الْحُسبان، يعملُ حِسابًا لِـ
allowance 1 [C] money that you are given regularly or for a special reason: His father gives him a small monthly allowance. | a travel allowance
1 بَدَل، مَصروف
2 make allowances for to consider someone’s behaviour or work in a sympathetic way because they have a problem or disadvantage
2 يَلْتَمِس العُذْر لِـ
alloy a metal made by mixing two or more different metals
سَبيكة
all right spoken
1 good enough, but not excellent: ‘‘How’s the food?’’ ‘‘It’s all right, but I’ve had better.’’
1 حَسَن، مَعْقول
2 not hurt, not upset, or not having problems: Kate was looking very pale – I hope she’s all right.
2 لا بأس بِـ
3 that’s all right a) used to reply when someone thanks you: ‘‘Thanks for your help!’’ ‘‘That’s all right.’’ b) used to tell someone you are not angry when they say they are sorry: ‘‘Sorry I’m late!’’ ‘‘That’s all right!’’
3 (أ) لا شُكْر على واجب (ب) لا عليك!
4 suitable: We need to fix a time for our meeting. Would Thursday afternoon be all right?
4 مُناسِب
5 is it all right if ...? used to ask for someone’s permission to do something: Is it all right if I close the window?
5 هل يُضايقُك إذا ...؟
6 be doing/going all right to be successful in your job or life: ‘‘How’s your new restaurant?’’ ‘‘Oh, it’s doing all right, thanks.’’
6 يَنْجَح في عمله أو في حياته
all right used to say ‘‘yes’’ when someone asks you to do something or suggests something: ‘‘Let’s go now.’’ ‘‘All right.’’
نَعم، حسنًا، فَليَكُنْ
all-round BrE good at doing many different things, especially in sports; ALL-AROUND AmE: an all-round athlete —all-rounder /. ˈ../ noun [C]
بارِع في نواحٍ متعدِّدة - البارع في نواحٍ متعدِّدة
allude allude to sb/sth phr verb [T] formal to mention something or someone in an indirect way
يُشير إلى، يُنَوِّه
allure an exciting quality that attracts people: the allure of travel — allure verb [T]
إغْراء، إغْواء - يُغري، يغوي
alluring very attractive: an alluring smile
جَذّاب، فاتِن
allusion formal when you mention something or someone in an indirect way: His poetry is full of historical allusions.
إشارَة، تَنْويه
ally 1 a country that helps another country, especially in war: the US and its European allies
1 حَليف
2 a person who supports you in a difficult situation
2 نَصير، مُسانِد
ally ally yourself to/with to join with another person, organization, or country and support them
يَتَحالَف مع
almighty 1 having the power to do anything: Almighty God | the Almighty (=God)
1 قَويّ، جَبّار - الله القادِر
2 very big or loud: The box hit the ground with an almighty crash.
2 شَديد
almond a flat white nut with a slightly sweet taste
اللَّوز
almost nearly but not completely: Are we almost there? | Almost all children like to read. | I’m sorry, I almost forgot to call you.
تَقْريبًا
alms old-fashioned money, food etc given to poor people
الإحْسان، الصَّدقة
aloft literary high up in the air: They held the banner aloft for everyone to see.
عاليًا، مُرْتَفِعًا
alone 1 not with other people: Do you like living alone? | all alone (=completely alone): I was all alone in a strange city. | alone with/together (=when there is no one else except the two of you): Suddenly they found themselves alone together in the same room.
1 بمفْرده - وَحيد تمامًا - بمفرده مع، بمفردهما
2 she/you alone only her, you etc: He alone can do the job.
2 هي فقط، أنت فقط
3 leave/let sb alone to stop annoying someone
3 دَعْه وشأنه، لا تُضايقه
4 leave/let sth alone to stop touching or changing something: Leave that clock alone or you’ll break it.
4 يَتركُ شيئًا ولا يلْمِسه
along 1 from one place on a line, road, river etc to another place on it: We took a walk along the river. | She looked anxiously along the line of faces.
1 على امْتِداد
2 in a line next to or on something long: They’ve put up a fence along the road. | photographs arranged along the shelf
2 في صَفٍّ طويل
3 at a particular place on a line, road, river etc: The house is somewhere along this road.
3 في نقطة معينة على الخطِّ أو الطَّريق
along 1 going forward: I was driving along, listening to the radio.
1 إلى الأمام
2 go/come/be along to go or come to a place: The next bus should be along in a minute.
2 يصلُ إلى مكان
3 go/come along to go somewhere with someone else: We’re going out – you’re welcome to come along!
3 يَذْهب في صُحْبة
4 take/bring sb along to take or bring someone with you somewhere: Do you mind if I bring a friend along?
4 يأخذُ شَخْصًا معه
5 along with in addition to and at the same time: Dunne was murdered along with three RUC men near Amargh.
5 بالإضافة إلى
6 get/come along to develop or make progress: How are you getting along in your new job? | Kurt’s English is coming along fine – he’s obviously good at languages. → see also all along (ALL2).
6 يُحْرِز تقدمًا
alongside close to and along the edge of something: a boat tied up alongside the dock
بِجانِب، بِحِذاء
aloof 1 deliberately staying away from other people or not talking to them, especially because you think you are better than they are: She seemed cold and aloof.
1 مُتَرَفِّع عن النّاس
2 if you are aloof from something, especially a difficult situation, you avoid becoming involved in it
2 مُبْتَعِدٌ عن
aloud 1 in a voice that people can hear: Will you please read the poem aloud? | He cried aloud with pain.
1 بصوتٍ عال
2 think aloud to say your thoughts as they come into your mind
2 يُفَكِّر بصوتٍ عال
alphabet a set of letters that are used when writing a language: the Greek alphabet
ألفباء اللُّغة، حروف الهجاء
alphabetical arranged according to the letters of the alphabet: The names are listed in alphabetical order. —alphabetically /-kli/ adverb
ألفبائي، مرتَّب هجائيًّا - ألفبائيًّا، هجائيًّا
alpine belonging to or relating to the Alps or other high mountains: alpine flowers
أَلبيّ، متعلِّق بالمرْتَفعات أو جبال الألب
already 1 before now or before a particular time: By the time he arrived, the room was already crowded.
1 من قبل
2 used to say that something has been done before and does not need to be done again: We’ve been there already. | ‘‘Would you like some lunch?’’ ‘‘No, thank you, I’ve already eaten.’’
2 عُمِلَ من قبل ولا داعِي لتَكراره
3 sooner than expected: I’ve forgotten the number already. | Is he leaving already?
3 في موعد مبكِّر عمّا كان متوقَّعًا
alright another spelling of ALL RIGHT that some people consider to be incorrect
هجاء آخر لِـ ALL RIGHT يَعتبره البعض خاطئًا
also in addition to something you have mentioned: We specialize in shoes, but we also sell handbags.
أيضًا
altar a kind of holy table, especially used in a church for religious ceremonies
المَذْبَح في الكنيسة
alter to change or make something or someone change: When she went back to her hometown, she found it had hardly altered. | They had to alter their plans.
يُغيِّر، يَتغيَّر
alteration a change in something, or the process of changing it: Alterations to clothes can be expensive.
تَغيير، تَبْديل
altercation formal a noisy argument
مُشاحَنة، جدال عنيف
alternate 1 happening in a regular way, first one thing, then the other thing, then the first one again: alternate rain and sunshine
1 مُتبادِل، مُتناوِب
2 alternate days/weeks/Mondays etc every second day, week etc: My ex-husband has the children alternate weekends.
2 يوم بعد يوم، أسبوع بعد أسبوع
3 AmE available to be used instead of something or someone else; ALTERNATIAVEalternately adverb
3 بديل - بالتَّبادل، بالتَّناوب
alternate 1 [I] if two things alternate, first one thing happens, then the other, then the first one again, and this process continues: + between Her moods alternated between joy and sadness.
1 يَتناوَب، يَتبادَل - يتردَّد بين
2 [T] to do or use first one thing and then the other and then the first thing again: alternate sth with sth In some plays Shakespeare alternated prose with verse — alternating adjective: alternating layers of sand and stone
2 يناوِب، يُداوِل - يَعملُ شيئًا بالتَّبادل مع شيء آخر- مُتبادِل، متعاقِب
alternative 1 an alternative plan, idea etc can be used instead of another one: The main road is blocked, so drivers should choose an alternative route.
1 بَديل
2 different from what is usual or accepted: an alternative lifestyle | alternative medicine
2 مُخالِف للعُرْف أو المَقْبول
alternative something you can choose to do or use instead of something else: Before you spend a lot of money on gas central heating, consider the alternatives. | + to Many farmers are now growing maize as an alternative to wheat. | have no alternative but to do sth (=when you cannot choose to do anything else): I have no alternative but to report you to the police.
البديل - لا يوجد حلٌّ آخر سوى
alternatively used to suggest an alternative to your first suggestion: I could come to your house, or alternatively we could meet in town.
كحلٍّ بديل
although 1 in spite of the fact that something is true: Although it was raining we decided to go for a walk.
1 مع أنّ
2 but: We only spent $800, although that doesn’t include the hotel bill.
2 لكنّ
altitude the height of something above sea level: high/low altitude Breathing becomes more difficult at high altitudes.
الارْتِفاع عن سطح البحر - مُرتفِع/مُنْخَفِض عن سطح البحر
alto a female singer with a low voice, or a male singer with a high voice
ألتو (أعلى صوت رجالي، وأخفَض صوت نسائي)
altogether 1 completely: Bradley seems to have disappeared altogether. | I’m not altogether sure what this word means. | an altogether different type of problem
1 تمامًا، كُليَّةً
2 considering everything or including the whole amount: There were five of us altogether. | It did rain a lot, but altogether I’d say it was a good trip.
2 آخذًا كل شيء في الاعتبار، بالنَّظر إلى الأمر من جميع الوجوه
altruistic actions or aims that are altruistic show that you care more about other people’s needs and happiness than about your own — altruism /ˈæltruɪzəm/ noun [U]
مَنْ يُنْكِر ذاتَه من أجل الغير - إنكار الذّات
aluminium al·u·min·i·um BrE, a·lumi·num /əˈluːmɪ(ə)nəm/, AmEnoun [U] a silver-white metal that is light and easy to bend
الألومنيوم
always 1 at all times, or every time: Always lock your car.
1 دائِمًا
2 for ever, or for as long as you can remember: We’re always ready to help you. | He said he’d always love her. | I’ve always wanted to go to China.
2 إلى الأبد، بقدر ما تعي الذّاكرة
3 happening continuously, especially in an annoying way: The stupid car is always breaking down!
3 بصفة مستمرَّة
4 you could always ... spoken used to make a polite suggestion: You could always try calling her.
4 على الدَّوام
am the first person singular present tense of the verb BE
صيغة المضارع من الفعل BE للمتكلم المفرد (أنا)
am, am used in times from MIDNIGHT until just before NOON: I start work at 9:00 a.m. → compare PM
ق. ظ، قبل الظُّهر
amalgamate to join together or join two organizations together to become a bigger organization: The two companies are amalgamating to form a huge multi-national corporation. —amalgamation /əˌmæl-gəˈmeɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
يَنْدمج، يُدْمج - الانْدِماج، الإدماج
amass to gradually get a lot of money or information: merchants who had been amassing wealth and property
يَكْنِز، يُكَدِّس
amateur doing something because you enjoy it and not as a job: an amateur boxer | amateur football
هاوٍ
amateur 1 someone who does something because they enjoy it and not as a job → compare PROFESSIONAL2.
1 الهاوي
2 someone who does not have experience or skill in doing something: It looked as if the building had been decorated by a bunch of amateurs.
2 الشَّخص الذي تنقُصه الخِبرةُ والمهارَة
amateurish not very skilfully done: his amateurish attempts at painting
قليل المهارة
amaze to make someone feel very surprised: Kay amazed her friends by saying she was getting married.
يُدْهِش، يُذْهِل
amazed very surprised: + at We were amazed at how quickly the kids learned the song. | + (that) I’m amazed that you remember him.
مَدْهوش، مَذْهول
amazement when you feel very surprised: in amazement I stared at him in amazement.
الدَّهشة، الذُّهول
amazing making someone feel very surprised: What an amazing story! — amazingly adverb: an amazingly generous offer
مُدْهِش، مُذْهِل - بدرجة مُدهِشة
ambassador an important official that a government sends to another country to manage its relations with that country: the Mexican ambassador to Canada — ambassadorial /æmˌbæsəˈdɔːriəl/ adjective
سفير - مُتعلِّق أو خاصٌّ بالسُّفراء
amber 1 a hard yellowish-brown clear substance used for making jewellery: an amber necklace
1 كَهْرَمان
2 a yellowish-brown colour: The traffic lights turned to amber — amber adjective
2 لَونُ الكهرمان: أصفر مُحمرّ - كهرماني
ambidextrous able to use either hand equally skilfully
قادر على استخدام كلتا يديه بنفس الكفاءة
ambience also ambiance AmE literary the way a place makes you feel: the restaurant’s friendly ambience
الجو المحيط
ambiguity when what someone has said or written can have more than one possible meaning: There were several ambiguities in the letter.
اللَّبس، ازدِواج المعنى
ambiguous if what someone says or writes is ambiguous, it can have more than one possible meaning
ذو معنيين، مُلتبِس
ambition 1 [C] something that you have been wanting to achieve for a long time: Her ambition is to climb Mount Everest
1 ما نَصبو إليه، مَطْمَح
2 [U] a strong determination to become successful or powerful: Ambition drove Macbeth to kill the king and seize power.
2 الطُّموح
ambitious 1 determined to be successful or powerful: He is young and very ambitious.
1 طَموح
2 an ambitious plan aims to achieve something very great but very difficult: the most ambitious engineering project of modern times
2 خُطَّة طَموح
ambivalent not sure whether you like something or whether you want it: + about I think Carla’s ambivalent about getting married — ambivalence noun [U]
مُتردِّد، غير واثِق - التَّردُّد
amble to walk slowly in a relaxed way: He ambled down the street, smoking a cigarette.
يَسير الهُوَينى، يمشي ببطء
ambulance a special vehicle for taking ill or injured people to hospital
سيارة إسعاف
ambush a sudden attack by people who have been waiting and hiding: Two soldiers were killed in an ambush near the border.
كَمين، فَخّ
ambush to attack someone from a place where you have been hiding
يَكْمُن، يترصَّد
ameliorate formal to make something better
يُحَسِّن
amen used at the end of a Christian or Jewish prayer
آمين
amenable willing to listen or do something: + to I’m sure they’ll be amenable to your suggestions.
مُستعدٌّ للاستِماع والعمل، سهلُ الانْقِياد
amend to make small changes or improvements to something that has been written: The law has been amended several times.
يُعَدِّل، يُصَلِّح
amendment 1 [C,U] a change made in the words of a law or document: + to an amendment to the new Finance Bill
1 التَّعديل
2 [C] one of the laws in the US Constitution: the Fifth Amendment
2 قانون في الدستور الأمريكيّ
amends make amends to do something to show that you are sorry for the harm you have caused: I tried to make amends by inviting him to lunch.
يُعوِّض، يُقدِّمُ تَرضيةً
amenity something that is available for you to use or visit in a place, which makes living there enjoyable and pleasant: The hotel’s amenities include a pool and two bars.
وسائِل الرّاحة
American 1 from or connected with the United States: American cars | American foreign policy
1 أمريكيّ
2 North American/South American from or connected with one of the countries in North America or South America
2 من أمريكا الشّمالية/من أمريكا الجنوبية
American someone from the United States
المُواطِن الأمريكيّ
American football BrE an American game in which two teams wearing helmets and special protective clothes carry, kick, or throw an OVAL ; FOOTBALL AmE → see colour picture on page 1164
كرة القدم الأمريكيَّة
American Indian NATIVE AMERICAN
الأمريكيُّ الأصليّ، الهنديّ الأمريكيّ
Americanism an American word or phrase, especially one that someone uses when speaking or writing in British English
الكلمات أو التَّعبيرات الأمريكية
amethyst a purple stone used in jewellery
جَمَشْت: حجرٌ كريمٌ أرْجوانيّ
amiable friendly and pleasant: an amiable child —amiably adverbamiability /ˌeɪmiəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
وَدود، ظَريف - بِتَوَدُّد، بظَرف - الظَّرف
amicable friendly and without arguments: an amicable divorce — amicably adverb
وِدِّيّ - وِديًّا
amid also a·midst /əˈmɪdst/ formal among something, or while something is happening: surviving amid the horrors of war
بين، في وسط
amiss be amiss if something is amiss, there is a problem: She sensed something was amiss.
خاطئ، غَلط
amiss take sth amiss to feel offended or upset about something someone has said or done because you have understood it wrongly
حَمَلَ الكلامَ مَحملَ السُّوء
ammonia a gas or liquid with a strong unpleasant smell, used in cleaning substances
نُشادر
ammunition 1 things such as bullets, bombs etc that are fired from guns
1 ذَخيرة
2 information that can be used to criticize someone
2 معلوماتٌ تُستخدَم للتهجُّم على شخص
amnesia the medical condition of not being able to remember anything
فِقْدان الذّاكرة
amnesty 1 an official order by a government that allows prisoners to be free
1 عَفو شامِل
2 a period of time when you can admit to doing something illegal or give up weapons without being punished
2 فَترة أمان لتَسْليم الأسْلِحة أو الاعْتِراف بجريمة دون عِقاب
amoeba a very small creature that has only one cell
الأميبا
amok run amok to behave in a very violent and uncontrolled way: The gunman ran amok in a shopping mall.
يتصرَّف بعُنف
among also amongst /əˈmʌŋst/ 1 in a particular group of people or things: a decision that has caused a lot of anger among women | among friends (=with people who are your friends): Relax, you’re among friends here. | talk/fight/argue etc among yourselves (=talk, fight etc with each other)
1 وَسَط مَجْموعة من النّاس أو الأشياء - بين أصْدقاء - يتحدثون/يتعاركون/يتجادلون فيما بينهم
2 in the middle of: We found him hiding among the bushes. | Rescue teams searched among the wreckage for survivors.
2 بين، فيما بين
3 share/divide/distribute sth among to give each person in a group a part of something: His money will be divided among his three children.
3 يَتقاسَم/يُقَسِّم/يُوزِّع شيئًا على مَجموعة
4 used when you are mentioning one or two people or things from a larger group: Swimming and diving are among the most popular Olympic events. | among other things: We discussed, among other things, ways to raise money.
4 من بين - بين أشْياء أخرى
amoral behaving in a way that shows you do not care if what you are doing is wrong
لاأخْلاقي
amorous full of sexual desire or feelings of love
غَراميّ، شَبَقي
amorphous without a definite shape
عَديم الشَّكل
amount how much of something there is: Please pay the full amount. | + of I was surprised at the amount of work I had to do.
كَمِّيَّة، مِقدار
amount amount to sth phr verb [T]
1 to have the same meaning or effect as something, without saying it directly: What he said amounted to an apology.
1 يَرْقى إلى
2 to add up to a total of a particular amount: Jenny’s debts amount to $1000.
2 يَبلُغ، يَصِل إلى
amp also am·pere /ˈæmpeə‖-pɪr/ a unit for measuring an electric current
أمپير: وحدة قياس شدة التيار الكهربائي
amphetamine an illegal drug that gives people more energy and makes them feel excited
أمفيتامين: عَقارٌ مُنشِّط
amphibian an animal such as a frog that can live on land and in water
حيوان بَرْمائيّ
amphibious living, travelling, or happening on both land and water: an amphibious vehicle
بَرْمائيّ
amphitheatre amphitheatre BrE, amphitheater AmE a large circular building without a roof and with many rows of seats around a central space, used for performances
مُدَرّج
ample 1 more than enough: There’s ample room in here for everyone.
1 كافٍ، وافٍ، مُتَّسِع
2 ample belly/bosom etc a part of someone’s body that is large — amply adverb
2 بَطْن/صَدْر كَبير - بِشّكلٍ كافٍ
amplifier a piece of electronic equipment used to make music and other sounds louder
مُكبِّر أو مضَخِّم للصَّوْت
amplify 1 to make sounds louder using electronic equipment
1 يُضخِّم الصَّوْتَ بالأجهزة الإلكترونيَّة
2 to make something such as a feeling stronger — amplification /ˌæmplɪ(ə)fɪ(ə)ˈkeɪʃən/ noun [U]
2 يُقوي - تَضخيم، تَقْوية
amputate to cut off a part of someone’s body for medical reasons: After the accident, the doctors had to amputate her leg — amputation /ˌæmpjʊ(ə)ˈteɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
يَبْتُر - البَتْر
amputee someone who has had a part of their body amputated
أبْتَرُ، من تَعرَّض لعمليَّة بَتْر
amuse 1 to make someone laugh or smile: Harry’s jokes always amused me.
1 يَبْعثُ السُّرور في، يُضحِك
2 to entertain someone and help them to spend their time enjoyably: some games to amuse the children on long car journeys | amuse yourself The kids amused themselves playing hide-and-seek.
2 يُسلّي - سلِّ نفسك، تمتَّع
amused 1 smiling or laughing because something is funny: an amused grin | + at/by Rod was highly amused by my attempts at cooking.
1 مَسْرور
2 keep someone amused to entertain someone and help them to spend their time enjoyably: It’s hard work trying to keep the kids amused on rainy days.
2 يُسلّي، يَعْمل على تَسْلية
amusement 1 [U] the feeling you have when you think that something is funny: in/with amusement I listened in amusement as Bobby tried to explain.
1 تسليةٌ، تَرْويح عن النَّفس - باستِمْتاع
2 [C,U] ways of enjoying yourself: for amusement (=in order to enjoy yourself): What do you do for amusement in this town?
2 وسائلُ التَّسلية - للترفيه، للتسلية
amusement arcade BrE a place where people can play games on machines by putting coins in them
مكانٌ للتَّسلية مُزَوَّد بماكينات عملةٍ للألعاب
amusement park a large park where people can have fun riding on big machines, for example ROLLER COASTERS
مدينة مَلاه، مُتَنَزَّه للمَرَح
amusing funny and entertaining: a highly amusing story | find sth amusing (=think something is funny): I didn’t find your comment amusing.
مُسَلٍّ - يراه شيئًا مُسلِّيًا
an used instead of ‘a’ when the following word begins with a vowel sound: an orange | an X-ray | an hour
تستخدم بدلًا من أداة التَّنكير ‘a’ حينما تبدأ الكلمة التالية بحرف مُتحرِّك
anachronism something that seems unsuitable because it is in the wrong historical period: The royal family seems something of an anachronism nowadays — anachronistic /əˌnækrəˈnɪstɪk◂/ adjective
مفارقة تاريخيَّة - دالٌّ على خطأ تاريخيّ
anaemia anaemia BrE, anemia AmE a medical condition in which you do not have enough red cells in your blood — anaemic BrE, anemic AmE adjective
أنيميا، فَقْرالدم - مُصاب بِفَقرِ الدَّم
anaesthetic anaesthetic BrE, anesthetic AmE a drug that stops you feeling pain, used during a medical operation
البَنْج، الدّواء المخدِّر
anaesthetist anaesthetist BrE, anesthetist AmE someone whose job is to give anaesthetics to people in hospitals
طبيب التَّخدير
anaesthetize, anesthetize AmE (also -ise BrE) to make someone unable to feel pain by giving them an anaesthetic
يُخَدِّر
anagram a word or phrase made by changing the order of the letters in another word or phrase: ‘Silent’ is an anagram of ‘listen’.
جِناسُ القَلب (كلمةٌ تؤخذُ من كلمة أخرى بتغيير وضع حروفها)
anal relating to the ANUS
شَرَجِيّ
analogous formal similar to another situation or thing: + to Operating the system is analogous to driving a car.
مُشابه، مُناظِر، مُماثِل
analogy a comparison between two situations, processes etc that seem similar: draw an analogy (=make a comparison): We can draw an analogy between the brain and a computer.
تناظُر، تشابُه، مُقارَنة - يَعْقِد مُقارَنة
analyse analyse BrE, analyze AmE to examine or think about something carefully in order to understand it: We’re trying to analyse what went wrong. | The patient’s blood is tested and analyzed.
يُحَلِّل
analysis analyses /-siːz/ careful examination of something in order to understand it better or find out what it consists of: The team are carrying out a detailed analysis of the test results. | analysis of the rock samples
تَحْليل
analyst 1 someone whose job is to analyse a subject and give opinions about it: a financial analyst
1 مُحلِّل
2 a SPYCHOANALYST
2 مُحلِّل نفساني
analytical an·a·lyt·ic /-ˈlɪtɪk/ using methods that help you examine things carefully: an analytical mind
تَحليليّ، له قدرة على التَّحليل
analyze the American spelling of ANALYSE
الهجاء الأمريكي لِـ ANALYSE
anarchist someone who believes that there should be no government or laws, but ordinary people should work together to improve society — anarchism noun [U]
الفَوْضَوي - مَذهب الفوضوية
anarchy a situation in which no one obeys rules or laws and there is no control or government: efforts to prevent the country from sliding into anarchy — anarchic /æˈnɑːkɪk‖-ɑːr-/ adjective
الفَوْضى - فوضوي، مُتَّصف بالفوضى
anathema formal something that you hate: + to Darwin’s ideas were anathema to Church leaders
لَعْنة، نِقْمة
anatomy 1 [U] the scientific study of the structure of the body
1 علم التَّشريح
2 [singular] the structure of a living thing, organization, or social group, and how it works: the anatomy of modern society — anatomical /ˌænəˈtɒmɪkəl◂‖-ˈtɑː-/ adjectiveanatomically /-kli/ adverb
2 تَشْريح - تَشْريحي - تَشْريحيًّا
ancestor a member of your family who lived a long time ago, before your grandparents: His ancestors came from Italy. → compare DESCENDANTancestral /ænˈsestrəl/ adjective
سَلَف، جَدّ - سَلَفي، خاصّ بالأجداد
ancestry your ancestors, or the origin of your family: people of Scottish ancestry
أَسْلاف، أَجْداد
anchor 1 a heavy metal object that is lowered into the water to prevent a ship or boat from moving
1 هِلْب، مِرساة
2 AmE someone who reads the news on television or radio and is in charge of the programme; NEWSREADER BrE
2 قارئ نشرة الأخبار في الإذاعة أو التّليفزيون
anchor 1 to lower the anchor of a ship or boat to prevent it from moving: Three tankers were anchored in the bay.
1 يُلقي المِرساة لتثبيت السفينة
2 to fasten something firmly so that it cannot move: We anchored the tent with strong ropes.
2 يُثبِّت
anchovy a small fish that tastes very salty
أنْشوجة
ancient 1 happening or existing many hundreds of years ago: ancient Rome
1 قَديم
2 humorous very old: I look absolutely ancient in that photograph!
2 مُسِنٌّ جدًّا
and 1 used to join two words or parts of sentences: a knife and fork | They started shouting and screaming. | Martha was going to the store, and Tom said he’d go with her.
1 .. و ..
2 used to say that one thing happens after another: Grant knocked and went in.
2 ثُمّ
3 especially spoken used instead of ‘to’ after certain verbs such as ‘come’, ‘go’, ‘try’: Try and finish your homework before dinner.
3 تُستخدم بدل (أن) بعد أفعال معينة
4 used in numbers and when adding numbers: Six and four make ten. | three and a half
4 تُستخدم مع الأرقام والجمع
5 used to say that one thing is caused by something else: I missed lunch and I’m starving!
5 لذا، لهذا
6 used between words that you are repeating, to emphasize what you are saying: Crime just gets worse and worse.
6 تُستخدم بين الكلمتين نفسيهما للتأكيد
android a ROBOT that looks completely human
روبوت (إنسان آلي) يُشبه الإنسان تمامًا
anecdotal consisting of stories based on someone’s personal experience: The report is based on anecdotal evidence. It can’t be called scientific!
مبني على نَوادِر شخصيَّة
anecdote a short amusing or interesting story about something that really happened to you or someone else
نادِرة، مُلْحة
anemia the American spelling of ANAEMIAanemic adjective
الهجاء الأمريكي لِـ ANAEMIA
anemone a garden plant with red, white, or blue flowers
شَقائقُ النُّعمان (نبات)
anesthetic the American spelling of ANAESTHETIC
الهجاء الأمريكي لِـ ANAESTHETIC
anesthetist the American spelling of ANAESTHETIST
الهجاء الأمريكي لِـ ANAESTHETIST
anesthetize the American spelling of ANAESTHETIZE
الهجاء الأمريكي لِـ ANAESTHETIZE
anew literary in a new or different way: She started life anew in New York.
من جديد
angel 1 a spirit, especially with wings and dressed in white, who is believed to live with God in HEAVEN
1 مَلاك
2 spoken a very kind person: Oh, thanks! You’re an angel! — angelic /ænˈdʒəlɪk/ adjective
2 شخص طيِّب كالملاك - مَلائكيّ
anger a strong violent feeling that you have when someone has behaved badly or been unkind to you: insults that aroused his anger | in anger (=when you are angry): You should never hit a child in anger.
غَضَب - غاضِب، في غَضَب
anger to make someone feel angry: The court’s decision angered environmentalists.
يُغضِب
angle 1 the space between two lines or surfaces that meet or cross each other, measured in degrees: an angle of 45° → see also RIGHT ANGLE
1 زاوِية
2 at an angle sloping, not upright or level: The tree was growing at an angle.
2 بزاوِية، مائِل، مُعوَجّ
3 a way of considering a problem or situation: Let’s try to look at the problem from a different angle.
3 من زاوِية مُعيَّنة
4 the direction from which you look at something: From that angle we should be able to see a little better.
4 وُجْهة نَظَر
angle to turn or move something so that it is not straight or upright
angle for sth phr verb [T] to try to make someone offer you something without asking for it directly: I think she’s angling for an invitation to the party.
يُحرِّك الشيء ليجعله مائلًا - يَلُفّ ويدور للحُصول على مَنْفَعة
Anglican relating to the Church of England — Anglican noun [C] — Anglicanism noun [U]
أَنجليكاني، من كنيسة إنجلترا - الأَنجليكاني - الأَنجليكانية، مذهب كنيسة إنجلترا
anglicize (also -ise BrE) to make something more English
يُضفي عليه الصِّبغة الإنجليزية
angling the activity of fishing with a hook and a line — angler noun [C]
صَيْد السمك بالشِّصّ - صيّاد السَّمك بالشِّصّ
angry if you are angry, you feel a strong emotion because someone has behaved badly to you or a situation is wrong or unfair: She was angry with him because he had lied to her. | The roads were blocked by angry French farmers. | + about Don’t you feel angry about the way you’ve been treated? | + that Local people are angry that they weren’t consulted about plans to expand the airport — angrily adverb → see colour picture on page 515
غاضِب، حانِق - بغَضَب
anguish very great pain or worry: the anguish of not knowing the truth — anguished adjective: anguished cries for help
ألم شَديد، كَرْب - مُتألم، في ضيق
angular 1 having sharp corners
1 ذو زوايا حادَّة، زاويّ
2 very thin, and without much flesh on your bones: a tall, angular young man
2 نَحيف جدًّا (جِلد على عَظْم)
animal 1 a living thing that can move around and is not a plant, bird, insect, fish, or person: farm animals | wild animals
1 حيوان
2 any living thing that can move around and is not a plant, including people: Humans are highly intelligent animals.
2 أي كائِن حَيّ بما فيه الإنسان
3 informal someone who behaves in a cruel, violent, or unpleasant way
3 الإنْسان العَنيف القاسي
animal 1 connected with or made from animals: animal fats
1 حَيواني، مُرتبِط بعالم الحيوان
2 animal urges/instincts etc human feelings, desires etc that are connected with sex, food, and other basic needs
2 الدَّوافع/الغَرائِز البهيميَّة
animate formal living → opposite INANIMATE
حيّ
animated 1 showing a lot of interest and energy: an animated debate
1 مُمتلئ بالنشاط والحيوية
2 animated cartoon/film etc a film in which pictures and MODELS seem to move and talk — animatedly adverb
2 الرُّسوم المُتحرِّكة - بحَيوية ونَشاط
animation 1 [U] the process of making animated films
1 عملُ أفلام الرُّسوم المتحرِّكة
2 [C] an animated film
2 فيلم رُسوم متحرِّكة
3 [U] energy and excitement
3 النشاط والحيوية
animosity formal when someone strongly dislikes another person or group, and often feels very angry towards them: There was a lot of animosity between the two leaders.
عِداء، كَراهِية
aniseed the strong-tasting seeds of a plant used in alcoholic drinks and in sweets
الآنِسُون
ankle the part of your body where your foot joins your leg
رُسْغُ القَدم، كاحِل
annals in the annals of sth formal in the whole history of a particular subject: Never, in the annals of modern warfare, has there been such a famous victory.
أحْداث التّاريخ، الحَولِيّات
annex to take control of a country or area next to your own, especially by using force — annexation /ˌænekˈseɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
يَضُمّ بَلدًا أو أرْضًا بالقُوَّة - الضَّم بالقوة
annexe annexe BrE, annex AmE a separate building that has been added to a larger one: a hospital annexe
بِناء مُلحَق
annihilate to destroy something or defeat someone completely: The champion annihilated his opponent in the third round. —annihilation /əˌnaɪ(ə)ˈleɪʃən/ noun [U]
يُبيد، يُفني، يُدمِّر - فَناء، إبادَة
anniversary a date which is remembered because something important happened on that date in a previous year: our wedding anniversary | the 50th anniversary of India’s independence → compare BIRTHDAY
عيد سنوي، ذِكرى سَنَويَّة
Anno Domini formal AD
حسب التقويم الميلادي، في السنة الميلادية
announce 1 to officially tell people about something so that everyone knows: The winner of the competition will be announced shortly. | + (that) A police spokesman announced that a man had been arrested.
1 يُعلِن على الملأ
2 to say something in a loud or angry way: + (that) Liam suddenly announced that he was leaving the band.
2 يُعلِن بغضب أو بصوت عالٍ
announcement 1 [C] an important official statement about something that has happened or will happen: make an announcement Listen everyone, I have an important announcement to make.
1 تصريح رسمي - يُعلِن رسميًّا
2 [singular] when someone tells a lot of people about something: + of the announcement of the election results
2 إعلام الجمهور بشيء معين
announcer someone who gives information or introduces people on television or radio
مُذيع الراديو أو التليفزيون
annoy to make someone feel a little angry: Jane wouldn’t stop complaining and it was beginning to annoy me.
يُضايِق
annoyance 1 [U] the feeling of being annoyed: Mia’s annoyance never showed.
1 مُضايَقة
2 [C] something that annoys you: The dog next door is a constant annoyance.
2 الضّيق
annoyed a little angry: + with Are you annoyed with me just because I’m a bit late? | + at/about She was really annoyed at the way he just ignored her. | + that My sister’s annoyed that we didn’t call.
مُتضايِق، مُستاء
annoying making you feel annoyed: an annoying habit of interrupting — annoyingly adverb
مُسبِّب للضيق، مُتعِب - بطريقة تبعث على الضجر
annual 1 happening once every year: the annual conference
1 سنوي، حَوليّ
2 calculated over a period of one year: He has an annual income of around $500,000 — annually adverb
2 في العام - سنويًّا
annul lled, -lling formal to officially state that a marriage or legal agreement no longer exists — annulment noun [C,U]
يُلغي - الإلغاء
anomaly formal something that is different from what you would normally expect, and which seems incorrect or unfair: anomalies in the tax system
شيء مُخالِف لكل التوقعات
anon the written abbreviation of ‘anonymous’, used especially to show that the writer of a poem or song is not known
اختصار كلمة ‘anonymous’
anonymity when the name of a person who has done something is kept secret: The author prefers anonymity.
غُفلية، عدم ذِكر الاسم
anonymous 1 someone who is anonymous does not let you know what their name is: The person concerned wishes to remain anonymous.
1 غُفْل، عَديم الاسم
2 done, made, or given by someone whose name is not known: an anonymous letter — anonymously adverb
2 مجهول المصدر - بلا اسْم أو تَوْقيع
anorak BrE a short coat with a part that covers your head
مِعْطَف قصير بغطاءٍ للرأس
anorexia also anorexia ner·vo·sa /ænəˌreksiə nɜːˈvəʊsə‖-nərˈvoʊ-/ noun [U] a mental illness that makes people stop eating, so that they become dangerously thin
فَقْد أو فِقْدان الشهية للأكل (بسبب مرضي)
anorexic someone who is anorexic is very thin and ill because they have a mental illness that makes them stop eating
غير راغِب في الطعام نتيجة لمرض عقلي
another 1 one more person or thing of the same kind: Do you want another beer? | Buy one CD and we’ll give you another, completely free.
1 آخَر من نفس النوع
2 a different person or thing: You’ll just have to find another job. | She lives in another part of the country.
2 آخَر من نوع مختلِف
answer 1 to say something to someone when they have asked you a question or spoken to you: ‘‘I don’t know,’’ she answered. | answer a question I had to answer a lot of questions about my previous job. | answer sb Why don’t you answer me? | + that Clare answered that she was not interested in their offer.
1 يُجيب، يرد
2 answer the telephone/door to pick up the telephone when it rings or go to the door when someone knocks or rings the bell
2 يرد على التليفون، يذهب لفتح الباب
3 answer a letter/advertisement to reply to a letter or advertisement
3 يرد على خطاب أو إعلان
4 to reply to a question in a test, competition etc: Please answer as many questions as you can.
4 يجيب عن سؤال في امتحان أو مسابقة
answer back phr verb [I,T answer sb back] if someone, especially a child, answers back, he or she replies to an adult in a rude way: Don’t answer me back, young man!
يرد بوقاحة
answer for sth phr verb [T] to have to explain to someone about something wrong you have done, or to be punished for it: One day you’ll have to answer for this.
يتحمل مسئولية ...
answer 1 [C,U] a reply to something that someone asks or writes: I told you before, the answer is no! | + to Mark never got an answer to his letter. | in answer to (=as a reply to something): In answer to your question, I think Paul’s right. | give sb an answer Give me an answer as soon as possible.
1 إجابة - ردّ على خطاب - ردًّا على - يُقدِّم إجابة لِـ
2 [C] a reply to a question in a test, competition etc: What was the answer to question 7?
2 إجابة عن سؤال في الامْتِحان أو في مُسابَقة
3 [C] the result obtained from calculating numbers
3 النّاتج عن حِسابات
4 [C] something that solves a problem: + to A bit more money would be the answer to all our problems.
4 الحَلّ لمشكلة
answering machine also an·swerphone BrE /ˈɑːnsəfəʊn‖ˈænsərfoʊn/ noun [C] a machine that records your telephone calls when you cannot answer them
آلة الرَّد على المكالمات التّليفونِيَّة
ant a common small red or black insect that lives in large groups
النَّمْلة
antagonism when people strongly dislike or oppose someone or something: + between There has always been a lot of antagonism between the two families. | + towards There’s a lot of antagonism towards city people who move into the area.
عِداء، عِداء بين، كراهِيَة لِـ
antagonistic opposing an idea or plan, or showing that you dislike someone: an antagonistic attitude to foreigners
عِدائِيّ
antagonize (also -ise BrE) to make someone feel angry with you: We really need his help, so don’t antagonize him.
يُثير عِداء أو كراهِية
Antarctic the Antarctic the very cold, most southern part of the world → compare ARCTICAntarctic adjective
القطب الجنوبِيّ - مُتعلِّق بالقُطْب الجنوبِيّ، قطبي جنوبي
antelope an animal like a deer that has long horns and can run very fast
الظَّبي
antenatal BrE connected with the medical care given to a woman who is PREGNANT; PRENATAL: an antenatal clinic → compare POSTNATAL
مُتعلِّق بالعِناية الطبيَّة بالمرأة في فترة الحَمْل
antenna 1 plural antennae one of two long thin parts on an insect’s head, that it uses to feel things
1 قَرْن الاسْتِشْعار
2 AmE a piece of equipment on a television, car, roof etc for receiving radio or television broadcasts; aerial BrE → see picture at car — and colour picture on page 149
2 هوائي التِّليفزيون أو الرّاديو
anthem a song that is sung at special religious, sports, or political ceremonies ’ see also NATIONAL ANTHEM
نشيد
anthill a pile of earth on the ground over the place where ANTS live
كُومة من التّراب فوق جُحر النَّمْل
anthology a set of stories, poems etc collected together in one book
مختارات أدبية
anthropology the scientific study of people, their customs, beliefs etc — anthropologist noun [C] — anthropological /ˌænθrəpəˈlɒdʒɪkəl‖-ˈlɑː-/ adjective
الأنثروبولوجيا، علم الإنسان - عالم الأنثروبولوجيا - مُتعلِّق بعِلم الأنثروبولوجيا، أنثروبولوجي
anti- 1 opposed to something, or strongly disliking a particular group of people: antinuclear protests | anti-American feeling
بادئة بمعنى:
1 معادٍ لِـ، ضدّ
2 used to prevent something: antifreeze (=a substance used to prevent a car’s engine from freezing)
2 مانِع لِـ، مقاوم لِـ
3 used at the beginning of some words to mean ‘not’: antisocial
3 غير، مضاد
antibiotic usually plural a drug, such as PENICILLIN, that is used to cure infections — antibiotic adjective
المضادّ الحيوِيّ - مُتعلِّق بالمضادات الحيوِيَّة
antibody a substance produced in the body to fight disease
الأجْسام المضادّة
anticipate 1 to expect something to happen: The police are anticipating trouble when the factory closes. | + that It’s anticipated that the campaign will raise over $100,000.
1 يَتَوقَّع، يَتَنبَّأ بِـ
2 to think about what will happen and do something to prepare for it: Try to anticipate what kind of questions you’ll be asked.
2 يَتَوقّع حدوث شيء ويَسْتَعِدّ له
anticipation 1 a hopeful feeling that something good is going to happen: I was full of excitement and anticipation as I started off on my journey.
1 توقّع مشوب بالتَّفاؤل
2 in anticipation of if you do something in anticipation of something happening, you prepare for it before it happens
2 توقّعًا لِـ، انتظارًا لِـ
anticlimax something that seems disappointing because it happens after something that was much better: Coming home after our trip was rather an anticlimax.
التَّدنّي، الهُبوط البلاغي
anticlockwise BrE moving in the opposite direction to the hands of a clock; COUNTERCLOCKWISE AmE: Turn the handle anticlockwise. → opposite CLOCKWISE
عكس اتّجاه عقارب السّاعة
antics funny, silly, or annoying behaviour: The band are famous for their antics both on and off the stage.
سلوك مُضحِك، تَصرُّف سخيف أو مُسبِّب للضّيق
antidote 1 something that makes an unpleasant situation better: + to Laughter is one of the best antidotes to stress.
1 ما يُخفف من حدَّة الموقف
2 a substance that stops the effects of a poison: The snake’s bite is deadly, and there’s no known antidote.
2 تِرْياق
antifreeze a chemical that is put in the water in car engines to stop it from freezing
مانِع التجمُّد
antipathy formal when people dislike someone or something or are opposed to them: growing antipathy towards American multinational companies
كراهِية، نُفور
antiquated old-fashioned and not suitable for modern needs or conditions: antiquated laws
عَتيق، عفا عليه الزَّمَن
antique a piece of furniture, jewellery etc that is old and usually valuable: priceless antiques | an antique shop (=one that sells antiques) — antique adjective: an antique table → compare ANCIENT
قِطْعَة أثريَّة، تحفة قديمة - أثري، قديم، له قيمة أثرِيَّة
antiquity 1 [U] ancient times: a tradition that stretches back into antiquity
1 الأزمنة الغابِرة، العصور القديمة
2 [C usually plural] a building or object made in ancient times: Roman antiquities
2 الآثار القديمة
3 [U] the fact of being very old: a building of great antiquity
3 القِدَم
anti-semitism when people hate Jewish people and behave towards them in an unfair and unpleasant way — anti-semitic /ˌænti sɪ(ə)ˈmɪtɪk◂/ adjective
مُعاداة السّامِيَّة - مُعادٍ للسّامِيَّة
antiseptic a chemical substance that kills harmful BACTERIA, especially on wounds or infected parts of the body — antiseptic adjective: antiseptic cream
المُعقِّم، المُطَهِّر - مُطهِّر، مُعقِّم
antisocial 1 antisocial behaviour upsets, harms, or annoys other people: Kids as young as eight are turning to vandalism, petty crime, and other forms of antisocial behaviour.
1 مُضادٌّ للعُرف الاجتماعي
2 unwilling to meet other people and talk to them: I hope you won’t think I’m antisocial, but I can’t come out tonight.
2 غير اجْتِماعِيّ
antithesis formal the exact opposite of something: His radical socialist opinions are the antithesis of his father’s political beliefs.
عَكْس، ضدّ
antler one of the two horns on the head of male DEER
قَرْن الوَعْل
antonym technical a word that means the opposite of another word: ‘War’ is the antonym of ‘peace’. → compare SYNONYM
ضِدّ، نَقيض الكلمة
anus technical the part of the body from which FAECES leave the body
الاسْت، الشَّرج
anvil an iron block on which pieces of hot metal are shaped using a hammer
السَّندان
anxiety 1 [C,U] a strong feeling of worry about something that may happen: + about Her anxiety about the children grew as the hours passed.
1 القَلَق
2 [U] a strong feeling of wanting to do something but being worried that you will not succeed: anxiety to do sth The soldiers had thrown away their guns and packs in their anxiety to get to the boats.
2 الخوف من الفشل في عمل يتوق إليه الإنسان
anxious 1 very worried about something that may happen: an anxious look | + about June’s anxious about going such a long way on her own. | anxious time/moment There were one or two anxious moments as the plane seemed to lose height.
1 قَلِق - وَقْت أو لحظة عصيبة
2 feeling strongly that you want to do something or want something to happen: anxious to do sth Ralph is anxious to prove that he can do the job. | + that We’re very anxious that no-one else finds out about this. —anxiously adverb: ‘‘What’s wrong?’’ he asked anxiously.
2 مُتشوِّق لعمل - حَريص على - بِقَلَق
any 1 used in negative statements and questions to mean ‘some’: Is there any coffee left? | I don’t think that will make any difference. | + of Are any of Nina’s relatives coming for Christmas?
1 بَعْض
2 used to mean ‘every’ or ‘every kind of’, when it does not matter which one or which kind it is: a question that any child could answer | Any help would be welcome. → see also in any case (CASE), at any rate (RATE1).
2 أيّ، أيّ نَوْع من
any used in negative statements or questions to mean ‘at all’: I don’t see how things could be any worse. | She couldn’t walk any further without a rest. | Society is never going to get any better.
على الإطْلاق، ألبَتَّة
anybody ANYONE
أيّ شَخْص
anyhow informal ANYWAY
على أيّ حال
any more, anymore not anymore if something does not happen any more, it used to happen in the past but it does not happen now: Frank doesn’t live here any more.
لم يعد يحدث الآن
anyone also anybody
1 used in questions and negative statements to mean a person: Is there anyone at home? | She’d just moved and didn’t know anyone.
1 أيّ إنسان
2 any person or any people, when it does not matter exactly who: Anyone can learn to swim.
2 أيّ شَخْص بلا تحديد
anyplace AmE anywhere
في مكان ما
anything 1 used in questions and negative statements to mean ‘something’: Do you need anything from the store? | Her father didn’t know anything about it. | or anything spoken (=or anything similar): Would you like a Coke or anything?
1 شَيْء ما - أو ما شابه
2 any thing, event, situation etc, when it is not important which one: That cat will eat anything. | I could have told him almost anything and he would have believed me.
2 أيّ شيء، أيّ حدث، أيّ موقف بدون تَحْديد
3 anything like used in questions and negative statements to mean ‘similar to’: Carrie doesn’t look anything like her sister.
3 شبيه بِـ، مثل
4 anything but not at all: No, when I told him, he seemed anything but pleased.
4 كلّا، كلّا على الإطلاق
anyway also anyhow informal
1 in spite of something: The bride’s mother was ill, but they had the wedding anyway.
1 على أيّ حال، رغم هذا
2 used to continue what you are saying or to change the subject of a conversation: I think she’s the same age as Lori, but anyway she’s just had a baby. | Anyway, where do you want to go for lunch?
2 بالمناسبة، على فكرة
3 used when you are adding something to support what you have just said: He decided to sell his bike – he never used it anyway.
3 عِلاوة على هذا، بالإضافة
4 used to ask the reason for something: So, why were you there anyway?
4 لماذا؟ ما سبب؟
anywhere also anyplace AmE
1 in or to any place, when it is not important where: Fly anywhere in Europe for £150.
1 في أيّ مكان بدون تَحْديد
2 used in questions and negative statements to mean ‘somewhere’ or ‘nowhere’: I can’t find my keys anywhere. | Did you go anywhere last night?
2 في مكان ما، ليس في أيّ مكان
3 not anywhere near spoken used to emphasize that something is not true: We don’t have anywhere near enough money to buy a new car.
3 هذا غير حقيقِيّ
4 not get anywhere to not be successful at something you have been trying to do: I’ve been trying to get my dad to lend me the car, but I’m not getting anywhere.
4 لم تُكلّل جهوده بالنجاح
apart 1 separated by a distance or period of time: Our birthdays are only two days apart. | My husband and I are living apart at the moment. | + from She was standing a little apart from the others.
1 مُنفصِلًا، بعيدًا عن
2 separated into different parts: He had to take the camera apart to fix it. | come/fall apart (=break into many pieces): The old book just fell apart in my hands.
2 مُفَكَّك - يَتَفكَّك إلى أجزاء
3 apart from especially BrE a) except for: Apart from a couple of spelling mistakes, your essay is excellent. b) in addition to: Who was at the party? Apart from you and Jim, I mean.
3 (أ) بِغضّ النَّظَر عن (ب) بالإضافة إلى
4 tell sb/sth apart if you cannot tell someone or something apart, you think they look exactly the same
4 يُمَيِّزُ بين شَخْصين أو شيئين
apartheid a system, formerly used in South Africa, in which white people ruled and black people were not allowed the same political and legal rights as them
التَّفرقة العُنْصرِيَّة
apartment a set of rooms on one floor of a large building, where someone lives; FLAT BrE
شَقَّة في عمارة
apartment building also apartment house /ˈ.. ./ AmE a building that is divided into separate apartments → see colour picture on page 149
عمارة مُقسَّمة إلى شقق
apathetic not interested in anything and unwilling to make any effort: Too many of our students are apathetic about learning — apathetically /-kli/ adverb
بليد، مُتبلِّد - ببلادة
apathy the feeling of not being interested in anything and being unwilling to make any effort to change things: public apathy about the coming election
البَلادة، تبلُّد الشُّعور
ape a large monkey without a tail or with a very short tail, such as a GORILLA
قرْد بلا ذَنَب
aperitif a small alcoholic drink that you have before a meal
شراب فاتِح للشَّهية
aperture a small hole, especially one that lets light into a camera
فُتْحة، ثَقب
apex 1 the highest or most important part of something: the apex of a pyramid
1 قِمَّة
2 the most successful part of something: the apex of his career
2 ذروة النَّجاح
aphrodisiac a food or drug that makes someone want to have sex
طعام أو عَقّار مُثير للرّغبة الجنسِيَّة
apiece each: Red roses cost £1 apiece. (=for each one)
لكُلّ قِطْعَة، لكلّ واحد
apocalypse the Apocalypse the destruction and end of the world, according to some religions
دمار العالم ونهايته
apocalyptic about terrible events that may happen in the future
مُتعلِّق بأحداث مُرعِبة قد تحدث مستقبلًا
apolitical not having any interest in or connection with politics
غير عابِئ بالسِّياسة
apologetic saying that you are sorry about something: He was really apologetic about forgetting my birthday. —apologetically /-kli/ adverb
مُعتذِر، آسف، اعْتذارِيّ - بأسف، آسفًا
apologize (also -ise BrE) to say that you are sorry about something that you have done or said: + for He apologized for being so late. | + to Apologize to your sister now!
يَعْتَذِر
apology something that you say or write to show that you are sorry: I hope you will accept my apology for any trouble I may have caused.
اعْتِذار
apostle one of the 12 men chosen by Christ to teach people about Christianity — apostolic /ˌæpəˈstɒlɪk◂‖-ˈstɑː-/ adjective
رسول من تلاميذ المسيح - رسولِيّ، مُتعلِّق بتلاميذ المسيح
apostrophe a) the sign (’) used to show that one or more letters or figures are missing, such as in the word ‘don’t’ (=do not) (or in the date ’96 (=1896/1996 etc) b) the sign (’) used before or after the letter ‘s’ to show that something belongs or relates to someone: Mandy’s coat | We need to protect both countries’ borders c) the sign (’) used before ‘s’ to show the plural of letters and numbers: 2 A’s and 4 B’s on my school report
(أ) العلامة (’) التي تدلّ على حذف حرف أو أكثر من الكلمة (ب) العلامة (’) التي توضع قبل أو بعد حرف ‘s’ لتدلّ على الملكِيَّة (ج) العلامة (’) التي تستخدم قبل حرف ‘s’ لتدلَّ على جمع الحروف أو الأرقام
appal appal BrE, appall AmE lled, -lling if something appals you, it shocks you a lot because it is very unpleasant: The idea of killing animals for fur appals me — appalled adjective
يُرْعِب، يُفزِع - مَرْعوب
appalling 1 shocking or terrible: children living in appalling conditions
1 مُرْعِب، مفزِع
2 informal very bad: an appalling movie — appallingly adverb
2 في غاية السُّوء - بدرجة مُفزِعة
apparatus apparatus or apparatuses [C,U] a set of equipment etc used for a particular purpose: firemen wearing breathing apparatus
جِهاز، أجْهِزة
apparel formal clothes: men’s apparel
ملابِس، حُلَّة
apparent 1 easily seen or understood: It soon became apparent that we had one major problem – Edward. | for no apparent reason (=without a reason): For no apparent reason he began to shout at her.
1 واضِح، ظاهِر - بدون سَبَب واضِح
2 seeming to be true or real: We were reassured by his apparent lack of concern.
2 كما لو كان حقيقة أو واقعًا
apparently 1 according to what you have heard is true, although you are not completely sure: She apparently caught him in bed with another woman. | Apparently, Susan’s living in Madrid now.
1 حَسَب ما سمعت
2 according to the way something seems, even though it may not really be true: They were still chatting, apparently unaware that the train had left.
2 حَسَب ما يبدو
apparition a GHOST
شَبح
appeal 1 [I] to ask people for money, information etc, especially publicly: + to Police are appealing to the public for information. | + for Local authorities have appealed for volunteers.
1 يُناشِد، يَلْتَمِس
2 appeal to sb to seem attractive or interesting to someone: The new programme should appeal to our younger viewers.
2 يَروق، يُعجِب
3 [I] to formally ask a higher court to change the decision of a lower court: Atkins is certain to appeal against the conviction.
3 يَسْتَأنِف الحُكْم
appeal 1 [C] when a person or group appeals for money, information etc: launch an appeal UNICEF is launching an appeal for the flood victims.
1 الْتِماس - يَبْدأ حَمْلَة إغاثة
2 [U] the appeal of something is the quality that makes you like it or want it: The traditional rural lifestyle has lost none of its appeal.
2 جاذبِيَّة
3 [C,U] when someone appeals to a higher court to change the decision of a lower court: + to an appeal to the Supreme Court
3 اسْتِئْناف الحكم
appealing attractive or interesting — appealingly adverb
جذّاب - بجاذبِيَّة، باهْتِمام
appear 1 [linking verb] to seem: Sandra appeared relaxed and confident at the interview. | The noise appeared to come from the bedroom.
1 يَظْهر، يبدو، يتَّضح
2 [I] to begin to be seen: Suddenly a face appeared at the window.
2 يتراءى، يبدأ في الظُّهور
3 appear on television/on stage/in the news etc to act or be shown on television, in a play etc: John Thaw appears regularly on television.
3 يظهر على شاشة التِّليفزيون/على المسرح/في الأخبار
4 [I] to happen, exist, or become available for the first time: Irving’s novel is soon to appear in paperback.
4 يَحْدُث أو يوجَد للمرة الأولى
appearance 1 [C,U] the way that someone or something looks or seems to other people: The Christmas lights gave the house a festive appearance. | six ways to improve your personal appearance
1 مَظْهر
2 [C usually singular] when someone or something arrives: the sudden appearance of several reporters at the hospital
2 ظُهور
3 [singular] the point at which something begins to exist or starts being used: Viewing has increased since the appearance of cable TV.
3 وجود، ظهور
4 [C] a public performance in a film, play, concert etc: his first appearance on stage in 1953
4 عَرْض في فيلم أو تمثيلِيَّة أو عزف موسيقِيّ
5 put in an appearance informal to go somewhere, usually for only a short time: I wouldn’t be surprised if Lewis put in an appearance tonight.
5 يذهب ليثبت وجوده
appease to do something to make someone less angry: This is seen as a move to appease left-wingers in the party — appeasement noun
يُخَفِّف من غَضَب، يُهدِّئ - تَخْفيف، تَهْدئة
append formal to add something to a piece of writing
يُضيف، يُذيِّل
appendage something that is added to something bigger or more important
إضافة
appendicitis an illness in which your appendix swells and becomes painful
الْتِهاب الزّائدة الدّودِيَّة
appendix 1 a small organ in your body near your stomach
1 الزّائدة الدّودِيَّة
2 plural appendixes or appendices /-dɪ(ə)siːz/ a part at the end of a book that has additional information
2 ذَيل، مُلحق
appetite 1 the feeling that makes you want to eat: Don’t eat now, you’ll spoil your appetite.
1 شَهِيَّة
2 appetite for success/travel/knowledge etc the desire to be successful, to travel etc
2 رَغْبة قوِيَّة في النَّجاح/السَّفر/المعرفة، إلخ
appetizer (also -tiser BrE) a small dish of food served at the beginning of a meal
المُشهِّيات
appetizing (also -tising BrE) food that is appetizing looks or smells very good
فاتح للشَّهيَّة
applaud 1 to hit your open hands together to show that you have enjoyed a play, concert, speaker etc; CLAP
1 يُصفِّق اسْتِحْسانًا
2 formal to say that an idea, plan etc is very good
2 يَسْتَحسِن، يُثني على فكرة
applause the sound of people hitting their hands together to show that they have enjoyed a play, concert, speaker etc: The thunderous applause continued for over a minute.
تَصْفيق
apple a hard round red or green fruit that is white inside → see picture at fruit — and colour picture on page 775
تُفّاحة
appliance a piece of electrical equipment such as a refrigerator or a dishwasher that is used in people’s homes
جِهاز كَهْربائِيّ يُستخدَم في المنازل
applicable affecting or suitable for a particular person, group, or situation: + to The tax laws are not applicable to foreign visitors.
مُنطَبِق/يَنطبِق على
applicant someone who has formally asked for a job, a place at a college etc, especially by writing a letter
طالِب، مُتقدِّم بطلب
application 1 [C] an official, usually written, request for a job, place at a college etc
1 طَلَب
2 [C,U] a way in which something can be used, for example a new idea, drug, or piece of equipment: The new technology could have military applications.
2 تَطْبيق
3 [C] a PROGRAM on a computer
3 بَرْنامج تَطبيقي للكمپيوتر
4 [C,U] when you spread a liquid or cream onto a surface
4 نَشْر طَبَقَة من سائل أو كريم على سَطْح ما
application form a printed piece of paper on which you write the answers to questions about why you should get a job, a place in college etc: It took hours to fill in the application form.
طَلَب تَوْظيف، نَموذجُ طَلَب، اسْتِئمارة طَلَب
applied applied maths/science/linguistics etc a subject that is studied for a practical purpose → compare PURE
الرّياضيات التَّطْبيقيَّة/العلوم التَّطبيقِيَّة/اللُّغويات التَّطبيقِيَّة
apply 1 [I] to officially ask to be considered for a job, place at a college etc, especially by writing a letter: + for Kevin’s applied for a management job in Atlanta.
1 يُقدِّم طلبًا لِـ
2 [I,T] to affect or be suitable for a particular person, group, or situation: + to The 20% discount only applies to club members.
2 يَنْطَبِق على
3 [T] to use something such as a method or law: You can apply good teaching methods to any subject.
3 يُطبِّق
4 [T] to spread something such as paint or a cream on a surface: Apply an antiseptic cream to the affected area.
4 ينشر طَبَقة من سائل أو كريم على سطح
5 [T] apply yourself (to sth) to work very hard and carefully, especially for a long time: I wish John would apply himself a little more!
5 يُواصِل العمل بجدّ واجْتِهاد
appoint 1 to choose someone for a job etc: They’ve appointed a new principal at the school.
1 يُعيّن في وظيفة
2 formal to say officially when or where something will happen: Judge Bailey appointed a day in July for the trial.
2 يُحدِّد بصفة رسمِيَّة الزَّمان والمكان لأمر ما
appointed the appointed time/date/place etc the time, date etc that has been decided
الوقت أو التّاريخ أو المكان المحدَّد
appointment 1 [C] a meeting that has been arranged for a particular time and place: make an appointment I’d like to make an appointment with Dr. Hanson. | miss an appointment I’m sorry I missed our appointment.
1 مَوعِد - يُحدِّد موعدًا - يفوته الموعد
2 [C,U] when you choose someone for an important job: the appointment of a new Supreme Court Justice
2 تَعْيين
3 by appointment if something can only be done by appointment, you have to arrange it before you go: Dr. Sutton will only see you by appointment.
3 بتحديد مَوْعِد سابِق
apportion formal
1 [T] to decide how something should be divided and given to people
1 يُقَسِّم الأنصبة
2 apportion blame to say who should be blamed
2 يُحدِّد الشَّخْص الذي يُلام
appraisal an official description of how valuable, effective, or successful someone or something is: an annual appraisal of employees’ work
تَقييم، تَقدير
appraise formal to carefully decide how valuable, important etc something is: We are still appraising the situation.
يُقَدِّر قيمة، يُثَمِّن
appreciable formal noticeable or important: There’s been no appreciable change in the patient’s condition — appreciably adverb
مَلحوظ، جَدير بالملاحَظةِ - بِدَرجة ملحوظة
appreciate 1 [T] to understand and enjoy the good qualities or value of something: All the bad weather here makes me appreciate home.
1 يُقَدِّر قيمة، يتذوَّق
2 [T] to be grateful for something: Lyn greatly appreciated the flowers you sent.
2 يكون شاكرًا أو مُمتنًّا
3 I would appreciate it if used to politely ask someone to do something: I’d really appreciate it if you could drive Kathy to school today.
3 أكون شاكرًا لو
4 [T] to understand a difficult situation or problem: You don’t seem to appreciate how hard this is for us.
4 يتفهَّم صعوبة موقف أو مشكلة
appreciation 1 a feeling of being grateful to someone: show your appreciation a small gift to show our appreciation for all your hard work
1 شُعور بالامْتنان - يُظهِرُ امتنانه
2 an understanding of a difficult situation or problem: You just have no appreciation of how serious this all is!
2 تفهُّم صعوبة موقف أو مشكلة
3 the enjoyment you feel when you recognize the good qualities of something: As he grew older, his appreciation for his home town grew.
3 اسْتِحسان، تَقْدير
appreciative showing that you have enjoyed something or feel grateful for it — appreciatively adverb
مُعبِّر عن الشُّكر والتَّقْدير - بتقدير وامْتِنان
apprehend formal to find a criminal and take them away, usually to a police station; ARREST
يَقْبِض على، يُلقي القَبْضَ على
apprehension a feeling of anxiety or fear about something in the future: News of the plane crash increased Tim’s apprehension about flying.
خَشْيَة، تَخوُّف
apprehensive worried or anxious about something in the future — apprehensively adverb
وَجِل، مُتخوِّف - بِخَوف، بِوَجَل
apprentice someone who works for an employer for an agreed amount of time in order to learn a skill
صَبِيّ يتعلَّم مِهْنة أو حِرْفة
apprenticeship when someone learns a job or skill while working for an employer, especially for a fixed period of time
التَّلْمذة الصِّناعِيَّة
approach 1 [I,T] to move closer to someone or something: We watched as their car approached. | A man approached me, asking if I’d seen a little girl.
1 يَقْتَرِب
2 [T] to ask someone for something when you are not sure if they will do what you want: She’s been approached by two schools about a teaching job.
2 يَقْصِد شَخْصًا في خدمة
3 [I,T] to almost be a particular time, age, temperature etc: It’s now approaching 7 o’clock.
3 يَقتَرِب من عدد مُعيَّن
4 [T] to begin to deal with something
4 يَشرَعُ في التَّعامل مع
approach 1 [C] a way of doing something or dealing with a problem: + to a creative approach to teaching science
1 طريقة، اتِّجاه
2 [U] when something gets closer: the approach of The air got colder with the approach of winter.
2 اقْتِراب
3 [C] a road or path leading to a place: The easiest approach to the beach is down the cliff path.
3 طريق للوصول إلى مكان
approachable friendly and easy to talk to: Dr. Grieg seems very approachable. → opposite UNAPPROACHABLE
ودود، سَهْلُ التَّعامل
approbation formal praise or approval
مُوافَقة، رِضا
appropriate suitable for a particular time, situation, or purpose: That sort of language just isn’t appropriate in an interview. → opposite INAPPROPRIATEappropriately adverbappropriateness noun [U]
مُناسِب لزمن أو لموقف أو لغَرَض مُعيَّن - بطريقة مُناسِبة - مُوافَقة، مُلاءَمة
appropriate 1 formal to take or steal something
1 يستولي على
2 to officially take money for a particular purpose
2 يُخَصِّص، يُفرِد
approval 1 official permission: We have to get approval from the Chief of Police.
1 إذْن أو تَصْريح رَسْمِيّ
2 the opinion that someone or something is good: I was always trying to get my father’s approval.
2 مُوافَقة، مُصادَقة
approve 1 [T] to officially agree to something: We are waiting for our proposals to be approved.
1 يُوافِق بصفة رَسْمِيَّة
2 [I] to believe that someone or something is good or acceptable: + of I don’t approve of taking drugs.
2 يتقبَّل، يَرْضى عن
approving showing that you approve of someone or something: an approving nod — approvingly adverb
مُوافِق، راضٍ - بطريقة تدلّ على المُوافقة والرِّضا
approx the written abbreviation of ‘approximately’
اخْتِصار لكلمة ‘approximately’ بمعنى: تقريبًا
approximate an approximate amount, time, measurement etc is not exact but is nearly right: They think it’s worth £10,000, but that’s only an approximate figure.
تقريبِيّ
approximate formal to be similar to but not exactly the same as something else — approximation /əˈprɒksɪ(ə)ˈmeɪʃən‖əˌprɑːk-/ noun [C,U]
يُقارِب، يَقْتَرِب من - تقريب، قيمة تَقريبيَّة
approximately a little more or less than an exact number, amount etc; about: Approximately 35% of the students come from Japan.
تقريبًا
apricot a small soft yellow fruit with one large seed
المِشْمِش
April written abbreviation Apr the fourth month of the year → see Usage Note at MONTH
إبريل، نَيسان
April Fool’s Day April 1, a day for playing tricks on people
كِذْبة إبريل
apron a piece of clothing that you wear to protect your clothes when you cook
مِرْيلة، مِئزر
apt 1 apt to likely to do something: They’re good kids but apt to get into trouble.
1 مُعرَّض لِـ، قابِل لِـ
2 exactly right for a particular situation or purpose: an apt remark —aptly adverb
2 مناسِب تمامًا، في المكان الصَّحيح - بمهارة، باقْتِدار
aptitude a natural ability to do something well or to learn it quickly: Ginny seems to have a real aptitude for painting.
اسْتِعداد طبيعِيّ
aquarium 1 a clear glass container for fish or other water animals to live in
1 حوض للسَّمَك أو للأحياء المائيَّة
2 a building where people go to look at fish or other water animals
2 مَرْبى للأسماك والحيوانات البَحْرِيَّة
Aquarius the sign of the Zodiac of people who are born between January 20th and February 18th, or someone who belongs to this sign
بُرْج الدّلو، أحد مواليد بُرج الدَّلو
aquatic living or happening in water: aquatic plants | aquatic sports
مائِيّ، يَعيشُ في الماء
aqueduct a structure like a bridge that takes water across a valley
مَجْرًى مائِيّ اصطناعي (فوق قناطر)
Arab someone whose language is Arabic and whose family come from the Middle East or North Africa
العربِيّ
Arabic the language of Arab people or the religious language of Islam
اللُّغة العربِيَّة
arable arable land is suitable for growing crops
صالح للزِّراعة
arbiter 1 someone who helps two people or groups to agree, or who judges who is correct
1 حَكَم، مُحَكَّم
2 arbiter of style/fashion/taste etc someone who influences people’s opinions about what is fashionable etc
2 فَيصَلُ الطِّراز، الزّي، الذَّوق
arbitrary arbitrary actions or rules seem unfair because they are not based on any practical or good reasons: I don’t see why they have this arbitrary age-limit. —arbitrariness noun [U] — arbitrarily /ˈɑːbɪ(ə)trərɪ(ə)li‖ ˌɑːrbɪ(ə)ˈtrerɪ(ə)li/ adverb
تَعَسُّفي، اعتِباطي - التَّعسُّف - بطريقة تعسُّفيَّة
arbitrate to officially help two people or groups to agree — arbitrator noun [C]
يَحكُم - مُحَكَّم
arbitration the process in which someone tries to help two people or groups to agree
التَّحْكيم
arc part of a circle or any curved line
قَوْس، خطّ مُنْحَنٍ، جزء من الدّائِرة
arcade 1 a place where people go to play video games etc; amusement arcade
1 مكان لألعاب الفيديو
2 a covered path with shops on each side of it
2 مَمَرّ مسقوف للمتاجر
3 also shopping arcade BrE a large building or group of buildings where there are many shops
3 مَركز تجاري
arch plural arches
1 a curved structure at the top of a door, window, bridge etc, or something that has this curved shape
1 عَقْد
2 the curved middle part of the bottom of your foot — arched adjective: an arched doorway
2 باطِنُ القدم - مُقَوَّس
arch to form a curved shape, or make something have a curved shape: The cat arched her back and hissed.
يُقوِّس
archaeologist also archeologist AmE someone who studies ancient societies by digging up and examining what remains of their buildings, graves, tools etc
عالم آثار
archaeology also archeology AmE the study of ancient societies by digging up and examining what remains of their buildings, graves, tools etc — archaeological /ˌɑːkiəˈlɒdʒɪkəl‖ˌɑːrkiəˈlɑː-/ adjectivearchaeologically /-kli/ adverb
علم الآثار - مُتعلِّق بِعِلم الآثار - من النّاحية الأثريَّة
archaic archaic language, ideas etc seem very old-fashioned: the archaic language of the Bible
قديم جدًّا، عَتيق
archbishop the most important priest within a country, in some Christian religions
رَئيس أساقِفَة
archeologist the American spelling of ARCHAEOLOGIST
الهجاء الأمريكِيّ لكلمة ARCHAEOLOGIST
archeology the American spelling of ARCHAEOLOGY
الهجاء الأمريكِيّ لكلمة ARCHAEOLOGY
archer someone who fires arrows from a BOW
رامي السِّهام، نابِل، رامي النِّبال
archery the sport of shooting arrows from a BOW
الرِّماية، رياضة رَمْي السِّهام
architect someone whose job is to design buildings
مُهندِس مِعمارِيّ
architecture 1 the style and design of buildings: medieval architecture
1 العِمارة
2 the skill and process of designing buildings — architectural /ˌɑːkɪ(ə)ˈtektʃərəl◂‖ˌɑːr-/ adjectivearchitecturally adverb
2 فَنُّ العِمارة، الهندسة المعمارية - مِعماريّ - من النّاحية المعمارِيَّة
archives information about the history of a country, organization, family etc, or the place where this is kept
سِجِلّات، محفوظات، دار الوَثائِق
archway the place where you can walk under an ARCH
ممشًى ذو قنطرة
Arctic the Arctic [singular] the very cold part of the world around the North Pole → compare ANTARCTICarctic adjective
المنطقة القُطبيَّة الشَّماليَّة - قُطبيّ شَمالي
ardent having strong feelings of admiration or determination: an ardent football supporter | an ardent desire to win —ardently adverb
مُمتلِئ بالعزم والحَماس - بعَزْم وحَماس
ardour, ardor formal very strong feelings of admiration, excitement, or love
شَغَف، هُيام
arduous needing a lot of effort and hard work: an arduous task | an arduous climb
مُرهِق، شاقّ
are the present tense plural of BE
صيغة المضارع الجمع من الفعل BE
area 1 a particular part of a place, city, country etc: Dad grew up in the Portland area.
1 مَنْطِقة مُعيَّنة من مدينة أو بلد
2 a part of a house, office, park etc that is used for a particular purpose: Their apartment has a large kitchen area.
2 جزء من منزل أو مَكْتَب أو مُتنزَّه ... إلخ، يستخدم لغرض مُعيَّن
3 a particular subject or type of activity: I have experience in software marketing and related areas.
3 مَوْضوع أو نشاط مُعيَّن
4 the size of a flat surface, calculated by multiplying its length by its width
4 المِساحَة
area code AmE the part of a telephone number that you have to add for a different town or country; CODE BrE
الرَّقْم الكودِيّ للهاتِف لإحدى المناطق
arena 1 [C] a building with a large flat central area surrounded by raised seats, used for sports or entertainment: Wembley arena
1 ساحَة، حَلْبَة، استاد
2 the political/public/academic etc arena all the people and activities connected with politics, government etc: Feminism has played a prominent role in the political arena since the 1960s.
2 المُحيط أو المَسْرَح السّياسِيّ/الجماهيريّ/الأكاديمِيّ ... إلخ
aren’t a) the short form of ‘are not’: Things aren’t the same since you left. b) the short form of ‘am not’, used in asking questions: I’m in big trouble, aren’t I?
(أ) الصّيغة المُختصرة لِـ ‘are not’ (ب) الصّيغة المُختصرة لِـ ‘am not’
arguable 1 it is arguable that used to give good reasons why something might be true: It’s arguable that the new law will make things better.
1 جَدير بالمناقشة أن
2 not definitely true or correct; debatable: Whether we’ll get our money back is arguable.
2 قابِل للجَدَل
arguably used to give your opinion about something: San Francisco, arguably the most beautiful city in the USA
بطريقة قابِلة للأخْذ والرَّدّ
argue 1 [I,T] to clearly explain why you think something is true or should be done: + that Smith argued that most teachers are underpaid. | + for/against They are arguing for a change in the law.
1 يُناقِش، يُجادِل - يُناقِش في - يُجادِل لصالِح، يُجادِل ضدّ
2 [I] to disagree with someone, usually by talking or shouting in an angry way: + about/over Paul and Rachel always seem to be arguing about money. | + with They are always arguing with each other.
2 يَتَشاجَر، يُجادِل في، يَتَجادَل مع
argument 1 a disagreement, especially one in which people talk loudly and angrily: have an argument My parents had a big argument last night. | + about It was the usual argument about what to watch on television.
1 الجِدال - يدخل في جِدال حول
2 the reasons that you give to try and prove that something is right or wrong, true or false etc: + for/against She put forward several arguments for becoming a vegetarian.
2 الحُجَّة
argumentative liking to argue
مُحبّ للجِدال
aria a song that is sung by only one person in an opera
أغنية يؤديها مُغنٍّ واحد في الأوبرا
arid formal getting very little rain, and therefore very dry: arid land | an arid climate
قاحِل، جافّ
Aries the sign of the Zodiac of people who are born between March 21st and April 19th, or someone who belongs to this sign
بُرْج الحَمَل، أَحَد مَواليد بُرج الحَمَل
arise arose, arisen, arising
1 if a problem or difficult situation arises, it begins to happen: the problems that arise from rushing things too much.
1 يَنشأ، يتولَّد
2 literary to stand up
2 يَنهَض
3 literary to get out of bed in the morning
3 يَسْتَيقِظ
aristocracy the people in the highest social class, who traditionally have a lot of land, money, and power, especially in Europe in past times
الأرستقراطِيَّة
aristocrat someone who belongs to the highest social class, especially in Europe in past times — aristocratic /ˌærɪ(ə)stəˈkrætɪk◂, əˌrɪ-‖əˌrɪ-/ adjective
الأرستقراطِيّ - أرستقراطِيّ
arithmetic the skill of working with numbers by adding, dividing, multiplying etc → compare MATHEMATICSarithmetic /ˌærɪθˈmetɪk◂/ adjectivearithmetically /-kli/ adverb
الحِساب، عِلم الحِساب - حِسابِيّ - طبقًا للحِساب
arm 1 the long part of your body between your shoulder and your hand: I was carrying a pile of books under my arm. | He put his arm around my shoulders. | arms crossed/folded (=crossed in a relaxed way in front of your chest)
1 الذِّراع - معقود الذِّراعين على الصدر
2 a part of something that is shaped like an arm: The cutting wheel is on the end of a steel arm.
2 ما يشبه الذِّراع
3 the part of a piece of clothing that covers your arm; SLEEVE
3 الكُمّ
4 be up in arms informal to be very angry: The whole town is up in arms about the closure of the hospital. → see also ARMS
4 ثائِر، غاضِب بشِدَّة
arm to give someone weapons
يُسلِّح، يُزوِّد بالسِّلاح
armadillo a small animal with a pointed nose and a hard shell that lives in hot dry parts of North and South America
المُدَرَّع (حيوان)
armaments weapons and military equipment: nuclear armaments
الأسلحة
armband a band of material that you wear around the top part of your arm
العِضاد
armchair a comfortable chair with sides that you can rest your arms on → see picture at CHAIR — and colour picture on page 808
مُتَّكَأ، كرسيّ بذراعين
armed 1 carrying weapons: an armed guard | + with The suspect is armed with a shotgun. | armed robbery (=using a weapon): He got ten years in prison for armed robbery.
1 مُسَلَّح بِـ - سرقة باستخدام السِّلاح
2 having or knowing something useful: I went into the meeting armed with a copy of the report.
2 مُزوَّد بِـ
armed forces the armed forces a country’s military organizations
القُوّات المُسلَّحة
armistice an agreement to stop fighting
هُدنَة
armour armour BrE, armor AmE
1 metal or leather clothing worn in past times by men in battle: a suit of armour
1 دِرع
2 a layer of strong material that protects something
2 صَفائح واقية
armoured armoured BrE, armored AmE protected against bullets or other weapons by a strong layer of metal: an armoured car
مُصَفَّح، مُدَرَّع
armoury armoury BrE, armory AmE a place where weapons are stored
مَخْزَن أسْلِحة
armpit the hollow place under your arm where it joins your body
الإبْط
arms weapons: supplying arms to the rebels | an international arms dealer
الأسْلِحة
arms control when powerful countries try to limit the number of war weapons that exist
الحدّ من الأسْلِحة
arms race the arms race when two or more countries try to produce more effective weapons than each other
سِباق التَّسلُّح
army 1 the part of a country’s military force that is trained to fight on land: a British army officer | the army Our son is in the army.
1 الجيش
2 a large group of people or animals involved in the same activity: an army of ants
2 الحَشْد
aroma a strong pleasant smell: the aroma of fresh coffee — aromatic /ˌærəˈmætɪk◂/ adjective: aromatic oils
شَذى، عَبير - عَطِر، عِطري
aromatherapy the use of pleasant smelling plant oils to make you feel healthy and relaxed — aromatherapist noun [C]
العلاج باسْتِخْدام زيوت نباتات عطرية - الطبيب الذي يَسْتَخْدِم في العِلاج زيوتًا نباتِيَّة عطرية
arose the past tense of ARISE
صيغة الماضي من الفعل ARISE
around 1 also round BrE on all sides of something, so that it is surrounded: We put a fence around the yard. | Mario put his arms around her. → see colour picture on page 808
1 من حول
2 also round BrE in a circular movement: Water pushes the wheel around.
2 في حركة دائرِيَّة
3 also round BrE to or in many parts of a place: Stan showed me around the office. | all around (=in all parts of): an international company with offices all around the world
3 هنا وهناك - في جميع الأرجاء
4 also round BrE in or near a particular place: Is there a bank around here?
4 على مَقْرَبة
5 also round BrE along the outside of a place, instead of through it: We had to go around to the back of the house.
5 خارِج المكان
6 be around a) to be in the same place as you are: It was 11:30 at night, and nobody was around. b) to exist or be available to use: That joke’s been around for years.
6 (أ) يوجد في نفس المكان (ب) يتواجَد، يُتاح
7 turn/move/spin etc sth around to move something so it is facing the opposite direction: I’ll turn the car around and pick you up at the door.
7 يُحرِّك شيئًا أو يَعْكِس اتجاهه
8 around 10/6/200 etc also about especially BrE used when you do not know an exact number to give a number that is close to it; APPROXIMATELY: Dodger Stadium seats around 50,000 people.
8 تقريبًا
9 around and around continuing to move in circles: We drove around and around the town, looking for her house. → see also ROUND2.
9 التَّحرُّك المستمرّ حول
arousal excitement, especially sexual excitement
الإثارة وخاصَّة الإثارة الجنسِيَّة
arouse 1 to make someone have a particular feeling: Her behaviour aroused the suspicions of the police.
1 يُثير، يُنبِّه
2 to make someone feel sexually excited
2 يُهَيِّج/يُثير الرَّغبة الجنسِيَّة
arrange 1 to make plans for something to happen: I’ve arranged a meeting with Jim. | arrange (for sb) to do sth Have you arranged to play football on Sunday?
1 يُهَيِّئ، يُعدّ - يتخذ الترتيبات لِـ
2 to put a group of things or people in a particular order or position: She arranged the flowers carefully in a vase.
2 يُرتِّب، يُنسِّق
arrangement 1 [C usually plural] the things that you must organize for something to happen: travel arrangements | make arrangements for Lee’s still making arrangements for the wedding.
1 ترتيبات - يضع الترتيبات لِـ
2 [C,U] something that has been agreed between two people or groups: We have a special arrangement with the bank.
2 اتِّفاق، تَسوِية
3 [C] a group of things in a particular position or order: a flower arrangement
3 تَرتيب، تَنسيق
array a large group of different things, especially one that seems very impressive or surprising: a dazzling array of acting talent
عَرْض باهِر
array formal to arrange something in an attractive way
يُرتِّب بطريقة جذّابة
arrears 1 be in arrears to owe someone more money than you should because your payment is late: We’re six weeks in arrears with the rent money.
1 مُتَأَخِّر في الدَّفع
2 money that is owed and should already have been paid
2 مُتأخِّرات مالِيَّة
arrest 1 if a police officer arrests someone, he or she takes them away because they are believed to be guilty of a crime: arrest sb for sth The police arrested Eric for shoplifting.
1 يَقْبِض على - يَعتقل بِسَبب
2 formal to stop something happening or make it happen more slowly: The drug is used to arrest the spread of the disease.
2 يوقِف، يُبطِّئ
arrest when a police officer takes someone away and guards them because they may have done something illegal: make an arrest The police expect to make an arrest soon. | be under arrest (=have just been arrested): Don’t move, you’re under arrest!
القَبْض على، التوقيف - يلقي القبضَ على - مَقْبوض عليه
arrival 1 [U] when you arrive somewhere: Shortly after our arrival in Florida, Lottie got robbed.
1 وصول، قُدوم
2 the arrival of the time when a new idea, method, product etc is first used or discovered: The arrival of the personal computer changed the way we work.
2 اكْتشاف أو استخدام شيء للمرة الأولى
3 [C] a person or thing that has arrived: a new arrival
3 قادِم، آتٍ
arrive 1 to get to a place: Your letter arrived yesterday. | The train finally arrived in New York at 8,30 pm.
1 يَصِل
2 to happen: At last the big day arrived!
2 يَحدُث
3 arrive at a conclusion/decision to decide what to do about something after a lot of effort
3 يَصِل إلى نتيجة/قرار
4 to begin to exist or to start being used: Our sales have doubled since computer games arrived. | It was just past midnight when the baby arrived. (=was born)
4 يَتَواجَد أو يُستخدَم للمرة الأولى
arrogant believing that you are more important than anyone else: an arrogant, selfish man — arrogantly adverbarrogance noun [U]
مُتعجرِف، مُتغطرِس - بغَطْرَسة - العَجْرَفة، الغَطْرَسة
arrow 1 a thin straight weapon with a point at one end that you shoot from a BOW
1 سهم يطلق من قوس
2 a sign (→), used to show the direction or position of something
2 سَهْم يشير إلى اتِّجاه أو وَضْع مُعيَّن
arse arse BrE, ass AmE
1 a rude word for the part of your body that you sit on
1 عَجُز، اسْت
2 spoken a rude word for a stupid and annoying person
2 رَذْل، سَخيف
3 shift/move your arse spoken an impolite way of telling someone to hurry up
3 تعبير غير مُهذَّب لكلمة (أسرع)، «هز طولك»
arsenal a large number of weapons, or the building where they are stored
تَرَسانة أسْلِحة
arsenic a very strong poison
زِرْنيخ
arson the crime of deliberately making something burn, especially a building — arsonist noun [C]
جَريمة الحَرْق المتعمَّد - مُرتكِب جريمة الحَرْق المتعمَّد
art 1 [U] the use of drawing, painting etc to make beautiful things or to express ideas: Steve’s studying art at college.
1 الفنّ
2 [U] things that are produced by art, such as drawings and paintings: modern art | an art exhibition | work of art Some important works of art were stolen.
2 الأعمال الفنيَّة - عَمَل فنِّيّ
3 [C,U] the skill involved in making or doing something: the art of writing
3 المهارة
artefact → see ARTIFACT
مَصنوعة فَنِّيَّة ذات قيمة أثرية
artery 1 one of the tubes that takes blood from your heart to the rest of your body → compare VEIN
1 شِرْيان
2 formal a main road, railway line, or river — arterial /ɑːˈtɪ(ə)riəl ‖ɑːrˈtɪr-/ adjective
2 طريق أو خَطّ أو نَهْر رئيسِيّ - مُتعلِّق بالشَّرايين، شريانيّ
artful good at deceiving people — artfully adverb
ماكِر، مُحتال - بمَكْر، بدهاء
art gallery a room or building where people can look at famous paintings and other types of art; GALLERY AmE
قاعة لعَرْض الأعمال الفنيَّة
arthritis a disease that causes pain and swelling in the joints of your body — arthritic /-ˈθrɪtɪk/ adjective: arthritic fingers
الْتِهاب المفاصِل - مُلتهب المفاصِل
artichoke a round green vegetable with thick pointed leaves and a firm base → see picture at VEGETABLE
خُرْشوف
article 1 a piece of writing in a newspaper, magazine etc: Did you read that article on the space shuttle?
1 مَقال
2 a thing, especially one of a group of things: an article of clothing
2 قِطْعَة، صِنْف
3 in grammar, the word ‘the’ (=the definite article), or the word ‘a’ or ‘an’ (=the indefinite article)
3 أداة (تَعْريف أو تنكير)
articulate able to express your thoughts and feelings clearly: a bright and articulate child — articulately adverb
فَصيح، طَلْق اللِّسان - بطلاقة
articulate to put your thoughts or feelings into words: Children’s worries about divorce are not always clearly articulated — articulation /ɑːˌtɪkjʊ(ə)ˈleɪʃən‖ɑːr-/ noun [U]
يُفصِح، يُعبِّر - إفصاح، نُطق
articulated a vehicle that is articulated is made as two joined parts that can bend to go around corners: an articulated lorry
مَفْصلِيّ، ذو مفاصِل
artifact also artefact BrE an object that was made and used a long time ago, especially one that is studied by ARCHAEOLOGISTS: Egyptian artefacts
مَصنوعة فَنِّيَّة ذات قيمة أثَريَّة
artificial 1 not natural, but made by people: artificial sweeteners | an artificial leg
1 اصطِناعيّ
2 not natural or sincere: an artificial smile — artificially adverb
2 مُصطنَع - بطَريقة مُصطنَعة
artificial intelligence the science of how to make computers do things that people can do, such as make decisions and understand language
الذَّكاء الاصطناعيّ
artificial respiration a method of helping an unconscious person to start breathing again by blowing air into their mouth
التَّنفُّس الاصْطِناعيّ
artillery big guns, either on wheels or fixed in one place
المِدْفعِيّة
artisan formal someone who does skilled work with their hands; CRAFTSMAN
صَناع، حِرْفِيّ ماهِر، صانِع ماهِر (أسطى)
artist someone who produces or performs any kind of art, including painting, drawing, music, and dance
فنّان
artiste formal someone such as a singer or actor who performs in a theatre, club etc
مُغنية أو مُمَثِّلة على المسرح أو في نادٍ ليلِيّ
artistic 1 showing skill or imagination in painting, drawing etc: I never knew you were so artistic.
1 ماهِر في الرَّسْم بالزَّيت وغيره
2 connected with art or with being an artist: artistic freedom —artistically /-kli/ adverb
2 فنيّ، مُرتبِط بالفنّ - بطريقة فنيَّة
artistry a very high level of skill in sport, art, cooking etc: the magnificent artistry of the great tennis players
المهارة الفنيَّة
arts 1 the arts art, music, theatre, film, literature etc, all considered together: government funding for the arts
1 الفنون
2 [plural] school or college subjects such as History or French that are not connected with science: an arts degree
2 الآداب
artwork 1 [U] the pictures or decorations that are included in a book, magazine etc: Some of the artwork is absolutely brilliant.
1 العمل الفنيّ الذي يَشْتَمِل عليه كتاب أو مجلّة
2 [C,U] especially AmE paintings and other pieces of art: His private collection includes artworks by Dufy and Miro.
2 اللَّوحات الزيتِيَّة وغيرها من القطع الفنيَّة
arty arty BrE, art·sy /ˈɑːtsi‖ˈɑːr-/ AmEadjective a person, place, or style that is arty shows an interest in art in a fashionable, but perhaps insincere, way: an arty film student
مُدعٍ حُبّ الفنّ على الطَّريقة الحديثة
as 1 used when you are comparing things, or saying that they are like each other: These houses aren’t as old as the ones near the river. | He was as surprised as anyone when they offered him the job.
1 مِثْل
2 used when you are describing what job, use, or appearance of something is: In the past, women were mainly employed as secretaries or teachers. | The kids dressed up as animals. | John used an old blanket as a tent.
2 كَـ..، يعمل كَـ..، يستخدم كَـ..، يبدو كَـ..
3 used when you are describing the way that people think of something: Settlers saw the wilderness as dangerous rather than beautiful.
3 على أنَّها
4 in the same way: Leave things as they are until the police come. | As I said earlier, this research has only just started.
4 كما هي، بدون تغيير
5 while something is happening: The phone rang just as I was leaving.
5 بينما
6 as if/as though in a way that makes you think that something is true: They all looked as if they were used to working outdoors.
6 كما لو كان
7 as to about: She offered no explanation as to why she’d left so suddenly.
7 عن
8 as of today/December 12th/next spring etc starting at a particular time and continuing from that time: The pay raise will come into effect as of January 1st.
8 اعتبارًا من (تاريخ مُحدَّد)
9 as for sb/sth used to start talking about a subject or person that someone has already mentioned: As for racism, much progress has been made.
9 أمّا عن
10 because: James decided not to go out as he was still really tired. → see also as long as (LONG2), as a matter of fact (MATTER1), such as (SUCH), as well as (WELL1), as yet (YET1), — as well (WELL1), so as (SO1)
10 لأنَّ، بسبب
asap the abbreviation of ‘as soon as possible’: Please reply asap.
اخْتِصار للعبارة الإنجليزية «as soon as possible» بمعنى: بأسرع ما يمكن
asbestos a substance that does not burn easily, that was often used as a building material
مادة الأسبستوس
ascend formal to move up or move to the top of something: The plane ascended rapidly. → opposite DESCEND
يَصْعد، يَرْتفِع
ascendancy also ascendency a position of power, influence, or control: the ascendancy of Japanese companies in the electronics market
مَرْكَز قُوَّة، سيطرة
ascent 1 [C, usually singular] the activity of moving or climbing up: a successful ascent of Mount Everest
1 صُعود
2 [C] the process of becoming more important or successful
2 ارْتِقاء
3 [C, usually singular] a path or road that goes gradually up: a steep ascent up the mountain → opposite DESCEND
3 طريق صاعِد
ascertain formal to discover or find out something: School officials are trying to ascertain the facts.
يتحقَّق من
ascetic living a simple strict life, usually for religious reasons — ascetic noun [C] — asceticism noun [U]
مُتقشِّف - المُتقشِّف، الناسِك - الزُّهد
ascribe ascribe sth to sb/sth phr verb [T] formal to believe that something happens or exists because of someone or something else: Carter ascribed his problems to a lack of money.
يَنسُب، يعزو إلى
asexual technical without sex, sex organs, or sexual activity: asexual reproduction in some plants — asexually adverb
غير جنسِيّ، لاجنسِيّ - لا جِنْسِيًّا، بشكلٍ لا جِنسيّ
ash 1 the soft grey powder that is left after something has been burned: cigarette ash | sb’s ashes (=the grey powder that is left after a dead body has been burned)
1 رَماد - الرَّماد المتخلِّف عن حَرْق جُثَّة
2 a type of forest tree, or the hard wood from this tree
2 بَلّوط، دَرْدار
ashamed 1 feeling embarrassed or guilty about something: + of Mike felt ashamed of his old clothes. | ashamed of yourself You should be ashamed of yourself, acting like that!
1 خَجلان، مُستَحٍ، شاعِر بالخجل - خجلان من نَفْسه
2 be ashamed of sb uncomfortable or angry because someone has done something to embarrass you: Helen felt ashamed of her parents.
2 مُسْتاء من سلوك مُحرِج لشَخْص
ashen very pale because of shock or fear: Her face was ashen.
شديد الشُّحوب
ashore onto or towards the side of a lake, river, sea, or ocean: Brian pulled the boat ashore.
نَحْوَ الشّاطِئ، على الشّاطِئ
ashtray a small dish where you put used cigarettes
طفّاية سجائِر، منفضة
aside 1 move/step etc aside to move, step etc to the side: Bob stepped aside to let me pass.
1 يأخذ جانب الطَّريق
2 put/set/leave sth aside (for sth) to keep or save something so that it can be used later: I’m trying to put aside £20 a week for my trip to Italy. | A room was set aside for the tests.
2 يدَّخِر شيئًا للمستقبل، يُجنِّب شيئًا لاستخدامه مستقبلًا
3 aside from apart from
3 بغَضّ النَّظَر عن
aside something you say in a quiet voice so that only a few people can hear
حديث جانبي (بصوت منخفض)
ask 1 to say to someone that you want them to tell you something: ‘‘What’s your name?’’ she asked quietly. | ask sb a question Can I ask a question? | ask (sb) about sth Did they ask you about your qualifications? | ask (sb) whether/if/why/what etc Helen asked him if he was married.
1 يَطْلُب - يُوجِّه سؤالًا - يسأل شَخْصًا عن شيء - يسأل شَخْصًا ما إذا كان/لماذا/ما الذي
2 to say to someone that you want them to do something for you, give you something, help you, advise you etc: Sarah wants to ask your advice. | If you need anything, just ask. | ask (sb) for Some people don’t like to ask for help. | ask sb to do sth Ask Paula to post the letters.
2 يَطْلُب خدمة من شَخْص
3 to say to someone that you want to know if you can be allowed to do something: ask (sb) if/whether Why don’t you ask your dad if you can borrow his boat? | ask to do sth Susie’s asked to go home early.
3 يَطْلُب من شَخْص الإذن بعمل شيء
4 to invite someone to go somewhere: ask sb out (=ask someone to go with you for a meal, drink etc): Mark would like to ask her out, but he’s too shy. | ask sb in (=ask someone to come into your house, room etc)
4 يدعو شَخْصًا إلى الخروج إلى مكان - يدعو شَخْصًا إلى وجْبَة بالخارج - يدعو شخصًا إلى منزله
5 to want a particular amount of money for something you are selling: He’s asking $2000 for that old car!
5 يطلب ثمنًا لِـ
6 If you ask me used to emphasize your own opinion: If you ask me, he’s crazy.
6 إذا أخذتَ رأيي، أنا رأيي
7 ask yourself used to say that someone should think very carefully about something: Ask yourself, who is going to benefit from the changes?
7 اسألْ نفسك، فكّرْ جيدًا
8 Don’t ask me! spoken used when you do not know the answer to a question and are annoyed that someone has asked: ‘‘When will Vicky get home?’’ ‘‘Don’t ask me!’’
8 لا تَسَلْني (لأنّي لا أعرف)
9 be asking for trouble informal to be behaving in a way that will probably cause trouble: Leaving your car here is just asking for trouble.
9 باحِث عن المتاعب
askew not completely straight or level: His tie was askew and he smelt of brandy.
مُعوَجّ، غير مستوٍ
asleep 1 sleeping: Be quiet. The baby is asleep. | fast/sound asleep (=sleeping very deeply): Look at Tom. He’s fast asleep.
1 نائِم - مُسْتَغرِق في النَّوْم
2 fall asleep to begin to sleep: I always fall asleep watching TV.
2 يستغرق في النَّوْم، ينام
asparagus a long thin green vegetable shaped like a small stick
الهليون، كِشك ألماس
aspect one of the parts of a situation or subject that can be considered separately: The committee discussed several aspects of the traffic problem.
وَجْه من أوجه الموضوع، مَظهر
asphalt a hard black substance used for making the surface of roads or paths
الأسْفَلت
asphyxiate formal to make someone unable to breathe, so that they may die — asphyxiation /æsˌfɪksiˈeɪʃən, əs-/ noun [U]
يَخْنُق، يسبب الاخْتِناق - الخَنْق، الاختناق
aspiration a strong desire to have or to achieve something: the aspirations of ordinary men and women
تَطلُّع، مَطْمَح
aspire to have a strong desire to achieve something: + to people who work hard and aspire to a better way of life
يَطمَح، يتطلع إلى
aspirin a drug that reduces pain and fever
أسبرين
aspiring aspiring politician/writer/painter etc someone who wants to become a politician, writer, painter etc
مُتطلِّع إلى أن يُصبِح سياسِيّا/كاتِبًا/رسّامًا
ass 1 AmE a rude word for the part of your body that you sit on: Jamie fell right on his ass.
1 العَجُز
2 informal someone who is behaving stupidly: Don’t be such an ass!
2 الغَبِيّ
3 especially literary a DONKEY
3 الحِمار
assailant formal someone who attacks another person
المُهاجِم، المعتدي
assassin someone who murders an important person
القاتِل
assassinate to murder an important person: a plot to assassinate the President — assassination /əˌsæsɪ(ə)-ˈneɪʃən‖-sənˈeɪ-/ noun [C,U] an assassination attempt
يغتال - الاغْتِيال
assault a violent attack on a person or place: + on an increase in the number of sexual assaults on women
هُجوم يَتَّسم بالعُنْف
assault to attack someone violently: McGillis claimed he had been assaulted by a gang of youths.
يُهاجِم بعُنْف
assemble 1 [I,T] to come together or gather people together in the same place: A crowd had assembled in front of the White House.
1 يَجْمع، يَجْتَمِع
2 [T] to put the different parts of something together: The bookcase is fairly easy to assemble.
2 يُجمِّع، يُركِّب
assembly 1 [C,U] a regular meeting of all the students and teachers in a school: School assembly begins at 9 o’clock.
1 اجْتِماع دورِيّ للطلاب والمدرِّسين
2 [C] a group of people who have come together for a particular purpose: the United Nations General Assembly
2 جمعِيَّة
assent formal official agreement or approval: The directors have given their assent to the proposals — assent verb [I]
مُوافَقة رَسْمِيَّة - يوافِق رَسْمِيًّا
assert 1 [T] to say firmly that something is true: men who assert that everything can be explained scientifically
1 يُؤكِّد
2 assert your rights/independence/authority etc to show that you are determined to have your rights etc: Teenagers are always looking for ways to assert their independence.
2 يُصمِّم على نيل حقوقه/اسْتِقلاله/سُلطته
3 assert yourself to behave or speak in a confident and determined way so that other people notice you
3 يَلفت إليه الأنظار بطريقته الواثِقة
assertion a confident statement: Davis repeated his assertion that he was innocent.
تَصْريح مُؤكِّد، بيان واثِق
assertive behaving in a confident and determined way: You must be more assertive if you want people to listen to you. —assertiveness noun [U] — assertively adverb
مُصمِّم و واثِق - التَّأْكيد، التَّصْميم - بطريقة الواثِق
assess to examine something and make a decision about it, especially about its quality, amount, or value: First we must assess the cost of repairing the damage — assessment noun [C,U] I agree entirely with your assessment of the situation.
يُقيِّم، يُثمِّن - التَّقييم
asset 1 [C] something or someone that helps you to succeed: Her knowledge of computers was a real asset. | + to You’re an asset to the company, George.
1 من مقومات النَّجاح، مَكْسب
2 [C, usually plural] something that a company owns, that can be sold to pay debts
2 أصول الشّركة، موجودات
assiduous working with a lot of effort and care — assiduously adverb
مُثابِر، مُجتهِد، دَءوب - بِمُثابَرَة، بِدَأْب
assign 1 to give someone a job to do: assign sth to sb Specific tasks will be assigned to each member of the team. | assign sb to doctors who were assigned to military hospitals
1 يُسنِد عملًا لِـ - يُحدِّد، يُعيِّن
2 to give something to someone for them to use: Each department is assigned a budget.
2 يُخصِّص
assignment a piece of work that you are given to do: a homework assignment | Nichol was sent on a dangerous and difficult assignment to Bosnia.
مُهمَّة، واجِب منزلِيّ
assimilate 1 [T] to learn and understand facts and ideas and be able to use them: Children can usually assimilate new information more quickly than adults.
1 يَهْضِم، يَسْتوعِب
2 be assimilated (into) to become part of a group and be accepted by it: New immigrants from Asia were gradually assimilated into Canadian society — assimilation /əˈsɪmɪ(ə)lˈleɪʃən/ noun [U]
2 مُندَمِج في مُجتَمع - الاندماج في مجتمع
assist to help someone to do something: assist sb in/with Two nurses assisted Dr Bernard in performing the operation.
يُساعِد، يُعاوِن - يُعاوِن شَخْصًا في عمل
assistance formal help and support: Students receive very little financial assistance from the government. | be of assistance (=help someone): Can I be of any assistance, madam? | come to sb’s assistance (=help someone who is in danger or difficulty)
مُساعَدة - يَمدُّ يد المساعَدة - يُسرِع لنجدته
assistant 1 someone who helps someone else to do their work by doing the less important jobs: Meet Jane Lansdowne, my new assistant. | assistant manager/director/editor Tom’s assistant editor on the local newspaper.
1 المساعِد/المدير المساعِد/مُساعِد مُحرِّر
2 someone whose job is to help customers in a shop: a shop assistant
2 بائِع في محلّ
associate 1 be associated with sth to be connected with something: the health problems that are associated with smoking
1 يَرتبِط، يَتَّصل بِـ
2 [T] to make a connection in your mind between one thing or person and another: associate sth with sth Most people associate Florida with sunshine and long sandy beaches. associate with sb phr verb [T] formal to spend time with someone: I don’t like the kind of people she associates with.
2 يَرْبِط بين شيئين، يَرْبِط شيئًا بشيء آخر - يعاشِر، يُخالِط
associate someone that you work or do business with: a business associate
شَريك، مشارِك
association 1 also Association [C] an organization for people who have the same aims or interests, or who do the same kind of work: the Association of University Teachers
1 هَيْئة، رابطة، جمعية
2 in association with working with another organization or person: concerts sponsored by the Arts Council in association with local businesses
2 بمشاركة، بالاتحاد مع
3 [C, usually plural] a memory or feeling that you have when you think about a place: Los Angeles has happy associations for me.
3 ذكريات مُرتبِطة بمكان
assorted of various different types: a box of assorted cookies
مُتنوِّع
assortment a mixture of various things or of different types of the same thing: an assortment of chocolates
تَشْكيلة، أنواع مُختلِفة
assume 1 to think that something is true although you have no proof: + (that) Your light wasn’t on so I assumed you were out. | assuming (that) (=if we accept that something is true): Assuming the picture is a Van Gogh, how much do you think it is worth?
1 يَتَوهَّم، يظنّ - على فرض أنَّ
2 assume power/control/responsibility etc formal to begin to control people, events etc or become responsible for them: The Chinese Communists assumed power in 1949.
2 يأخذ بزمام السُّلطة/السَّيطرة/يتولَّى المسئولية
3 assume an air/expression/manner formal to pretend to have a particular feeling or attitude: Andy assumed an air of innocence as the teacher walked by.
3 يتظاهر/يتَّخذ لنفسه طريقة مُعيَّنة أو تعبيرات مُعيَّنة
4 to do something to hide what your name is, what you look like, where you live etc: He assumed a false identity.
4 يَنتحِل
assumed under an assumed name using a false name
تحت اسم مُستعار
assumption 1 something that you think is true although you have no proof: + that the assumption that computers can solve all our problems | on the assumption that We’re working on the assumption that prices will continue to rise.
1 توهُّم - مع افتراض أنَّ
2 assumption of when someone starts to take power, starts an important job etc: On its assumption of power, the new government promised an end to the war.
2 الأخذ بزمام، تولّي المسئولية
assurance 1 [C] a definite statement or promise: + that He gave me a firm assurance that there would be no further delays.
1 تَأْكيد
2 [U] confidence in your own abilities; self-assurance: Cindy answered their questions with quiet assurance.
2 ثِقة بالنَّفْس
assure spoken to tell someone that something will definitely happen or is definitely true, so that they are less worried: The document is genuine, I can assure you. | assure sb (that) The doctor assured me that I wouldn’t feel any pain.
يُؤكِّد، يُطمئِن - يُطمئِن شَخْصًا بأن
assured 1 confident about your abilities: Kurt seems older now and more assured.
1 واثِق بنفسه
2 certain to be achieved: A Republican victory seemed assured.
2 مُؤكَّد، مَضْمون
3 be/feel assured of sth to feel certain that something will happen or will be achieved: People can no longer feel assured of regular employment — assuredly /əˈʃʊ(ə)rɪ(ə)dli‖əˈʃʊr-/ adverb
3 يتأكَّد من - بالتَّأْكيد
asterisk a mark like a star (*) used to show that there is a note about a particular word or phrase
علامة نجمية (*)
asthma an illness that causes difficulties in breathing — asthmatic /æsˈmætɪk‖æz-/ adjective
الرَّبو، النَّسَمَة - رَبوِيّ، مَرْبوء
astonish to surprise someone very much: Martina’s speed and agility astonished her opponent.
يُدهِش
astonished very surprised: + at/by We were quite astonished at her ignorance.
دَهِشٌ، مَدهوش
astonishing very surprising: an astonishing £5 million profit — astonishingly adverb
مُدهِش، مُذهِل - بدَرَجَة مُدهِشة
astonishment complete surprise: to sb’s astonishment To our astonishment, Sue won the race. | in astonishment ‘‘What are you doing here?’’ she cried in astonishment.
الدَّهْشة - لدَهْشته - بدَهْشة، بذُهول
astound to make someone feel extremely surprised or shocked: Berger’s fans were astounded by his decision to quit.
يُذهِل، يَصدِم
astounding extremely surprising or shocking: astounding news — astoundingly adverb
مُذهِل، مُريع - بدَرَجَة مُذهِلة
astray 1 go astray to become lost: One of the documents we sent them has gone astray.
1 يَضِلّ الطَّريق
2 lead sb astray often humorous to encourage someone to do bad or immoral things: Mom worried that I’d be led astray by the older girls.
2 يُضِلُّ، يُضلل
astride with one leg on each side of something: She was sitting astride her bicycle.
مُنفرِجَ الساقين
astrology the study of the movements of the planets and stars based on the belief that they influence people’s lives — astrologer noun [C] — astrological /ˌæstrəˈlɒdʒɪkəl◂‖-ˈlɑː-/ adjective
التَّنْجيم - مُنجِّم - مُتَّصل بالتَّنْجيم، تنجيمي
astronaut someone who travels in a SPACECRAFT
رائِد فضاء
astronomical 1 especially spoken astronomical prices or costs are extremely high
1 فلكِيّ
2 connected with the study of the stars — astronomically /-kli/ adverb
2 مُرتبِط بدراسة النّجوم - فلكِيًّا
astronomy the scientific study of the stars and planets — astronomer noun [C]
علم الفَلَك - فَلَكيّ، عالم فلكِيّ
astute clever and quick to understand how to get an advantage from a situation — astuteness noun [U] — astutely adverb
فَطِن، حاذِق - الحِذق، الفِطنة - بِفِطنة، بِحِذق
asylum 1 [U] protection that a government gives to people who have left their own country for political reasons
1 لُجوء سياسِيّ
2 [C] old-fashioned a hospital for people with mental illnesses
2 مُسْتَشْفى الأمراض العقلِيَّة
at 1 used to say where someone or something is: Meet me at my house. → see colour picture on page 808
1 عند مكان مُعيَّن
2 used to say when something happens: The movie starts at 8:00. | A lot of people get lonely at Christmas.
2 في وقت مُعيَّن
3 used to say that an action is directed towards someone or something: Jake shot at the deer but missed. | Stop shouting at me!
3 إلى شَخْص أو شيء
4 because of someone or something: None of the kids laughed at his joke. | Jenny, I’m surprised at you!
4 بسبب
5 good/bad at able or not able to do something well: Debbie’s always been good at learning languages.
5 يُجيد .../لا يُجيد ...
6 used to say what the price, speed, level etc of something is: Gas is selling at about $1.25 a gallon. → see also at all (ALL1), at first (FIRST1), at least (LEAST1)
6 بسِعْر، بسُرعة، بمُسْتوى كذا
ate the past tense of EAT
صيغة الماضي للفعل EAT
atheist someone who does not believe in God? compare AGNOSTICatheism noun [U]
مُلحِد، كافِر - الكفر، الإلحاد
athlete someone who is good at sports, especially running
لاعب رياضي
athletic 1 physically strong and good at sport
1 قويُّ البنية
2 connected with athletes or athletics: He has plenty of athletic ability.
2 رياضيّ
athletics 1 BrE sports such as running races and jumping; track and field AmE
1 ألعاب القُوى
2 AmE sports and physical exercise in general: high school athletics? see colour picture on page 1164
2 الرّياضَة البدنِيَّة
atlas a book of maps
أطْلَس للخرائِط
ATM especially AmE Automated Teller Machine; a machine that you get money from; CASHPOINT BrE
آلة صَرْف النّقود
atmosphere 1 [singular] the kind of feeling or quality that a place or situation seems to have: a hotel with a relaxed, friendly atmosphere
1 الجوّ المحيط
2 the atmosphere the mixture of gases that surrounds the Earth
2 الغِلاف الجوِّيّ
3 [singular] the air inside a room: a smoky atmosphere
3 جوّ الغُرْفَة
atmospheric 1 beautiful and mysterious: atmospheric music
1 جَميل وغامِض
2 relating to the Earth’s atmosphere: atmospheric temperature
2 جَوّيّ، مُتعلِّق بالغِلاف الجوِّيّ
atom the smallest part that a substance can be divided into
الذَّرَّة
atomic 1 relating to atoms: atomic structure
1 متعلِّق بالذَّرَّة
2 using the power that is produced by splitting atoms: atomic weapons
2 ذَرِّيّ
atomic bomb also atom bomb /ˈ.. ./ a very powerful bomb that uses the power made by splitting atoms
القُنْبلة الذّرِّيَّة
atomic energy the power made by splitting atoms, often used to make electricity
الطاقة الذَّرِّيَّة
atrocious extremely bad: Your spelling is atrocious! — atrociously adverb
شَنيع، فَظيع - بفَظاعة
atrocity an extremely cruel or violent action: the atrocities of war
وحشية، فَظاعة
attach 1 [T] to fasten or join one thing to another: attach sth to sth Please attach a photograph to your application form. | There’s a health club attached to the hotel.
1 يُرفِق - يضُمّ
2 attach importance/value/blame etc to sth to decide that something is important, valuable etc: Don’t attach too much importance to what Nick says.
2 يُعْطي أهمية أو قيمة أو يُسنِد المسئولية إلى
3 be attached to sth to join another group or organization especially for a short time: Bowen was attached to the 3rd Army Corps while serving in Northern Ireland.
3 ينسُب إلى، يُلحِق بِـ
attached be attached to to like someone or something very much: We had become very attached to each other over the years.
كَلِف بِـ، مُرتبِط بِـ
attachment 1 [C,U] formal a strong feeling of loyalty, love, or friendship: + to the boy’s close emotional attachment to his sister
1 وَلَع، تعلُّق
2 [C] a part that you fasten to a piece of equipment to make it do different things: an electric drill with a screwdriver attachment
2 إضافة لجِهاز لتوسيع مجال استخداماته
attack 1 [I,T] to use violence against a person or place: Police are hunting a man who attacked a 15-year-old girl. | The town was attacked by the rebel army.
1 يُهاجِم
2 [T] to criticize someone or something strongly: attack sb for doing sth Several newspapers attacked the President for not doing enough.
2 يَنْتَقِد بشِدَّة
3 [T] if a disease attacks something it damages it: The AIDS virus attacks the body’s immune system.
3 يُصيب
4 [I,T] to kick or throw a ball forward during a game in order to get a goal or point — attacker noun [C]
4 يُهاجِم بالكُرة ليُحرِز هَدَفًا - المُهاجِم
attack 1 [C,U] a violent action that is intended to harm someone or something: Coleman was the victim of a vicious attack. | + on a terrorist attack on a British army base | be/come under attack (=be attacked)
1 الهُجوم - مُعَرَّض لهجوم
2 [C,U] strong criticism: + on an attack on the government’s welfare policy
2 النَّقد اللّاذِع
3 [C] a sudden short period of illness or nervousness: + of a severe attack of fever
3 نَوْبة من المرض
4 [C] the players in a game such as football who try to get points → see also HEART ATTACK
4 لاعِبو الهُجوم
attacker someone who physically attacks someone else: She was able to give the police a good description of her attacker. | a sex attacker
مُهاجِم
attain to achieve something after trying for a long time: More women are attaining high positions in business — attainment noun [C,U] the attainment of our objectives — attainable adjective
يتوصَّل إلى، ينال - نَوال، تحقيق - يُمكِن التَّوصُّل إليه
attempt to try to do something that is difficult or dangerous: The second question was so difficult I didn’t even attempt it. | attempt to do sth Marsh was accused of attempting to import the drugs illegally.
يُحاوِل، يَسعى - يُحاول أن يفعل شيئًا
attempt when you try to do something: attempt to do sth So far, all attempts to resolve the problem have failed. | make no attempt (=not try): He made no attempt to hide his anger. | + at It was an attempt at humour, but nobody laughed.
مُحاوَلة - لا يبذل أيّة مُحاوَلة
attend formal to go to a meeting, school, church etc: More than 2000 people are expected to attend this year’s conference. | All students must attend classes regularly.
يحضُر، يَتواجَد
attend to sb/sth phr verb [T] formal to deal with something or someone: I have some urgent business to attend to.
يَرْعى، يتولى، يُؤدّي
attendance 1 the number of people who attend an event, such as a meeting, concert etc: Church attendances have fallen in recent years.
1 الحاضِرون
2 when someone goes regularly to a school, church etc: + at A child’s attendance at school is required by law.
2 حُضور، تواجُد
attendant someone whose job is to take care of a public place and deal with customers: a parking lot attendant
خادِم، تابِع، الشَّخْص المعيَّن في مكان لخدمة الزَّبائِن
attention 1 when you watch, listen to, or think about something: Can I have your attention, please. (=please listen) | + to Her work shows great attention to detail. | pay attention (to sth) (=listen, watch etc): I wish you’d pay attention when I’m giving instructions. | attract/get sb’s attention (=make someone notice you): Phil was trying to attract the waiter’s attention. | draw attention to sth (=make people notice it): a report that drew attention to the problem of water pollution → see also undivided attention (UNDIVIDED)
1 انتباه - يُعْطي انتباهه لِـ - يَجْذِب انتِباه شَخْص ما - يوجِّه الانتباه إلى شيء
2 the interest that people show in someone or something: attract attention Rohmer’s latest movie has attracted considerable attention from the critics. | the centre of attention (=the person that everyone is interested in): Johnny enjoyed being the centre of attention.
2 اهْتِمام - يَجْذِب الاهْتِمام - مَحطّ الأنظار، مَرْكَز الاهْتِمام
3 special care or treatment: patients requiring urgent medical attention
3 عِناية أو مُعاملة خاصَّة
4 stand at/to attention to stand up straight like a soldier
4 يقف مُنتصِبًا كالجندِيّ
attentive 1 listening or watching carefully: an attentive audience
1 شَديد الانْتِباه
2 making sure that someone has everything they need: an attentive host —attentively adverb
2 مُنْتَبِه إلى حاجات الآخرين - بانْتِباه، باهْتِمام
attic a room at the top of a house → see colour picture on page 149
عُلِّيَّة، غُرْفة في أعلى البيت
attitude 1 [C,U] what you think and feel about something: I don’t understand your attitude. Why don’t you trust her? | + to/towards He has a very old-fashioned attitude towards women.
1 اتِّجاه، موقف
2 [U] informal if someone or something has attitude, they seem exciting and unusual and full of confidence, and do not seem to care what other people think about them: a band with attitude
2 موقف معنويّ
attorney AmE a lawyer
مُحامٍ
attract 1 to make someone like something or feel interested in it: I was attracted by the idea of living on a desert island. | attract sb to sth What was it that attracted you to the job? | attract attention Diana’s visit to Washington attracted massive media attention.
1 يَجْذِب - يَجْذب شخصًا إلى شيء - يَجْذِب/يشدُّ الانتباه
2 be attracted to sb to like someone in a sexual way: I’ve always been attracted to blondes.
2 مُنْجَذِب إلى شخص
3 if something attracts people or things it makes them move towards it: Left-over food attracts flies.
3 يَشُدّ، يَجذِب نحو
attraction 1 [C] something that attracts people because it is interesting or enjoyable: Elvis Presley’s home has become a major tourist attraction. | One of the attractions of being single is that you can go out with whoever you like.
1 شيء مُغرٍ
2 [C,U] when one person is attracted to another because they like them very much: sexual attraction
2 الجاذبِيَّة
attractive 1 pretty or pleasant to look at: an attractive young woman
1 جَذاب، لافِت للنَّظر
2 good enough to make people interested: an attractive salary —attractively adverb
2 مُثير للاهْتِمام - بطريقة جذابة
attribute attribute sth to sb/sth phr verb [T]
1 to say that a situation or event was caused by something: The increase in crime can be attributed to social changes.
1 يُرجع إلى، يَعزو إلى
2 to say that something was written, said, or made by a particular person: a painting attributed to Rembrandt — attributable adjective
2 يَنْسُب إلى - يمكن نسبتُه إلى
attribute a good or useful quality: What attributes should a good manager possess?
خَصْلة حَميدة، خاصِّيَّة
aubergine BrE a large dark purple vegetable; eggplant AmE → see picture at VEGETABLE
باذنجان رومِيّ
auburn auburn hair is a reddish brown colour → see colour picture on page 466
بُنّيّ مُحمَرّ، كَسْتَنائيّ
auction an event at which things are sold to the person who offers the most money — auction verb [T]
مَزاد - يُقيم مَزادًا
auctioneer someone who is in charge of an auction
دَلّال، مُثَمِّن
audacity brave or shocking behaviour: have the audacity to do sth (=do something that seems shocking, especially something very annoying that you should not do): I can’t believe he had the audacity to ask for more money — audacious /ɔːˈdeɪʃəs‖ɒː-/ adjective
جَراءة، جَسارة - تَجرَّأ أن يفعل كذا - جَريء، جَسور
audible loud enough to be heard: Her voice was barely audible — audibly adjective → opposite INAUDIBLE
مَسْموع، مُمكن سماعُه - بدرجة مَسْموعة
audience 1 the people who watch or listen to a performance: The audience began clapping and cheering.
1 النَّظّارة، المتفرِّجون
2 a formal meeting with someone who is very important: an audience with the Pope
2 لقاء رَسْمِيّ مع شخصِيَّة هامَّة
audio for recording and broadcasting sound: audio tapes
سَمعِيّ، مُختصّ بتَسْجيل وإذاعة الصَّوْت
audiovisual using recorded pictures and sound: audiovisual equipment for language teaching
سَمعِيّ بصرِيّ
audit when someone officially examines a company’s financial records to check that they are correct — audit verb [T] — auditor noun [C]
مُراجَعة الحِسابات وتدقيقها - يُراجِع الحِسابات - مُراجِع حِسابات
audition a short performance by an actor, singer etc to test whether he or she is good enough to perform in a play, concert etc — audition verb [I,T]
اختِبارُ الأداء - يَختبرُ الأداء
auditorium the part of a theatre where people sit to watch a performance
صالة عَرْض، مكان جلوس المُتفرِّجين، قاعَةُ المُشاهَدة
augment formal to increase something by adding to it
يَزيد، يعزِّز
augur augur well/ill formal to be a sign that something good or bad will happen in the future
يُبشِّر بالخَير/يُنذِرُ بالشَّرّ
August written abbreviation Aug noun [C,U] the eighth month of the year → see Usage Note at MONTH
شَهْر أغسطس (آب)
aunt also aunt·ie /ˈɑːnti‖ˈæn-/ informalnoun [C] the sister of your father or mother, or the wife of your UNCLE → see picture at FAMILY
العَمَّة أو الخالة أو زَوْجَة العَمّ أو الخال
au pair a young woman who stays with a family in a foreign country and looks after their children
مُربّية للأطفال تُقيم مع عائِلة بالخارِج
aura a quality or feeling that seems to come from a person or place: Inside the church there was an aura of complete tranquillity.
جوّ مُميِّز
aural relating to the sense of hearing: aural skills → compare ORAL1
مُتعلِّق بحاسّة السَّمع، سمعِيّ
auspices under the auspices of formal with the help and support of an organization: The research was done under the auspices of Harvard Medical School.
تحت رِعاية ..
auspicious formal an auspicious time or event makes you expect success in the future → opposite INAUSPICIOUS
مُبشِّر بالخير
austere 1 plain and simple and without decoration: an austere style of painting
1 بَسيط وبدون تَزْويق
2 very strict and serious: a cold, austere woman
2 صارِم
3 without comfort or enjoyment: Life in the monastery was austere.
3 مُتقشِّف
austerity bad economic conditions in which people do not have enough money to live: the austerity of the post- war years
التَّقشُّف
authentic something that is authentic really is what it seems to be: authentic Indian food | an authentic Picasso painting — authentically /-kli/ adjectiveauthenticity /ˌɔːθenˈtɪsɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
حَقيقِيّ، أصلِيّ - بدَرَجَة صَحيحة أو صادِقة - صحَّة، صِدْق، أصالة
author someone who writes a book, article etc: Robert Louis Stevenson, the author of ‘Treasure Island’
كاتِب، مُؤلِّف
authoritarian forcing people to obey strict rules or laws and not allowing any freedom: an authoritarian regime
مُتسلِّط، استِبْداديّ
authoritative 1 an authoritative book, statement etc is trusted because it is written by someone who knows a lot about a subject: an authoritative textbook on European history
1 موثوق به
2 seeming confident and able to control a situation: The captain spoke in a calm and authoritative voice — authoritatively adverb
2 آمِر و واثِق بنفسه - بطريقة آمِرة واثِقة
authority 1 [U] the power or right to make important decisions and control people: the authority to do sth Every manager has the authority to dismiss employees. | + over Some parents appear to have no authority over their children. | in authority (=in a powerful position): You should write and complain to someone in authority.
1 سُلْطة - عنده سُلْطة أنْ يفعل كذا - له سُلْطة على - في مركز قوِيّ
2 [C] an organization or government department that makes official decisions and controls public services: the local education authority | the authorities British police are co-operating with the Malaysian authorities.
2 هَيْئة أو مَصْلَحَة حُكومِيَّة لها سُلْطة اتِّخاذ القرار وتوجيه الخدمات العامَّة
3 [C] someone who is respected because of their knowledge about a subject: + on Dr Ballard is an authority on tropical diseases.
3 مَرجِع في، حُجَّة في
authorize (also -ise BrE) to give official permission to do something: Who authorized the payments into Maclean’s account? | Only senior officers were authorized to handle secret documents — authorization (also -isation BrE) /ˌɔːθəraɪˈzeɪʃən‖ˌɒːθərə-/ noun [C,U]
يُفوِّض، يمنح تصريحًا رَسْمِيًّا - تَخْويل السُّلْطة، تَفويض
autistic autistic children have a mental illness that prevents them communicating with other people
فُصاميّ ذاتيّ، ذاتيُّ التَّركيز
autobiography a book that someone writes about their own life — autobiographical /ˌɔːtəbaɪ(ə)-ˈgræfɪkəl‖ˌɒː-/ adjective
السّيرة الذاتِيَّة - مُتعلِّق بالسّيرة الذاتِيَّة
autograph if a famous person gives you their autograph, they sign their name on something for you — autograph verb [T] an autographed picture
تَوقيع شَخصٍ مَشهور بِخَطِّه - يُوقِّع بخطه على صورة ...
automated an automated system, process, factory etc uses machines: a fully automated telephone system —automation /ˌɔːtəˈmeɪʃən‖ɒː-/ noun [U]
مُدار ذاتيًّا، مُشغَّل آليًّا - التَّشغيل الآلي، الآليَّة التِّلقائية
automatic 1 an automatic machine is designed to work by itself without much human control: an automatic camera
1 تلقائيّ، ذاتيّ
2 certain to happen because of a rule or system: We get an automatic pay increase every year.
2 آليّ
3 done without thinking: an automatic reaction — automatically /-kli/ adverb: You shouldn’t automatically assume that your teacher is right.
3 يحدث بدون تَفْكير - بطريقة آلِيَّة
automatic 1 a car with a system of gears that operate themselves
1 سيّارة ذات جِهاز آليّ لنقل السُّرعة
2 a gun that shoots bullets continuously
2 بُنْدُقيَّة آلِيَّة
automation the use of machines to do work, instead of people — automated /ˈɔːtəmeɪtɪ(ə)d‖ˈɒː-/ adjective
التَّشغيل الآليّ، الآلية التِّلقائية - مُدار ذاتيًّا، مُشَغَّل آليًّا
automobile AmE a car
سيّارة
autonomous having the power to make independent decisions or rules: an autonomous state — autonomy noun [U] political autonomy
مُستقِلّ، ذو إرادة مُستقلّة - الحكم الذاتِيّ
autopsy an official examination of a dead body to discover why the person has died
تشريح الْجُثَّة (لمعرفة أسباب الوفاة)
autumn the season when the leaves fall off the trees; FALL AmEautumnal /ɔːˈtʌmnəl‖ɒː-/ adjective
الخريف - خريفِيّ
auxiliary giving additional help or support: auxiliary nurses — auxiliary noun [C]
إضافِيّ - الإضافِيّ، الملحق
auxiliary verb a verb used with another verb to form questions, negative sentences, and tenses. In English the auxiliary verbs are ‘be’, ‘do’, ‘have’.
فِعل مساعِد (في النحو)
avail to no avail/of no avail formal without success: They had searched everywhere, but to no avail.
بلا فائِدة، بدون نتيجة
avail avail yourself of sth formal to accept an offer or use an opportunity: Students should avail themselves of every opportunity to improve their English.
يَسْتفيد من، ينتفع بِـ
available 1 if something is available, you can get it, buy it, or use it: ‘The Lion King’ is available now on video for only £12.99! | + for land available for development
1 مُتوفر، مُتيسِّر
2 if someone is available, you can go and talk to them because they are not busy: Dr Wright is not available at the moment — availability /əˌveɪlə-ˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 مُتاح - إتاحية، تيسُّر
avalanche 1 a large amount of snow that falls down the side of a mountain
1 انْهِيار جليدِيّ
2 an avalanche of a very large number of things that happen or arrive at the same time: An avalanche of letters came in from admiring fans.
2 حشد كبير من
avant garde avant-garde literature, music, art etc is very modern and different from existing styles: an avant-garde film
سابِق لجيله، في الطَّليعة
avarice formal an extreme desire for wealth; GREED — avaricious /ˌævəˈrɪʃəs◂/ adjective
بُخل شَديد - بَخيل
avenge literary to punish someone because they have harmed you or your family: He wanted to avenge his brother’s death.
يَنْتقِم، يَثأر
avenue 1 also Avenue a road in a town: Fifth Avenue
1 جادَّة، طريق
2 a possible way of achieving something: We need to explore every avenue if we want to find a solution.
2 سبيل للوصول إلى هدف
average 1 [only before noun] the average amount is the amount you get by adding several quantities together and then dividing the result by the number of quantities: The average temperature in July is around 35°C.
1 مُتوسِّط، مُعَدَّل
2 [only before noun] an average person or thing is a typical example of a person or of a type of thing: What does the average worker in Britain earn a month?
2 عاديّ
3 not very good but not very bad: I didn’t think it was a great movie – just average really.
3 مَقْبول، لا هو جيِّد ولا سيِّئ (نص نص)
average 1 [C] the amount that you get by adding several quantities together and then dividing the result by the number of quantities: + of House prices have risen by an average of 2%.
1 المتوسِّط، المُعَدَّل
2 on average based on a calculation of what usually happens: We spend, on average, around £40 a week on food.
2 في المتوسِّط
3 above/below average higher or lower than the usual level or amount: students of above average ability
3 فوق المتوسِّط/أقل من المتوسِّط
average to be or do a particular amount as an average: The train travelled at speeds averaging 125 mph.
يعمل بمعدَّل كذا
average out phr verb [I] to result in a particular average amount: Our weekly profits average out at about $750.
يصل إلى مُتوسّط أو مُعدَّل
averse not be averse to formal or humorous willing to do or enjoy something: Charles was not averse to the occasional cigar.
غير كارهٍ لِـ، غير رافِض لِـ
aversion have an aversion to sth to not like something: She has an aversion to cats.
يَكره، يشعر بكراهية لِـ
avert 1 to prevent something unpleasant from happening: negotiations aimed at averting a crisis
1 يُحوِّل، يَصرِف
2 avert your eyes/gaze to look away from something
2 يحوِّل نظره بعيدًا
aviary a large cage where birds are kept
قَفَص كبير للطيور
aviation the activity of flying or making aircraft
الطَّيران، صِناعة الطائِرات
avid eager: an avid reader of romantic novels — avidly adverb
نَهِم، مُتعطِّش - بشراهة
avocado a fruit with a thick green or dark purple skin that is green inside and has a large seed in the middle
أفوكادو، زُبديَّة، كمَّثْرى التّمساح
avoid 1 to make sure that something bad does not happen: You can avoid a lot of problems by using traveller’s cheques.
1 يَتَجنَّب
2 to deliberately stay away from someone or something: I have the impression John’s trying to avoid us.
2 يتحاشى، يتفادى
3 avoid doing sth to deliberately not do something: It’s best to avoid going out in the strong midday sun — avoidance noun [U] — avoidable adjective
3 يَمتنِع عن، يَبتعِد عن - تجنُّب، تحاشٍ - يمكن تجنُّبه أو تحاشيه
await formal
1 to wait for something: Briggs is awaiting trial for murder.
1 يترقَّب، يتوقَّع
2 if a situation or event awaits someone, it is going to happen to them: A warm welcome awaits you.
2 ينتظر
awake be/lie/stay etc awake to not be sleeping: I lay awake, worrying about my exams. | keep sb awake The storm kept us awake all night. | wide awake (=completely awake)
مُتيقِّظ - يجعله مُتيقِّظًا - يَقِظ تمامًا
awake awoke /əˈwəʊk‖əˈwoʊk/, awoken /əˈwəʊkən‖əˈwoʊ-/, awaking [I,T] literary to wake up or to make someone wake up: She awoke the following morning feeling refreshed.
يَسْتيقِظ، يوقظ
awaken formal
1 [T] to make someone have a sudden feeling: Several strange events had already occurred to awaken our suspicions.
1 يُثير
2 [I,T] to wake up or make someone wake up awaken to sth phr verb [T] formal to begin to realize something: People were awakening to the fact that the communist system was failing.
2 يَسْتيقِظ، يوقظ - يتنبَّه إلى
awakening when you suddenly start to realize a fact or experience a feeling: the awakening of her mind to social realities
يَقَظَة، الْتِفات، تنبُّه
award to officially give someone a prize or money: be awarded sth Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work in physics.
يمنَح جائِزة - ينالُ (جائزة)
award 1 a prize that someone gets for something that they have achieved: Susan Sarandon won the ‘Best Actress’ award.
1 جائزة، مُكافأة
2 an amount of money that is given to someone because of a judge’s decision: Hemmings received an award of $300,000 in compensation.
2 تعويض
aware 1 knowing about or realizing something: + of Most smokers are aware of the dangers of smoking. | + that I suddenly became aware that someone was moving around downstairs.
1 مُدرِك، واعٍ
2 knowing about and interested in something: This class isn’t really politically aware. → opposite UNAWAREawareness noun [U]
2 عارِف ومُهتمٌّ بِـ - الدِّراية
awash 1 covered with water: streets awash with flood water
1 مُغطّى بالمياه
2 awash with having too much of something: Hollywood is awash with rumours.
2 غارِق في
away 1 moving further from a place, or staying far from a place: Go away! | Diane drove away quickly. | + from Keep away from the fire! → see colour picture on page 808
1 بعيدًا (عن)
2 at a particular distance from a place: The sea is only five miles away.
2 على مسافة كذا
3 into a safe place: Put all your toys away now, please.
3 في مكان آمن
4 not at home or in your usual place of work: Will you look after the house while I’m away?
4 غير موجود، غائِبًا عن المكان
5 2 days/3 weeks etc away at a particular time in the future: Christmas is only a month away.
5 باقٍ من الزَّمن
6 used to say that something gradually disappears: All the water had boiled away.
6 تَدْريجِيًّا
7 without stopping: He’s been working away on the patio all day.
7 بدون انقطاع
8 if a team plays away, they play at their opponent’s stadium → see also right away (RIGHT2).
8 على أرْض الخصم
away away game/match a sports game that is played at your opponent’s STADIUM → opposite HOME1
مباراة تُقام على أرض الْخَصْم
awe a feeling of great admiration and sometimes fear: in/with awe She gazed with awe at the breathtaking landscape. | be in awe of sb (=respect someone and be slightly afraid of them)
رَهْبة، هَيبَة - يَرْهَب
awe-inspiring very impressive and making you feel a lot of respect or admiration: an awe-inspiring achievement
رَهيب، مُريع
awesome very impressive, often in a way that is frightening: an awesome responsibility
مَهيب
awful 1 very bad or unpleasant: What awful weather! | This soup tastes awful!
1 فَظيع، رَهيب
2 an awful lot (of) spoken very much or very many: It’s going to cost an awful lot of money.
2 كمّيَّة هائلة من
awfully spoken very: I’m awfully sorry – I didn’t mean to disturb you.
جدًّا، بدَرَجَة كبيرة
awkward 1 difficult to deal with: Let’s hope they don’t ask too many awkward questions.
1 حَرِج، مُحرِج
2 embarrassed and shy: He stood in a corner, looking awkward and self-conscious.
2 مُحرَج، في موقف حَرِج
3 deliberately unhelpful: I wish you’d stop being so awkward!
3 غير مُتعاوِن
4 difficult to use, hold, or carry: This camera’s rather awkward to use. —awkwardly adverbawkwardness noun [U]
4 صَعْب التَّداول والاسْتِعْمال - بإحْراج، بِحرج - الإحْراج، الحرَج
awoke the past tense of AWAKE
صيغة الماضي للفعل AWAKE
awoken the past participle of AWAKE
التَّصْريف الثالث للفعل AWAKE
awry 1 go awry to not happen in the way that was planned: All their plans had gone awry.
1 يبتعد عن المسار الصحيح - مُعوَجّ؛ باعوجاج
2 not in the correct place or position: He was walking unsteadily, with his hat awry.
2 مُنحرف، مَوروب
axe also ax AmE a tool used for cutting wood, with a wooden handle and a metal blade
فَأْس
axe also ax AmE informal to suddenly get rid of or reduce jobs, services, or costs: The company has announced it’s decision to axe 700 jobs.
يستغني عن العمالة أو يُخَفِّضها
axis plural axes /ˈæksiːz/
1 the imaginary line or pole around which something turns, for example the Earth
1 محور
2 a line at the side or bottom of a graph, used for marking measurements
2 خَطُّ المحور
axle the bar that connects two wheels on a vehicle
محور العَجَلة، جُزع
aye spoken informal a word meaning ‘yes’, used especially in Scotland and the North of England
نَعم
azure bright blue
الأزْرق السَّماوِيّ
A, a the letter ‘a’
الحرف الأول من حروف الهِجاء الإنجليزية
a also an (before a vowel sound) determiner
1 used before a noun to show that you are talking about a general type of thing, not a specific thing: Do you have a car? | Her boyfriend is an artist. → compare THE1
1 أَداة تَنكير (في اللغة الإنجليزية)، وتستخدم an قبل الكلمة التي تبدأ بحرف علة (صائت)
2 one: a thousand pounds |a dozen eggs
2 بمعنى: واحِد
3 used in some phrases that say how much of something there is: a few weeks from now | a lot of people
3 تُستخدم للتَّعبير عن الكمِّيَّة أو المقدار
4 every or each: A square has 4 sides. | once a week/$100 a day etc (=one time each week, $100 each day etc): He gets paid $100,000 a year.
4 كلّ، كل واحد - مرّة كل أسبوع/مائة دولار في اليوم (كل يوم)
5 used before two nouns that are frequently mentioned together: a knife and fork
5 قبل اسمين متلازِمَين
6 used before some singular nouns that are actions: Have a look at this.
6 قبل أسماء مفردة هي في الواقع تصرُّفات أو أعمال أو أفعال
a- used at the beginning of some words to mean ‘not’: atypical | amoral.
بادئة تُضاف لبعض الكلمات لتعني: لا، بدون، غير
aback be taken aback to be very surprised or shocked: I was taken aback by Linda’s rudeness.
تأخذه الدَّهشة، يُصدَم، يَذْهَل
abacus a wooden frame with small balls which can be moved along wires, used for counting
مِعداد
abandon 1 to leave someone or something for a long time or FOREVER, without intending to go back and get them: The baby had been abandoned outside a hospital in Liverpool.
1 يَترُك إلى الأبد
2 to stop doing or using something because of problems: The new policy had to be abandoned. — abandonment noun [U]
2 يتخلّى عن، يُقلِع عن - التَّخلّي
abandoned not being used or looked after any more: an abandoned building
متروك، مَهجور
abashed embarrassed or ashamed: When he saw Ruth, he looked slightly abashed.
مُحرَج، خَجْلان
abate formal to become less strong: Our ship could not sail until the storm abated.
يَقِلّ، يضعُف، يَهْدأ
abattoir BrE a place where animals are killed for their meat; SLAUGHTERHOUSE
مَجزَر
abbess a woman who is in charge of a CONVENT and the NUNS who live there
رئيسة دَيْر الرّاهبات
abbey a large church, especially one with buildings next to it where MONKS or NUNS live or used to live
كنيسة كبيرة مُلْحَقٌ بها دَيْر
abbot a man who is in charge of a MONASTERY and the MONKS who live there
رئيس دَيْر الرُّهبان
abbreviate formal to make a word, story etc shorter
يختَصِر، يُوجِز
abbreviation a shorter form of a word, which is used in writing. For example, Dr is the abbreviation of Doctor
اخْتِصارٌ كِتابي، مُختصَر
ABC BrE, ABC’s noun [plural] AmE the letters of the English alphabet as taught to children
ألفباء الإنجليزية، حُروف الهجاء الإنجليزية
abdicate 1 [I] to officially give up the position of being king or queen
1 يَتنازلُ عن العَرْش
2 abdicate responsibility formal to refuse to be responsible for something any longer — abdication /ˌæbdɪˈkeɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يتملَّصُ من المسئوليَّة - التَّنازُل عن العرش
abdomen technical the part of the body between the chest and the legs, which includes the stomach — abdominal /æbˈdɒmɪ(ə)nəl‖-ˈdɑː-/ adjective
بَطْن - مُتعلِّق بالبطن، بَطنيّ
abduct to take someone away illegally and by using force: Police believe that the woman has been abducted.abduction /-ˈdʌkʃən/ noun [U]
يَخْتَطِف - الاخْتِطاف
aberration an action, event, or type of behaviour that is different from what usually happens: a man of good character whose crime was regarded as just a temporary aberration
انْحِراف، خَلَل
abet → see aid and abet (AID2)
يُحَرِّض على الشَّرّ
abhor -rring, -rred formal to hate something because it seems morally wrong: He abhorred violence in any form.
يمقُت، يَبغُض
abhorrent formal behaviour or beliefs that are abhorrent seem very bad and morally wrong — abhorrence noun [U]
مَقيت، بَغيض - المَقْت
abide can’t abide sb/sth to hate someone or something very much: I can’t abide his stupid jokes.
يكرَه بشدَّة، لا يُطيق
abide by sth phr verb [T] to obey a law, agreement etc: You have to abide by the rules of the game.
يَلْتزم بِـ
abiding literary an abiding feeling or belief continues for a long time: her abiding love of the English countryside → see also LAW-ABIDING
دائِم، ثابِت
ability the mental skill or physical power to do something: a young girl with great musical ability | ability to do sth A manager must have the ability to communicate well.
مَقْدِرة، إمكانيَّة - القدرة على فعل شيء
abject 1 abject poverty/misery/failure when you are extremely poor, unhappy, or unsuccessful
1 فَقْرٌ مُدْقِع، بؤسٌ شَديد، فَشَلٌ ذَريع
2 abject behaviour shows that you are ashamed of what has happened: an abject apology
2 مُخْجِل، مُسَبِّب للخَجل
ablaze 1 burning with a lot of flames: The old house was quickly ablaze. | set sth ablaze (=make something burn with a lot of flames): The ship was set ablaze by the explosion.
1 مُشْتعِل - يُضْرِم النارَ في
2 very bright with colour or light: + with a garden ablaze with summer flowers
2 مُتَّقِد، ساطِع
able 1 able to do sth having the power, skill, time, money etc to do something: Will you be able to come tonight? | I was just able to reach the handle. → opposite UNABLE
1 قادِر على
2 intelligent or good at doing something: a very able student
2 ماهِر، قدير
ably skilfully or well: The director was ably assisted by his team of experts.
بكفاءة، باقْتِدار
abnormal different from what is normal, especially in a way that is strange, worrying, or dangerous: abnormal behaviour | abnormal levels of chlorine in the waterabnormally adverbabnormality /ˌæbnɔː-ˈmælɪ(ə)ti‖-nər-/ noun [C,U]
غير سَويّ، شاذّ - بطريقة شاذَّة - الشُّذوذ
aboard on or onto a ship, plane, or train: I swam out to the yacht and climbed aboard.
على ظَهْر الباخِرة، على مَتْن الطائرة، بالقِطار
abode formal the place where you live: right of abode (=the right to live in a country)
مَسْكن - حقُّ الإقامة
abolish to officially end a law, system etc: unfair laws that should be abolishedabolition /ˌæbəˈlɪʃən/ noun [U] the abolition of slavery
يُلغي، يُبْطِل - الإلْغاء
abominable extremely unpleasant or bad: an abominable noise — abominably adverb
كَريه - بدرجة ممقوتة
aborigine a member of the people who have lived in Australia from the earliest times
أحد سكان أستراليا الأصليِّين
abort 1 [T] to end a process or plan before it has finished because it would be too difficult or dangerous to continue: The space flight had to be aborted because of computer problems.
1 يُجْهِض فِكرة
2 [T] to deliberately end a PREGNANCY when the baby is still too small to live
2 يُجهِض الحمْل
abortion when a pregnancy is deliberately ended while the baby is still too small to live: have an abortion She was told about the dangers of having an abortion.
إجْهاض - تَتَعرَّضُ للإجْهاض
abortive an abortive action or attempt to do something is not successful
مُجْهِض، مُسبِّب للإجهاض
abound literary to exist in large numbers: a river where fish abound
يوجَد بأعدادٍ ضخمة، يَكثُر، يَحوي الكثير من
abound in/with sth phr verb to contain a lot of something: The park abounds with wildlife.
يزخَر بِـ، يعِجُّ بِـ
about 1 concerning or dealing with a particular subject or person: a book about how the universe began | all about (=everything about): Tell me all about it.
1 عن - كل ما يتعلَّق بِـ
2 BrE in many different directions or in different parts of a place; AROUND: Clothes were scattered about the room.
2 حَوْلَ، في كلّ الأرجاء
3 what about/how about spoken a) used to make a suggestion: How about coming to my house for a barbecue? | What about bringing a bottle of wine? b) used to ask someone’s opinion concerning something: What about Jack? We can’t just leave him here.
3 وماذا عن؟ ما رأيك في؟
about adverb 1 a little more or less than a number or amount; APPROXIMATELY: I live about 10 miles from here.
1 تقريبًا
2 be about to do sth to be ready to start doing something: We were about to leave when Jerry arrived.
2 يوشِك أن
3 just about almost: Dinner’s just about ready.
3 غالبًا
4 BrE in many different directions or in different parts of a place; AROUND: People were lying about on the floor.
4 في اتِّجاهات مختلِفة
5 BrE near you in the place you are now; AROUND: Is Patrick about? There’s a phone call for him.
5 في مكان قريب
above 1 in or to a higher position than something else: Raise your arm above your head. | There’s a light above the entrance.
1 فَوْق
2 more than a number, amount, or level: Temperatures rose above zero today.
2 أكثر من
3 louder than other sounds: He couldn’t hear her voice above the noise.
3 أعلى من
4 above all formal most importantly: Above all, I would like to thank my parents.
4 أهمّ من كلّ شيء
5 above suspicion/criticism etc so honest or good that no one can think that you have done something wrong or criticize you
5 فوق مستوى الشُّبهات/النَّقد
6 higher in rank or more powerful than someone else: officers above the rank of lieutenant
6 أعلى مَرْتبة من
above board something such as a business deal that is above board is honest and legal: Everything seems to be above board.
قانونِيّ، شَريف
abrasive 1 someone who is abrasive talks to people in a rude and unkind way: His abrasive manner offends some people.
1 وَقِح
2 having a rough surface that can be used to rub things off other surfaces
2 ذو سطح خَشِن، ساحِج، حاكّ
abreast 1 keep abreast of sth to know the most recent facts about a subject: I listen to the radio to keep abreast of the news.
1 يُلِمُّ بأحدث التَّفاصيل، يجاري
2 two/three/four abreast if people move forward two, three, or four abreast, they are all next to each other in a line: The cyclists were riding three abreast, so no one could pass them.
2 جنبًا إلى جنب، في صفٍّ واحد
abridged a book, play etc that has been abridged has been made shorter: the abridged version of the novelabridge verb [T] → compare UNABRIDGED
مختصَر - يختصِر
abroad in or to a foreign country: Did you enjoy living abroad? | go abroad He often has to go abroad on business.
بالخارج، خارجَ البلاد - يُسافر إلى الخارج
abrupt 1 sudden and unexpected: an abrupt change in the attitudes of voters
1 فُجائي
2 not polite or friendly, especially because you do not want to waste time: She was abrupt on the phone the first time we talkedabruptly adverbabruptness noun [U]
2 فَظّ - بِفَظاظة - الفظاظة، الجَفاء
abscess a place on your body that is swollen and contains a yellow liquid because of infection
خُراج
abscond formal to leave a place without permission, or leave somewhere after stealing something: The firm’s accountant had absconded with all the money.
يفرُّ سرًّا
absence 1 [C,U] when you are away from a place: How do you explain your absence? | + from frequent absences from work | in sb’s absence (=while they are away): The vice president will handle things in my absence.
1 غِياب - في غياب
2 [U] the lack of something: the absence of evidence in the murder case
2 نَقْص، عدم تَوْفير
absent 1 not at work, at school, at a meeting etc: Most of the class was absent with flu today. | + from absent from school
1 غائِب
2 absent look/smile/expression a look etc that shows you are not thinking about what is happening
2 شارِد، غير مُركِّز
absentee 1 formal someone who is supposed to be in a place but is absent
1 الغائِب
2 absentee landlord/owner the owner of a building or piece of land who lives far away
2 المالِك الغائب عن أرضه أو عَقاره
absenteeism regular absence from work or school without a good reason
التَّغيُّب عن المدرسة أو العمل بدون عُذر
absently in a way that shows you are not interested or not thinking about what is happening: Rachel smiled absently and went on with her work.
بدون اهتمام أو تركيز فيما يحدُث
absent-minded often forgetting or not noticing things because you are thinking of something else — absent-mindedness noun [U] — absent-mindedly adverb
شارِد الفكر أو العقل - شرود الفكر أو العقل - بشرود وبدون تركيز
absolute 1 complete and total: The show was an absolute disaster. | a ruler with absolute power
1 مُطلَق
2 definite and not likely to change: I can’t give you any absolute promises.
2 مُحدَّد ونهائيّ
absolutely 1 completely or totally: Are you absolutely sure? | absolutely no/nothing (=none or nothing at all): It was the school holiday and the children had absolutely nothing to do.
1 تمامًا، مُطلقًا - لا شيء ألبتة
2 Absolutely! spoken used to tell someone that you agree completely, or to emphasize that you mean ‘‘yes’’: ‘‘Do you really think so?’’ ‘‘Absolutely.’’
2 نعم، وبكلِّ تأكيد
3 Absolutely not! spoken used to tell someone that you disagree completely, or to emphasize that you mean ‘‘no’’
3 كَلّا ألبتة
absolve formal to formally say that someone should not be blamed for something, or to forgive them
يُحِلُّ، يُبْرئ
absorb 1 if something absorbs liquid, heat etc it takes in the liquid, heat etc through its surface: The towel absorbed most of the water.
1 يمتَصُّ
2 be absorbed in sth to be very interested in something that you are doing, watching, reading etc: I was completely absorbed in the book.
2 مُستَغرِق في
3 if something is absorbed into something else, it becomes part of that other thing or becomes mixed with it: the rate at which alcohol is absorbed into the blood | countries that had become absorbed into the Soviet Union
3 يندمِج
4 to hear, read, or learn information and understand it: She’s a good student who absorbs information quickly. — absorption /-ɔːpʃən‖-ɔːr-/ noun [U]
4 يَستوعِبُ - الامتصاص، الاستِغراق
absorbent something that is absorbent can take in liquids through its surface: absorbent sponges
ماصّ، ممتَصّ
absorbing so interesting that you do not notice or think about other things: an absorbing article about space travel
مُستحوِذ على الاهتمام، شادٌّ للانتباه
abstain 1 formal to not do something that you would normally enjoy doing: + from Patients were advised to abstain from alcohol.
1 يمتنع عن، يكفُّ عن
2 to deliberately not vote when something is being decided in a committee, parliament etc — abstention /əbˈstenʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يمتنع عن التَّصويت - الامتناع أو الكف عن
abstinence when someone stops doing something that they would normally enjoy doing, especially for religious reasons
التَّقشُّف، الزُّهد
abstract 1 based on ideas rather than specific examples or real events: Beauty is an abstract idea. | abstract arguments about justice
1 مُجرَّد، مَعْنويّ
2 abstract art consists of shapes and patterns that do not look like real things or people — abstraction /əbˈstrækʃən, æb-/ noun [C,U]
2 تَجريديّ - تجريد
absurd seeming completely unreasonable or silly: an absurd situation | an absurd hat — absurdly adverbabsurdity noun [C,U]
سَخيف، لامعقول - بسُخْف - السُّخْف
abundance formal a very large quantity of something: There is an abundance of creative talent. | in abundance (=in large numbers or quantities): Wild flowers grew in abundance on the hillside.
وَفْرة - بوفرة، بكمِّيّات كبيرة
abundant existing in large quantities: an abundant supply of fresh fruit
مُتوفِّر بكَمِّيّات كبيرة
abundantly 1 very: He made it abundantly clear that he was dissatisfied.
1 جدًّا، تمامًا
2 in large quantities: Poppies grew abundantly in the fields.
2 بكَمِّيّات كبيرة
abuse 1 [C,U] the wrong or bad use of something: + of The newspapers are calling the President’s action an abuse of power. | drug/alcohol abuse (=when people take illegal drugs or drink too much)
1 سوء استخدام - الإفراط في تعاطي المخدِّرات والمسكِرات
2 [U] cruel or violent treatment of someone, usually by a person who should look after them: child abuse a police investigation into reports of child abuse | sexual abuse victims of sexual abuse
2 إساءة المعامَلة - اغتصاب الأطفال (جنسيًّا) - الجرائِم الجنسيَّة
3 [U] rude and insulting things that someone says to another person
3 شَتْم، سِباب
abusive using words that are rude and insulting: an abusive letter
مُسيء، وَقِح
abysmal very bad: your son’s abysmal performance in the examinations — abysmally adverb
في غاية السُّوء - بطريقة سيِّئة
abyss 1 a very dangerous, frightening, or unhappy situation: the abyss of nuclear war
1 وَضْع خطير ورهيب
2 literary a very deep hole or space that seems to have no bottom
2 هُوَّة سحيقة
academic 1 connected with education, especially in a college or university: students’ academic achievements | the academic year (=the period of the year when there are school or university classes)
1 أكاديميّ، متعلِّق بالتَّعليم الجامعيّ - العام الدراسيّ
2 something that is academic is not important because it is not likely to happen or have any effect: We don’t have any money, so the question of where to go on holiday is purely academic.
2 غير ذي أهمية
3 good at studying: teaching the more academic children
3 ذو استعداد دراسيّ جيِّد
academic noun [C] a teacher in a college or university
مدرِّس بالكليَّة أو الجامعة
academy 1 a school or college that trains students in a special subject or skill: a military academy
1 أكاديميَّة (هيئة تعليميَّة متخصِّصة)
2 an official organization whose purpose is to encourage the development of art, science, or literature
2 هيئة رسميَّة لتشجيع الفنون والآداب والعلوم
accelerate 1 [I] if a car driver accelerates, they start to go faster: Melissa accelerated as she drove onto the highway.
1 يَزيد من سرعة السَّيارة
2 [I,T] if a process accelerates or if you accelerate it, it starts to happen more quickly: a plan to accelerate economic growth — acceleration /əkˌseləˈreɪʃən/ noun [U]
2 يُعجِّل، يُسْرِع - الإسراع، التَّعجيل
accelerator the thing that you press with your foot in a car to make it go faster
دوّاسة البِنْزين في السَّيّارة، المُعَجِّل
accent 1 a way of pronouncing words that someone has because of where they were born or live: a strong northern accent
1 لُكْنة، لَهْجة
2 the accent the importance given to something: + on a training programme with the accent on safety
2 تَشْديد، تَأكيد
3 when you emphasize part of a word: + on The accent in the word ‘important’ is on the second syllable.
3 نَبْرة، تَشديد مقطع في الكلمة
4 a mark written above some letters, for example é or â
4 علامة نُطقية
accentuate to emphasize something or make it easier to notice
يُشدِّد أو يؤكد على شيء معيَّن
accept 1 [I,T] to take something or say yes to something that someone offers you: Please accept this small gift. | He’s been offered the job but can’t decide whether to accept. | accept an invitation We would be happy to accept your invitation.
1 يَقْبَل - يَقْبل دَعْوَة
2 [I,T] to agree to do something or to allow something to happen: The manager would not accept her resignation. | accept advice/suggestions Jackie won’t accept any advice.
2 يُوافِق - يَقْبَل نصيحَة/اقتِراحات
3 [T] to agree or admit or believe that something is true, especially an unpleasant fact: The teacher would not accept any excuses. | + that I accept that we’ve made mistakes, but it’s nothing we can’t fix.
3 يُوافِق على مَضَض
4 [T] to let someone join an organization, university course etc: I’ve been accepted at Harvard.
4 يَقْبَل شخصًا في هيئة أو جامِعة
5 [T] to let someone new become part of a group or society and treat them in the same way as other members: It was a long time before the other kids at school accepted him.
5 يَقبَل ويعامِل شخصًا كعضو في جماعة
6 [T] to decide that there is nothing you can do to change an unpleasant situation: Even when he was imprisoned, the Emperor would not accept defeat.
6 يُسَلِّم بالأمر الواقِع
7 [T] to let customers pay for something in a particular way: We don’t accept credit cards.
7 يَقْبَل طريقة معيَّنة لدفع النُّقود
8 accept responsibility/blame formal to admit that you are responsible for something bad that has happened: The company have accepted responsibility for the accident.
8 يتحمَّل المسئوليَّة أو اللّوم
acceptable 1 good enough: The essay was acceptable, but it wasn’t her best work.
1 يُمكن قَبوله
2 if a kind of behaviour is acceptable, people approve of it and think that it should be allowed: Smoking is no longer an acceptable habit. — acceptably adverbacceptability /əkˌseptə-ˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 مَقْبول - بطريقة مقبولة - القَبول، إمكانيَّة القَبول
acceptance 1 when you agree to accept someone’s offer or invitation: I was surprised at her acceptance of my offer.
1 قَبول، رِضا
2 when people agree that something is right or true or should be allowed to happen: + of After the revolution there was widespread acceptance of Marxist ideas.
2 قَبولٌ جماعيٌّ
3 when you decide that there is nothing you can do to change an unpleasant situation: The general mood was one of acceptance.
3 قَبول على مَضَض
4 when someone is allowed to become part of a group or society: + into the immigrants’ gradual acceptance into the community
4 انْدِماج
5 gain/find acceptance to become popular or liked
5 يجد قَبولًا لدى النّاس
accepted an accepted idea or way of doing something is one that most people think is right or reasonable
مقبول لدى الغالبِيَّة
access 1 the chance or right to see or use something: have access to Students need to have access to the computer system.
1 حَقّ استخدام شيء أو الوصول إليه - يجد مَدْخلًا لِـ..
2 the way in which you can enter a building or get to a place: + to The only access to the farm is along a muddy track. | gain access formal (=enter): The thieves gained access through the upstairs window.
2 السَّبيل إلى، الوصول إلى مكان - يصل، يَدْخُل
accessible 1 easy to reach, find, or use: The national park is not accessible by road. | the wide range of information that is accessible on the Internet
1 سَهْل الوصول إليه
2 easy to understand and enjoy: + to Buchan succeeds in making a difficult subject accessible to the ordinary reader — accessibility /əkˌsesɪ(ə)ˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U] → opposite INACCESSIBLE
2 سَهْل الفَهم - سُهولة الوصول إلى شيء
accessory 1 [usually plural] something such as a bag, belt, or jewellery that you wear or carry because they are attractive: a dress with matching accessories
1 كَمالِيّات
2 something that you can add to a machine, tool, car etc, which is useful or attractive
2 مُلحَقات، إضافات
3 law someone who helps a criminal
3 شَريك في جريمة
accident 1 a situation in which someone is hurt or something is damaged without anyone intending it to happen: Her parents were killed in a car accident. | I’m afraid he’s been involved in a serious accident. | it was an accident (=used to say that someone did not do something deliberately): I didn’t do it on purpose, it was an accident.
1 حادِثة، إصابة - كان أَمرًا عارضًا
2 by accident in a way that is not intended or planned: I discovered by accident that he’d lied to me.
2 بالمُصادَفة، مصادفةً
accidental happening without being planned or intended: accidental damage
عَرَضي، عارِض
accidentally if you accidentally do something, you do it without intending to do it: I accidentally set off the alarm.
بطَريقة عارِضة، عرضًا
accident-prone likely to have accidents: an accident-prone child
مُسْتَهْدَف للحوادث
acclaim to praise something a lot
يمدَح، يُثني على، يَسْتَحْسِن
acclaim noun [U] a lot of public praise for someone or something: His first novel received widespread acclaim.
اسْتِحْسان الجمهور
acclaimed praised by a lot of people: highly/widely acclaimed Spielberg’s highly acclaimed movie, ‘Schindler’s List’
مُستَحسَن، مُثنًى عليه - قوبل باستِحسان شديد
acclimatize (also -ise BrE) /əˈklaɪmətaɪz/ also acclimate AmE /əˈklaɪmət‖ˈækləmeɪt, əˈklaɪmət/ verb [I,T] to become used to the weather, way of living etc in a new place, or to make someone do this: get acclimatized It takes the astronauts a few days to get acclimatized to conditions in space — acclimatization /əˌklaɪ-mətaɪˈzeɪʃən‖-tə-/ noun [U]
يَتَأَقْلَم، يُؤقْلِم - يَتأقلَم، يتعوَّد على - التأقلم
accolade a prize or praise given to someone or something because people think they are very good
ثَناء أو جائزة للإجادَة
accommodate 1 to have enough space for a particular number of people or things: The hall can accommodate 300 people.
1 يُوفِّر المكان لِـ، يَسْتَوْعِب
2 to give someone a place to stay, live, or work: A new hostel was built to accommodate the students.
2 يوفِّر سُبلَ المعيشة لشخص
3 formal to do what someone wants or provide them with what they need: If you need more time, we’ll try to accommodate you.
3 يُريح، يوفِّر لشخص حاجاتِه
accommodating helpful and willing to do what someone else wants
خَدوم، مُسْتَعدٌّ للمساعدة
accommodation also accommodations [plural] AmE a place to live, stay, or work in: The college will provide accommodation for all new students.
مكانٌ للمعيشة أو العمل
accompaniment 1 music played at the same time as someone sings or plays another instrument: a tune with a simple guitar accompaniment
1 عَزف مُصاحِب
2 formal something that is served or that happens at the same time as something else: White wine is an excellent accompaniment to fish.
2 شيء أو حدث مصاحِب لآخر
accompany 1 formal to go somewhere with someone, especially in order to help or look after them: Children under 12 must be accompanied by an adult.
1 يُرافِق
2 to play a musical instrument with someone who is playing or singing the main tune
2 يَعْزِف مُصاحبًا من يُؤدِّي النَّغمة الرَّئيسيَّة
3 to happen or exist at the same time as something else: Any increase in costs is always accompanied by a rise in prices.
3 يَحْدث مُتَزامِنًا مع حدث آخر
accomplice someone who helps a criminal to do something wrong or illegal
شَريكٌ في جَريمة أو إثْم
accomplish to succeed in doing something; achieve: The new government has accomplished a great deal.
يُنجِز، يُحقِّق
accomplished very skilful: an accomplished poet
ماهِر، حاذِق
accomplishment 1 [C] formal something you have achieved or are able to do well: Playing the piano is one of her many accomplishments.
1 إنجاز، مَهارة
2 [U] when you succeed in accomplishing something: the accomplishment of a lifelong ambition
2 نَيْل، تحصيل
accord 1 of your own accord without being asked or forced to do something: No one forced him to go. He left of his own accord.
1 عن طيب خاطِر
2 in accord (with sb/sth) formal agreeing with someone or something, or not different from something: The committee’s report is completely in accord with our suggestions.
2 مُتوافِق أو متَّفِق مع
3 [C] an official agreement
3 اتِّفاقٌ رسمِيّ
accordance in accordance with formal done in a way that follows a particular system or rule: Safety checks were made in accordance with the rules.
طِبْقًا لِـ، تمشِّيًا مع
accordingly 1 in a way that is suitable for a particular situation: If you work extra hours, you will be paid accordingly.
1 طِبْقًا لهذا
2 formal as a result of something that has just been mentioned; therefore: We have noticed that the books are slightly damaged, and accordingly, we have reduced the price.
2 بِناء عليه
according/to 1 as shown by something or as said by someone: According to our records she never paid her bill. | According to Angela, he’s a great teacher.
1 بالرُّجوع إلى، بحَسَب
2 in the way that has been planned, or in a way that obeys the rules: Everything went according to plan and we arrived on time.
2 طبقًا لخطة موضوعة
3 based on a particular amount or system: You will be paid according to the amount of work you do.
3 بحَسَب، بموجِب
accordion a musical instrument like a box that you play by pulling the sides in and out while pushing buttons to produce different notes
أكورديون
accost if someone you do not know accosts you, they come up to you, and speak to you especially in a threatening way
يتهجَّم على، يُبادر بالتَّهديد
account 1 a written or spoken description of an event or situation: give an account of Can you give us an account of what happened? | by/from all accounts (=according to what everyone says): By all accounts Frank was once a great player.
1 وَصْف، تَقْرير - يُقدِّم وصفًا لِـ - بشهادة الجميع
2 an arrangement that allows you to keep your money in a bank and take amounts from it when you want to: He couldn’t remember his account number. | I’d like to withdraw £250 from my account. → see also BANK ACCOUNT, CHECKING ACCOUNT, CURRENT ACCOUNT, DEPOSIT ACCOUNT
2 حِساب مصرفي
3 take into account/take account of to consider or include particular facts when making a decision about something: They should have taken into account the needs of foreign students.
3 يَأْخذ في حِسابه، يعمل حسابًا لِـ
4 an arrangement with a shop that allows you to buy goods and pay for them later: Here are the books you ordered. Shall I charge them to your account?
4 شِراء على الحساب
5 a statement of money that you owe for things you have bought from a shop: settle your account (=pay what you owe): Accounts must be settled within 30 days.
5 كشف حساب - يُسدِّد حسابًا
6 on account of because of: Several people are late on account of the train strike.
6 بسبب
7 not on my/his etc account spoken used to tell someone that they need not do something if they are only doing it to please you: Don’t stay up late on my account.
7 ليس على حِسابي
8 on no account/not on any account formal used to emphasize that someone must not do something for any reason: On no account should anyone go near this man – he’s dangerous. → see also ACCOUNTS
8 مهما يَكُن السَّبب
accountable responsible for the effects of your actions and willing to explain or be criticized for them: + for Managers must be accountable for their decisions. | hold sb accountable (=consider that someone is responsible for som ething): If students fail their exams, should their teachers be held accountable? — accountability /əˌkaʊntəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti noun [U]
مَسئول عن - يَعْتبره مسئولًا عن - المُساءَلَة
accountancy accountancy BrE, ac·count·ing /əˈkaʊntɪŋ/ AmE noun [U] the job of being an accountant
المحاسَبة
accountant someone whose job is to keep or check financial records
مُحاسِب
accounts a record of the money that a company or person has received and spent: the company’s accounts from last year → see also ACCOUNT1
حِسابات
accredited having official approval
مُصدَّق عليه من الجِهات الرَّسمِيَّة، مُعتمَد
accumulate 1 to gradually increase in quantity until there is a large quantity in one place: The dirt and dust had accumulated in the corners of the room.
1 يَتراكم
2 [T] to gradually get more and more possessions, money, knowledge etc: By the time he died Methuen had accumulated a vast collection of paintings — accumulation /əˌkjuːmjʊ(ə)ˈleɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يَجْمع، يُكَدِّس - التَّراكم، التَّكدُّس، الجَمع، التَّكديس
accuracy exactness or correctness: The bombs can be aimed with amazing accuracy. → opposite INACCURACY
دِقَّة، ضَبْط
accurate exactly correct: an accurate report of what happened → opposite INACCURATEaccurately adverb
دقيق، مَضبوط، مُحكَم - بِدِقَّة
accusation a statement saying that someone has done something wrong or illegal: make an accusation against sb Serious accusations have been made against him.
اتِّهام - يوجِّه اتِّهامًا لِـ
accuse to say that someone has done something wrong or illegal: accuse sb of doing sth Are you accusing me of stealing? —accuser noun [C]
يتَّهم - يتَّهم شخصًا بكذا - المُتَّهِم، المُدَّعي
accused the accused [singular or plural] the person or people who are being accused of a crime in a court of law
المتَّهَم، المُدَّعَى عليه
accusing showing that you think someone has done something wrong: She gave him an accusing look — accusingly adverb
يَحمِل معنى الاتّهامات - باتهام، مُتَّهِمًا
accustom accustom yourself to (doing) sth to make yourself become used to something: They’ll have to accustom themselves to working long hours.
يُعَوِّد نفسه على
accustomed formal be accustomed to (doing) sth to be used to something: She was accustomed to a life of luxury. | become/get/grow accustomed to Ed’s eyes quickly grew accustomed to the dark room.
مُتعوِّد على - يَتعوَّد على
ace 1 a playing card with one symbol on it, that has the highest or lowest value: the ace of spades
1 الآس (في ورق اللعب)
2 a first hit in tennis or volleyball that is too good for your opponent to hit back
2 الضَّربة الأولى في التنس أو الكرة الطائرة التي لا تُردّ
ache 1 if part of your body aches, it feels painful: My legs are aching. | I ache all over.
1 يؤلِم
2 be aching to do sth to want to do something very much: Jenny was aching to go home.
2 يتطلَّع إلى
achieve to succeed in doing something good or getting the result you want: He will never achieve anything if he doesn’t work harder. | On the test drive Segrave achieved speeds of over 200 mph. —achiever noun [C] a high achiever (=someone who is very successful in their work or studies) — achievable adjective
يُنجِز - مُنجِز - قابِل للإنجاز
achievement 1 [C] something important that you achieve: Winning the championship is quite an achievement.
1 إنجاز
2 [U] when you succeed in doing or getting what you have worked for: the achievement of a lifetime’s ambition
2 تحقيق حُلْم كبير
acid 1 [C,U] a type of liquid chemical substance. A strong acid can burn holes in the things it touches: hydrochloric acid
1 حامِض، حَمْض
2 the acid test a situation that proves whether something is true or as good as it is supposed to be: It looks good, but will it work? That’s the acid test — acidic adjectiveacidity /əˈsɪdɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 امتحان حاسم - حامِضيّ - الحُموضة
acid adjective "1 having a very sour or bitter taste
1 حامضي، ذو طَعْم حاذق
2 acid remark/comment something you say that uses humour in an unkind way
2 تَعليق لاذِع"
acid rain rain that damages the environment because it contains acid, especially from factory smoke → see colour picture on page 516
مطرٌ حامِضيّ
acknowledge 1 to accept or admit that something is true or that a situation exists: + that Angie has acknowledged that she made a mistake. | acknowledge sth as These beaches are generally acknowledged as the best in Europe.
1 يَعْترف أو يقرُّ بِـ - يُقرُّ أو يُسَلِّم بأن - ينظر إلى شيء وكأنه
2 to officially accept that a government, court, leader etc has legal authority: They are refusing to acknowledge the court’s decision.
2 يَعترف رسميًّا بِـ
3 to write to someone telling them that you have received something they sent you: We must acknowledge her letter.
3 يُفيد بتسلُّم شيء
4 to show someone that you have seen them or heard what they have said: Tina walked straight past without acknowledging us.
4 يتظاهَر برؤية أو سَماع شخص
acknowledgement, acknowledgment 1 something that someone says, writes, or does to thank someone or to show that they have received something: I haven’t received an acknowledgement of my letter yet.
1 توجيه الشكر أو الإفادة بتسلُّم شيء
2 something that shows you admit or accept that something is true or that a situation exists: an acknowledgement of defeat
2 الاعتراف بِـ/قَبول الوضع القائم
acne a skin problem which is common among young people and causes small spots to appear on the face
حَبّ الشَّباب
acorn the nut of an OAK tree
جَوْز شجرة البَلّوط
acoustic 1 relating to sound and the way people hear things
1 سمعيّ
2 an acoustic musical instrument does not have its sound made louder electronically: an acoustic guitar
2 (آلة موسيقية) صوتها غير معدَّل إلكترونيًّا
acoustics 1 [plural] the way in which the shape and size of a room make it good or bad for hearing music or speeches
1 السَّمعيّات: خصائص الغرفة بالنسبة لانتقال الصوت فيها
2 [U] the scientific study of sound
2 الصَّوتيّات، علم الصَّوت والموجات الصوتيَّة
acquaintance 1 [C] someone you know, but not very well
1 شخص تعرِفه، أحد المعارِف
2 [U] when you know someone and have met them: make sb’s acquaintance (=meet someone): I’ve never made his acquaintance.
2 يتعرَّف بشخص
acquainted formal 1 be acquainted with sb to know someone, but not well: Roger and I are already acquainted. | get/become acquainted (=meet someone and start to know them): I’ll leave you two to get acquainted.
1 له مَعرِفة بِـ، يعرف شخصًا، يتعرَّف إلى
2 be acquainted with sth to know about something: My lawyer is already acquainted with the facts.
2 مُلِمّ بِـ، على دِراية بِـ
acquiesce formal to agree to do what someone wants or to let them do what they want, without arguing or complaining, even though you do not like it — acquiescence noun [U]
يُذعِن- إذْعان
acquire 1 to get something, especially by buying it: The Getty Museum acquired the painting for £6.8 million.
1 يحصل على
2 to learn knowledge or skills: Think about how you can use the skills you have acquired.
2 يكتسب معرفة أو مَهارات
acquisition 1 [U] the process of getting something: + of the acquisition of wealth
1 تَملُّك، إحراز، اقتناء
2 [C] something that someone has obtained, especially by buying it: a new acquisition
2 مُقتنيات
acquit decide in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a crime: Simons was acquitted of murder.
يُبرِّئ
acquittal an official announcement in a court of law that someone is not guilty
تبرئة، حُكْم بالبراءة
acre a unit for measuring an area of land, equal to 4840 square yards or about 4047 square metres
إكر، فدّان: مقياس لمساحة الأرض يساوي 4840 ياردة مربعةً أو 4047 مترًا مربعًا
acreage the area of a piece of land measured in acres
مساحة أرض بالفدان
acrid having a very strong and unpleasant smell that hurts your nose or throat: a cloud of acrid smoke
حادّ، لاذع، حِرّيف
acrimonious an acrimonious argument, meeting etc is one in which people feel very angry and speak angrily to each other: an acrimonious divorce — acrimoniously adverb
شَرِس، مشاكِس، جافٍ - بشراسة
acrimony formal very angry feelings between people, often strongly expressed
مَشاعِر حادة أو غاضِبة
acrobat someone who entertains people by doing difficult physical actions, for example balancing on a high rope, especially in a circus — acrobatic /ˌækrəˈbætɪk/ adjective
بَهْلَوان، لاعب السّيرك - بَهْلَواني
acrobatics movements or tricks like those of an acrobat
ألْعاب بَهْلوانية
acronym a word that is made from the first letters of a group of words. For example, NATO is an acronym for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
أوائِليَّة: كلمة تتكون من الحروف الأولى لمجموعة من الكلمات
across 1 from one side of something to the other side: The farmer was walking across the field towards us. | Vince looked out across the valley. | At its widest point, the river is two miles across. → see colour picture on page 808
1 عَبْر
2 reaching or spreading from one side of an area to the other: the only bridge across the river | The rain will spread slowly across southern England.
2 من جانب إلى الجانب الآخر
3 on or towards the opposite side of something: Andy lives across the road from us.
3 في الجانب المقابل
4 across the board affecting everyone in an organization: a pay increase of 8% across the board
4 له تأثير على كل فرد في المؤسَّسة
acrylic acrylic paints or cloth are made from a chemical substance
من الأكريلك، أكريلي
act 1 [I] to do something: Unless the government acts soon, more people will die. | act on advice/orders/instructions (=do what sb says): We’re acting on the advice of our lawyer.
1 يَعمل، يتَصرف - يتصرف طبقًا لنصيحة أوامر تعليمات
2 [I] to behave in a particular way: Nick’s been acting very strangely recently.
2 يتصرف بطريقة معينة
3 [I,T] to perform as a character in a play or film: Mike got an acting job on TV.
3 يمثِّل دورًا في مسرحية أو فيلم
4 act as sb to do a job which is not your usual one: My brother speaks French – he will act as interpreter.
4 يقوم بعمل مغاير لعمله
5 [I] to have a particular effect: act as sth Salt acts as a preservative.
5 يقوم بِتَمثيل ما حَدَث
act sth ↔ out phr verb [T] to show how an event happened by performing it like a play
acting acting manager/director etc someone who does the job of the manager etc while the person who usually does it is not there, or until a new manager etc is chosen
قائم بأعمال المدير، مدير بالإنابة
acting noun [U] the job or skill of performing in plays or films
فنُّ التَّمثيل
action 1 [U] when you do something in order to deal with a situation or for a particular purpose: We’ve talked enough. Now is the time for action. | take action (=do something to deal with a problem): The government must take action before it’s too late. | course of action (=something you could do to deal with a situation): The best course of action would be to tell her the whole story. | put sth into action (=do things to make something happen): When will you start putting your plan into action?
1 العمل - يتَّخذ إجراء - تصرُّف، سلسلة من الإجراءات - يضع موضع التَّنفيذ
2 [C] something that you do: You shouldn’t be blamed for other people’s actions. | Tanya’s prompt action saved his life.
2 تصرُّف
3 be out of action if someone or something is out of action, they cannot move or work because they are injured or broken: My car’s out of action again. | put sb/sth out of action The accident has put Jim out of action for two weeks.
3 عاطِل، مُتعطِّل - يُقعِد عن العمل
4 [U] the effect that a natural or chemical process has on something: cliffs worn away by the action of the waves
4 فِعل، تفاعُل
5 the action informal exciting and important things that are happening: New York’s where the action is.
5 الصَّخب، الحياة الصَّاخبة
6 in action doing a particular job, activity, or sport: a chance to see top ski jumpers in action
6 أثْناء القِيام بالعَمل
7 [C,U] fighting during a war: in action Ann’s husband was killed in action.
7 أثْناء القِتال
action-packed an action-packed film or story has a lot of exciting things happening
مُزدَحِم بالأحداث المثيرة
action replay BrE when an interesting part of a sports event is shown again on film or television immediately after it happens; INSTANT REPLAY AmE
إعادة عَرض مَشهد
activate formal to make something start working: This switch activates the alarm — activation /ˌæktɪ(ə)ˈveɪʃən/ noun [U]
يُنشِّط- التَّنشيط
active 1 always doing things, or always ready and able to do things: Grandpa’s very active for his age. | an active member of the Labour Party
1 نَشِط
2 technical an electronic system that is active is ready to work: The alarm is now active.
2 جاهِز للعَمَل
3 an active VOLCANO is likely to send up fire and smoke
3 نَشِط (للبركان)
4 if a verb or sentence is active, the person or thing doing the action is the SUBJECT of the verb. In the sentence ‘The boy kicked the ball’, the verb ‘kick’ is active. → compare PASSIVE1.
4 مَبني للمَعْلوم
active noun the active (voice) the active form of a verb → compare PASSIVE2
صيغة المبني للمعلوم
actively in a way that involves doing things to try to make something happen: The government has actively encouraged immigration.
بنشاط، بطريقة نَشِطة، بِفَعالِيَّة
activist someone who works to achieve social or political change
ناشِط: يَعمل من أجل تغيُّر سياسيّ أو اجتماعيّ
activity 1 [C,U] things that someone does, especially for pleasure or to try to achieve something: after-school activities | an increase in terrorist activity
1 نَشاط
2 [U] a situation in which a lot of things are happening and people are moving around: There’s been a lot of activity on the stock exchange. → opposite INACTIVITY
2 حَرَكَة، هِمَّة
actor someone who performs in a play or film
مُمثِّل
actress a woman who performs in a play or film
مُمثِّلة
actual real, especially when compared with what you believed, expected, or intended: Were those his actual words? | The actual cost is a lot higher than we’d thought.
حقيقيّ، فعليّ، عمليّ
actually 1 used when you want to say what really happens or is really true: Did she actually say that in the letter? | the people who actually run the country
1 فِعْلًا
2 used when you want to say something that may seem strange or surprising or is different from what people imagine: He may look young, but actually he’s 45.
2 في الواقِع
3 used in order to be polite when you are disagreeing with someone: ‘‘Great! I love French coffee!’’ ‘‘It’s German actually.’’
3 في الحَقيقة
acumen the ability to think quickly and make good decisions: business acumen
الفِطنة، الذكاء، الحِذْق
acupuncture a way of stopping pain or treating an illness by putting thin needles into someone’s body
العلاج بالإبر الصّينيَّة
acute 1 very serious or severe: acute pain | an acute shortage of medical staff
1 حادّ، شَديد
2 good at understanding things quickly and clearly: Simon’s manner concealed an agile and acute mind.
2 حادّ الذَّكاء
3 good at noticing small differences in sound or smell
3 دَقيق الملاحَظة
4 technical an acute disease or illness becomes dangerous very quickly: acute tuberculosis → compare CHRONIC
4 عُضال
5 technical an acute angle is less than 90 degrees
5 حادّ (الزّاوية)
acutely very strongly or painfully: She was acutely embarrassed when she realized her mistake.
بشِدَّة، بِعُنْف، بحِدَّة
ad informal an advertisement
إعْلان
AD Anno Domini; used to show that a date is a particular number of years after the birth of Christ: Attila died in 453 AD. → compare BC
في السَّنة الميلادية، حَسَب التَّقويم الميلاديّ
adage a well-known phrase that says something wise; PROVERB
مَثل، حِكْمة
adamant formal determined not to change your opinion, decision etc: Taylor is adamant that he is not going to quit. —adamantly adverb
صُلْب الرَّأي - بعناد
Adam’s apple the part of your body at the front of your neck that sticks out slightly and moves when you talk or swallow
تُفاحة آدم، جَوْزَة الحَلْق
adapt 1 [I] to change your behaviour or ideas to fit a new situation: + to Old people find it hard to adapt to life in a foreign country.
1 يتَكيف
2 [T] to change something so that it is suitable for a new need or purpose: The car’s engine had been adapted to take unleaded fuel.
2 يُلائم، يُعدِّل
3 [T] to change a book or play so that it can be made into a film or television programme
3 يُعدِّل كِتابًا أو مَسْرحية، يُعِدُّ
4 be well adapted to sth to be especially suitable for something: Alpine flowers are well adapted to the cold winters.
4 يكون مُناسِبًا لِـ
adaptable able to change and be suitable or successful in new and different situations — adaptability /əˌdæptəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
قابِل للتَّكَيُّف - قابِلية التكيُّف
adaptation 1 [C] a play or film that is based on a book: a film adaptation of Zola’s novel
1 اقتِباس
2 [U] when something changes or is changed to make it suitable for a new situation: adaptation to the environment
2 تَواؤُم، تكيُّف
adapter, adaptor 1 something used to connect two pieces of equipment that are of different sizes
1 وُصْلة مُهايِئَة
2 BrE a special plug that makes it possible to connect more than one piece of equipment to the electricity supply
2 قابِس لتَشْغيل أكْثَر من جهاز
add 1 [T] to put something with something else or with a group of other things: add sth to sth Do you want to add your name to the mailing list? | Add one egg to the mixture.
1 يَجمع، يُضيف
2 [T] to put numbers or amounts together to calculate the total: If you add 5 and 3 you get 8.
2 يجمع أرقامًا لاستِخْلاص المجموع
3 [I,T] to increase the amount, cost, or degree of something by putting something more with it: Sales tax adds 15% to the bill. | + to Darkness just adds to the spooky atmosphere.
3 يزيد بالإضافة
4 [I,T] to say more about something when you are speaking: + that The judge added that this case was one of the worst she had ever seen.
4 يضيف إلى الحديث
5 add insult to injury to make a situation even worse for someone who has already been badly or unfairly treated
5 يَزيد الطين بلة
add sth ↔ on phr verb [T] to increase the size or amount of something by adding another part or amount: They’re going to add on another bedroom at the back. | + to VAT at 17.5% will be added on to your bill.
يزيد بالإضافة
add up phr verb
1 [I,T add sth ↔ up] to put numbers or amounts together and then calculate the total: Add your scores up and we’ll see who won.
1 يجمع، يحسُب المجموع
2 not add up to not seem true or reasonable: His story just doesn’t add up.
2 يبدو غير معقول
adder a small poisonous snake
أفْعى، ثُعْبان سامّ
addict 1 someone who is unable to stop taking drugs: a heroin addict
1 مُدمِن مُخدِّرات
2 informal someone who likes something very much and does it a lot: game-show addicts
2 مُدمِن شيء بذاته
addicted 1 unable to stop taking a drug: + to Marvin soon became addicted to sleeping pills.
1 مُدمِن
2 informal doing something a lot because you like it very much: My children are completely addicted to computer games.
2 مُدمِن لشيء معين
addiction when you need to have alcohol or drugs regularly because you are addicted to them
الإدْمان
addictive making you addicted to something: a highly addictive drug
يدفع إلى الإدْمان
addition 1 in addition used to add another fact to what has already been mentioned: The school has 12 classrooms. In addition there is a large office that could be used for meetings. | + to In addition to her teaching job, she plays in a band.
1 وفوق هذا، وإلى جانِب هذا، بالإضافة إلى
2 [U] the process of adding together several numbers or amounts to get a total
2 جَمْع الأرقام
3 [C] something that is added: The tower is a later addition to the cathedral.
3 إضافة
additional added to what is already there: There’s an additional charge for baggage over the weight limit — additionally adverb
إضافيّ - بدرجة زائدة
additive a chemical that is added to a food or drink to improve its taste or colour, or to keep it fresh
مُضافَة، مادَّة إضافة تَحسينيَّة
address 1 the details of where someone lives or works, including the number of the building, name of the street and town etc: I forgot to give Damien my new address.
1 عُنوان
2 a formal speech: the Gettysburg Address
2 خِطاب رَسْميّ
adept good at doing something that needs care or skill: + at He became adept at cooking her favourite Polish dishes — adeptly adverb
ماهِر، بارِع - بِمَهارة
adequate 1 enough for a particular purpose: Her income is hardly adequate to pay the bills.
1 كافٍ، وافٍ بالغَرض
2 fairly good, but not excellent: The critics described his performance as ‘‘barely adequate’’. → opposite inadequate — adequacy noun [U] — adequately adverb
2 مُناسِب، جَيِّد نوعًا ما - كِفاية - بدرجة كافِية
adhere to stick firmly to something: + to Make sure the paper adheres firmly to the wall.
يَتمسَّك أو يَتشبَّث بِـ
adhere to sth phr verb [T] to continue to behave according to a particular rule, agreement, or belief: Not all the countries adhered to the treaty.
يَلتزِم بِـ
adherence when you behave according to particular rules, ideas, or beliefs
التَّمسُّك أو التَّشبُّث بِـ
adherent someone who agrees with and supports a particular idea, opinion, or political party
موالٍ، تابِع، مُعَضِّد، مُؤيِّد
adhesion when one thing sticks to another thing
التِصاق
adhesive a substance such as glue that can stick things together — adhesive adjective: adhesive tape
مادة لاصِقة - لاصِق، دَبِق، لازِق
ad hoc done or arranged only when a situation makes it necessary, and without any previous planning: I’d been working for him on an ad hoc basis — ad hoc adverb
مُرْتَجَل - عَفْويًّا، لهذا الغَرَض
adjacent formal next to something: a door leading to the adjacent room | + to buildings adjacent to the palace
مُجاوِر
adjective a word that describes a noun or PRONOUN. In the sentence ‘I bought a new car’, ‘new’ is an adjective. — adjectival /ˌædʒɪ(ə)kˈtaɪvəl◂/ adjective: an adjectival phrase
صِفة، نعت - مُتعلِّق بالصفة، وصفيّ
adjoining next to something, and connected to it: an adjoining office — adjoin verb [T]
مجاوِر ومتَّصل بِـ - يجاور
adjourn to stop a meeting for a short time or until a later date: The committee adjourned for an hour — adjournment noun [C,U]
يؤجِّل، يفُضّ اجتماعًا - التأجيل، إرجاء الاجتماع
adjudicate formal to be the judge in a competition or make an official decision about a problem or argument: The European Court was asked to adjudicate in the dispute — adjudicator noun [C] — adjudication /əˌdʒuːdɪˈkeɪʃən/ noun [U]
يُصدِر حُكمًا - القاضي، المحكَّم - الحُكم
adjust 1 [T] to change or move something slightly so that it is in the right position: Where’s the lever for adjusting the car seat?
1 يُعدِّل مِنْ وَضْع
2 [I] to make small changes to the way you do things in order to get used to a new situation or condition: + to We’re gradually adjusting to the new way of working — adjustable adjective: an adjustable lamp
2 يُعدِّل الطريقة حتى تلائم وضعًا جديدًا - قابِل للتعديل
adjustment 1 a small change made to a machine, plan, or system: make adjustments to sth I’ve made a few adjustments to our original calculations.
1 تعديل - يقوم بتعديلات بسيطة
2 a change in the way you behave or think: make adjustments You have to make some adjustments when you live abroad.
2 تغيُّر في السلوك أو التفكير - يُجري تغييرات أو تعديلات
ad-lib to say something in a speech or a performance without preparing or planning it: She forgot her lines and had to ad-lib — ad lib adjective, adverbad-lib noun [C]
يَرْتجل - مُرتجَل ؛ بارتجال - الارتجال
administer 1 to manage the affairs of a company, government etc: officials who administer the transport system
1 يدير
2 to organize the way a test or punishment is given, or the way a law is used
2 يُجري (اختبارًا)، ينزل (عِقابًا)، يُطبِّق (قانونًا)
3 formal to give someone a drug or medical treatment: The medicine was administered in regular doses.
3 يُعطي الدواء أو العلاج
administration 1 the work of managing the affairs of a company, government etc: Have you any experience in administration?
1 الإدارة
2 the administration especially AmE the part of the national, state, or city government that is controlled by the president, GOVERNOR, or MAYOR: the Kennedy Administration
2 الإدارة الأمريكية
administrative connected with managing a company, country etc: The job is mainly administrative. —administratively adverb
إداريّ - بطريقة إدارية
administrator someone who manages the affairs of a government department, organization etc
الإداريّ، المدير
admirable something that is admirable deserves to be praised and admired: an admirable achievementadmirably adverb
مُثيرٌ للإعجاب - بدرجة تُثير الإعجاب
admiral an officer who has a very high rank in the Navy
فريق بحري، مشير بحري، أميرال، أمير البحر
admiration when you respect and admire something or someone: + for Dylan had a deep admiration for Picasso’s later work.
الإعجاب بِـ
admire 1 to have a very good opinion of someone because of their good qualities or their achievements: admire sb for sth I always admired my mother for her courage and patience.
1 يُعجَب بِـ - يعجَب بصفة في شخص
2 to look at someone or something and think how beautiful or impressive they are: We stopped halfway up the hill to admire the view — admirer noun [C] My teacher was a great admirer of Shakespeare.
2 يُعبِّر عن إعجابه - المعجَب
admissible formal acceptable or allowed, especially in a court of law: admissible evidence → opposite INADMISSIBLE
مقبول، مسموح به
admission 1 [C] when you admit that something bad or unpleasant is true: + of If he resigns, it will be an admission of guilt.
1 اعتراف، تسليم
2 [C,U] permission that is given to someone to study at a college, be treated in a hospital, join a club etc: + to Tom has applied for admission to Oxford next year.
2 إذن بالدُّخول أو الالتحاق
3 [U] the price charged when you go to a film, sports event, concert etc: Admission $6.50.
3 أجر الدُّخول، ثمَن التَّذكِرة
admit 1 [I,T] to agree or say that something is true, although you do not want to: He was wrong, but he won’t admit it. | + (that) You may not like her, but you have to admit that Sheila is good at her job. | + to He’ll never admit to the murder.
1 يُسلِّم مُرْغَمًا بِـ، يُقِرُّ بِـ
2 [T] to let someone or something enter a place or join a club or organization: Only ticket holders will be admitted into the stadium.
2 يسمح بالدُّخول أو الالتحاق
3 be admitted to be taken into hospital because you are ill
3 يُسمح له بدخول المستشفى للعلاج
admittance permission to enter a place: Journalists were refused admittance to the meeting.
إذن أو تصريح بالدُّخول
admittedly used when you are admitting that something is true: Admittedly, it’s not a very good photograph, but you can recognize who it is.
مع التَّسليم والاعتراف بأن
admonish literary to tell or warn someone that they have done something wrong — admonishment noun [C,U]
يُحذِّر، ينصح - التَّحذير، النصيحة
ado without more/further ado without any more delay
بدون أدنى تأخير
adolescence the period when a young person is developing into an adult, usually between the ages of 12 and 17
المُراهَقَة
adolescent a young person who is developing into an adult — adolescent adjective
المُراهِق - مراهِق
adopt 1 to let someone else’s child become a part of your family and make him or her legally your daughter or son: Melissa was adopted by the Simpsons when she was only two.
1 يتبنّى طفلًا
2 to begin to use a particular plan or way of doing something: The police are adopting more forceful methods.
2 يتبنّى فكرة
3 to formally approve a suggestion: The committee voted to adopt our proposals — adopted adjective: their adopted daughter
3 يوافِق على اقتراح - متبنًّى
adoption 1 [U] when you decide to use a particular plan or method: improvements that followed the adoption of new technology
1 تبنّي فِكرة
2 [C,U] when someone adopts someone else’s child: Children of parents who had died were offered for adoption.
2 تبنّي طِفل
adorable very attractive: an adorable little puppy
رائع، فاتِن، جذَّاب جدًّا
adoration great love and admiration
الحُبّ لدرجة العبادة
adore 1 to love and admire someone very much: Tim absolutely adores his older brother.
1 يحبُّ بشدة
2 to like something very much: I adore this place. It’s so peaceful here.
2 يعجب جدًّا بشيء
adorn formal to decorate something and make it more attractive: The church walls were adorned with beautiful carvings. —adornment /əˈdɔːnmənt‖-ɔːr-/ noun [C,U]
يُزيِّن، يُجمِّل - زينة، تجميل
adrenalin a chemical produced by your body that gives you more energy when you are frightened, excited, or angry
مادة الأدرِينالين
adrift 1 a boat that is adrift is not tied to anything, and is moved around by the ocean or wind
1 منساقًا مع التيار، على غير هدى
2 come adrift if something comes adrift, it becomes separated from the thing it should be fastened to
2 يَنفصِل عن الأصل
adroit able to use your hands skilfully or to think and use words quickly: an adroit negotiator — adroitly adverb
ماهِر، حاذِق - بمهارة، بحِذق
adulation when someone receives more praise and admiration than they deserve
مُداهَنة، تملُّق
adult a fully grown person or animal
البالِغ، الرّاشِد، المُكتمل النُّمو
adultery when someone who is married has sex with someone who is not their husband or wife — adulterous adjective
الزِّنا - زانٍ
advance 1 in advance if you do something in advance, you do it so that something is ready or available at the time in the future when it will be needed: a delicious dish that can be prepared in advance
1 مُقدَّمًا
2 [C,U] when something is discovered, invented, or improved, with the result that there is progress: effective drugs and other advances in medicine
2 تقدُّم، تحسُّن
3 [C] a movement forward to a new position, especially by an army: Napoleon’s advance towards Moscow
3 تحرُّك إلى الأمام
4 [C, usually singular] money paid to someone before the usual time: + on Could I have a small advance on my salary? → see also ADVANCES
4 سُلفَة، قَرْض
advanced 1 using the most modern ideas, equipment, and methods: the most advanced computer on the market
1 مُتقدِّم، مُتطوِّر، راقٍ
2 advanced Physics/Mathematics/Chemistry etc Physics, Mathematics etc at a high level: a course in Advanced Computer Studies
2 الفيزياء، الرِّياضيات، الكيمياء .. إلخ المتقدِّمة
advances attempts to start a sexual relationship with someone: He became violent when the girl rejected his advances.
مبادَرات غرامية، تحرُّشات جنسيَّة
advantage 1 something that helps you to be better or more successful than other people: + of the advantages of a good education | + over Her computer training gave her an advantage over the other students.
1 ميزَة
2 a way in which something is good or useful: Good public transport is just one of the advantages of living in a big city.
2 مَنفعَة، مَصلحَة
3 take advantage of sth/sb a) to use a situation to help you do or get something you want: We took advantage of the good weather by going for a picnic. b) to unfairly use a person in order to get something for yourself: I don’t mind helping, but I resent being taken advantage of.
3 (أ) يستفيد من شخص أو شيء (ب) يَستغلّ شخصًا لمصلحته
4 to your advantage helpful and likely to make you richer or more successful
4 في صالحك، من أجل منفعتك
advantageous helpful and likely to make you more successful
نافع، مُكسِب
advent the advent of sth when something important first starts to exist or to be used by a lot of people: the advent of television | the advent of communism
مجيء، ظهور
adventure an exciting experience in which dangerous or unusual things happen: a book about her adventures in South America
مُغامَرة، مُخاطَرة
adventurer someone who travels to new places, doing exciting things
المغامِر
adventurous 1 also adventuresome AmE wanting to do new, exciting, dangerous things
1 محبٌّ للمغامَرة، مُخاطِر
2 exciting and involving danger: an adventurous expedition up the Amazon —adventurously adverb
2 مُثير وخطير - بدرجة مثيرة، بطريقة مغامِرة
adverb a word that describes or adds to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a sentence. For example, ‘slowly’ in ‘He walked slowly’ and ‘very’ in ‘It was a very good book’ are adverbs — adverbial /ədˈvɜːbiəl‖-ɜːr-/ adjective
الظَّرْف، الحال - متعلق بالظرف أو الحال
adversary formal an enemy or someone you are competing against
العدوّ، المنافِس
adverse formal
1 adverse conditions/effects conditions or effects that are bad and cause problems: adverse weather conditions
1 ظروف مُعاكِسَة، تأثيرات غير مواتية
2 adverse publicity/comment etc when people criticize something or someone and say that they are not very good — adversely adverb
2 دِعاية أو تعليق مضاد - بطريقة معاكسة
adversity difficulties or problems in your life: showing courage in times of adversity
الشِّدة، الصعوبات
advert BrE an advertisement
الإعلان
advertise 1 [I,T] to tell people about a product, or service in order to persuade them to buy it or use it: a poster advertising sportswear | I saw your car advertised in the evening paper.
1 يُعلِن عن منتج أو خدمة
2 [I] to make an announcement in a newspaper, asking for someone to work for you or for something that you need: + for RCA is advertising for an accountant — advertiser noun [C]
2 يعلن في الصُّحُف - المُعلِن
advertisement a set of words or pictures in a newspaper, magazine etc, or a short film on television that advertises a product → compare COMMERCIAL2
إعلان في صحيفة أو على شاشة التليفزيون
advertising the business of advertising things on television, in newspapers etc
فنّ الإعلان في التليفزيون والصحف ...إلخ
advice what you say to someone when you tell them what you think they should do: + on/about a book that’s full of advice on babycare | give (sb) advice Let me give you some advice. Don’t write so fast. | ask sb’s advice (=ask them what to do): Beth decided to ask her doctor’s advice. | take/follow sb’s advice (=do what they advise you to do): Did you take your father’s advice? | piece of advice He offered me one piece of advice that I’ve never forgotten.
النصيحة - ينصح، يقدِّم النصح - يطلب النصيحة، يستشير - يأخذ بالنصيحة - النصيحة
advisable something that is advisable should be done in order to avoid problems or risks: It is advisable to wear a safety belt at all times. → opposite inadvisable — advisability /ədˌvaɪzəˈbɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
مُستَحسَن، مُستَصوَب، مناسب - الاستحسان، الاستصواب
advise 1 [I,T] to tell someone what you think they should do: advise sb to do sth The doctor advised me to take more exercise. | advise (sb) against doing sth (=tell someone not to do something): His lawyers had advised against making a statement to the press. | advise (sb) on sth Franklin advises us on financial matters.
1 ينصح - يوصي بِـ - يشير بألا - يُطلع، يُبصِّر
2 [T] formal to officially tell someone something: You will be advised when the work is completed.
2 يُخطِر بطريقة رسميَّة
adviser, advisor someone whose job is to give advice about a subject: + on the President’s adviser on foreign affairs
المستشار، الناصح
advisory having the purpose of giving advice: an advisory committee
استشاري
advocate to suggest or say that you strongly support a particular way of doing things: Buchanan advocates tougher trade policies — advocacy /-kəsi/ noun [U]
يُدافِع، يُناصِر- دِفاع، مُناصَرَة
advocate 1 someone who strongly supports a particular way of doing things: + of an advocate of prison reform
1 المُدافِع، المُناصِر
2 law a lawyer who speaks for someone in a court of law and tries to prove they are not guilty
2 المحامي
aerial from a plane or happening in the air: aerial photos | aerial attacks
هوائي، جوي
aerial noun [C] BrE a piece of metal or wire used for receiving radio or television SIGNALS; ANTENNA AmE → see colour picture on page 149 and picture at CAR
هوائي التليفزيون أو الراديو
aerobic aerobic exercise makes your heart and lungs stronger
متعلق برياضة الإيروبكس (الرياضة التَّنَفُّسِيَّة)
aerobics active physical exercise done to music, usually in a class: Are you going to aerobics tonight? (=to an aerobics class)
رياضة الإيروبكس (تمارس على أنغام الموسيقى)
aerodynamics the scientific study of how objects move through the air — aerodynamic adjective
عِلمُ الدّيناميكا/الحركة الهوائية - حَرَكيّ هَوائي
aeroplane BrE noun [C] a flying vehicle with wings and an engine; airplane AmE → see colour picture on page 1333
الطائرة
aerosol a small metal container from which a liquid can be forced out by pressing a button: an aerosol hairspray → see picture at spray
إيروسول، مِرَشَّة سائل (بضغط غاز الفريون)
aerospace the design and production of aircraft and space vehicles: the aerospace industry
تصميم وإنتاج الطائرات ومَرْكَبات الفضاء
aesthetic also esthetic AmE relating to beauty and the study of beauty: the aesthetic qualities of literature —aesthetically /-kli/ adverb: aesthetically pleasing
جمالي، خاصٌّ بعلم الجَمال - من الناحية الجماليَّة
aesthetics also esthetics AmE the study of beauty, especially beauty in art
عِلْم الجمال
afar from afar literary from a long distance away
من بعيد، عن بعد
affable friendly and easy to talk to: an affable guy —affably adverb
ودود، أنيس - بِوُدٍّ
affair 1 an event or a set of related events, especially unpleasant ones: The Watergate affair brought down the Nixon administration.
1 أَمْر، قضية، واقِعة
2 a secret sexual relationship between two people, when at least one of them is married to someone else: have an affair Ed’s having an affair with his boss’s wife.
2 عَلاقة غرامية - على علاقة جنسيَّة مع
3 be sb’s affair if something is your affair, you do not want other people to know about it or become involved in it
3 مُهتمُّ بِـ، مَعنِيّ بِـ، يكون شغله الشاغل
affairs situations or subjects that a person, business, or government has to deal with: the company’s financial affairs | affairs of state (=government business)
شئون - شُئون الدَّولة
affect 1 to cause a change in someone or something, or to change the situation they are in: a disease that affects the heart and lungs | Help is being sent to areas affected by the floods.
1 يؤثِّر في، يَفعل في
2 to make someone feel strong emotions: She was deeply affected by the news of Paul’s death. → compare EFFECT2.
2 يؤثِّر عاطفيًّا
affectation unnatural or insincere behaviour
تَظاهُر، تصنُّع
affected speaking or behaving in a way that is not sincere or natural: Olivia spoke in a high, affected voice.
مُصطَنَع، مُتكلَّف
affection a feeling of gentle love: + for Barry felt a great affection for her.
عاطفة، حبّ
affectionate behaving in a way that shows you love someone: an affectionate child — affectionately adverb
مُحبّ، ودود - بِمحبَّة، بودّ
affiliate be affiliated with/to to be officially connected with, or controlled by a larger organization: a TV station affiliated to CBS — affiliation /əˌfɪliˈeɪʃən/ noun [C,U] What are the group’s political affiliations?
يَتْبَعُ، ينتسب إلى - الارتباط، الانتساب
affinity 1 [singular] a feeling that you like and understand someone because you are similar: + for/with/between She felt a natural affinity for these people.
1 تقارُب، تفاهُم
2 [C,U] when two things are very similar or closely related to each other
2 تطابُق، تشابُه
affirm formal to say definitely that something is true: The President affirmed his intention to reduce taxes. —affirmation /ˌæfəˈmeɪʃən‖ˌæfər-/ noun [C,U]
يُؤكِّد - التَّأكيد
affirmative formal meaning ‘‘yes’’: an affirmative answer | answer in the affirmative (=say ‘‘yes’’) — affirmatively adverb
تَوكيديّ - يَردّ بالإيجاب - بإيجاب
affix formal to fasten or stick something to something else: A recent photograph should be affixed to your form.
يُلصِق، يُثبِّت
afflict formal if you are afflicted by a disease or problem, it affects you badly: Towards the end of his life he was afflicted with blindness. | a country afflicted by famine
يُصيب، يبتلي
affliction formal something that causes suffering or pain
كَرْب، بلاء
affluent rich: an affluent suburb of Paris — affluence noun [U]
ثريّ، موسِر - الثَّراء
afford 1 can afford a) to have enough money to pay for something: I wish we could afford a new computer. | I can’t afford to buy a new car. b) if you cannot afford to do something or let something happen, you must not do it or let it happen because it will cause problems: We can’t afford to offend our regular customers.
1 (أ) يَقدر ماليًّا (ب) يَستَطيع، يُمكِنُه
2 formal to provide something: The walls afforded some protection from the wind.
2 يوفِّر
affordable something that is affordable is not too expensive, and ordinary people are able to pay for it: a list of good affordable hotels
مُتاح، في متناول الإنسان العادي
affront something that makes you feel offended or insulted: + to The accusation was an affront to his pride.
إهانة، إساءة
afield far/further afield far or further away: As he grew more confident, he started to wander further afield.
بعيدًا
afloat 1 floating on water
1 طافٍ، عائِم
2 keep/stay afloat to have enough money to pay your debts and continue in business: She had to borrow more money just to keep the company afloat.
2 يستطيع أن يسدد ديونه ويستمر في العمل
afraid 1 I’m afraid spoken used when you are politely telling someone something that may annoy, upset, or disappoint them: I won’t be able to come with you, I’m afraid. | + (that) I’m afraid this is a no smoking area. | ‘‘Are we late?’’ ‘‘I’m afraid so.’’ (=yes) | ‘‘Are there any tickets left?’’ ‘‘I’m afraid not.’’ (=no)
1 يُؤسِفُني أن، معذرة
2 frightened because you think someone or something is unpleasant or will hurt you: I could see by the look in his eyes that he was afraid. | + of Small children are often afraid of the dark.
2 خائف
3 frightened or worried that something bad may happen: afraid of doing sth A lot of people are afraid of losing their jobs. | + (that) I didn’t say anything because I was afraid the other kids would laugh at me. | afraid for sb/sth (=worried that something bad will happen to someone): I thought you were in danger and I was afraid for you.
3 مذعور، قَلِق - خائف من شيء، قَلِقٌ على شخص أو شيء
afresh start afresh to start again from the beginning: We decided to move to Sydney and start afresh.
يبدأ من الصفر، يبدأ من جديد
after 1 when a particular time or event has happened: What are you doing after class? | after that (=used to say what happens next): Then we went to the museum. After that, we had lunch. | an hour/2 weeks etc after sth We left an hour after daybreak.
1 بعد - بعد ذلك - بعد ساعة/أسبوعين
2 following someone or something in a set or list of things: Whose name is after mine on the list?
2 عَقِبَ
3 after 10 minutes/3 hours etc when 10 minutes etc have passed: After a while, the woman returned.
3 بعد مدة ...
4 AmE used to say how many minutes past the hour it is when saying the time: It’s 10 after five.
4 في حساب الزمن: كذا دقيقة بعد الساعة كذا
5 day after day/year after year etc continuing for a very long time: Day after day we waited, hoping she’d call.
5 يومًا بعد يوم/سنة بعد أخرى
6 one after the other when each one immediately follows the one before: We led the horses one after the other out of the barn.
6 واحدًا بعد الآخر
7 because of something that has happened: I’m surprised he came, after the way you treated him.
7 بسبب
8 in spite of something: After all the trouble I had, Reese didn’t even say thank you.
8 بالرَّغم من
9 be after sb to be looking for someone: The FBI is after him for fraud.
9 يتعقَّب
10 be after sth to be trying to get something that belongs to someone else: You’re just after my money!
10 يحاول الحصول على شيء لا يخصه
11 after all a) in spite of what you thought was true or expected to happen: Rita didn’t have my pictures after all. Jake did. | It didn’t rain after all. b) used when you are saying something that shows that what you have just said is right: Don’t shout at him – he’s only a baby, after all.
11 (أ) مع كل هذا، بالرغم من ذلك (ب) وهذا صحيح
12 be called/named after sb to be given the same name as someone else: She was named Sarah, after my grandmother. → compare BEFORE1, SINCE2.
12 يُسَمّى باسم
after linking word at a later time than the time something happens: Voitek left Poland after the war. | 10 days/2 weeks after He discovered the jewel was a fake a month after he bought it.
بعد مُضِيِّ ... - بعد مُرورِ عَشرة أيام/أسبوعين
after adverb later than someone or something else: Gina came on Monday; I got here the day after.
التالي
after-effect an unpleasant effect that remains after the condition or event that caused it: + of the after-effects of his illness
آثار لاحقة، نتيجة تالية
afterlife the life that some people believe you have after you die
الحياة بعد الموت
aftermath the situation after an accident, storm, war etc when people are still dealing with what happened: in the aftermath of the refugee crisis in the aftermath of the civil war
عاقبة، أثر
afternoon the period of time between 12 o’clock and the evening: We should get there at about three in the afternoon. | There are no afternoon classes today. | this afternoon (=today in the afternoon): Can you go swimming this afternoon?
بعد الظُّهر - بعد ظهر اليوم
aftershave a liquid with a pleasant smell that a man puts on his face after he SHAVES
كريم بعد الحلاقة
aftertaste a taste that stays in your mouth after you eat or drink something: a drink with a sour aftertaste
مذاق الطعام أو الشَّراب المتبقي في الفم
afterthought something that you think of and mention or add later
فكرة تَطرأ فيما بعد
afterwards also afterward AmE adverb later, after something else has happened: 2 days/5 weeks etc afterwards We met at school but didn’t get married until two years afterwards.
فيما بعد، بعدئذٍ - بعد يومين أو خمسة أسابيع ... إلخ
again 1 one more time: Could you say that again? I can’t hear. | I’ll never go there again. | I’m sorry, Mr Kay is busy. Could you call again later? | once again (=again, for at least the third time): Once again the Americans are the Olympic champions.
1 ثانية - مرة أخرى
2 in the same condition, situation, or place as before: I can’t wait for Jamie to be well again. | Susan’s home again, after studying in France.
2 في نفس الظروف أو المَكان
3 again and again many times: Say it again and again until you learn it.
3 المرة تلو المرة
4 all over again repeating something from the beginning: The tape broke, so we had to record the programme all over again.
4 إعادة العمل من بدايته (من الأول مُجدَّدًا)
5 then/there again spoken used to add a fact or opinion to what you have just said: Carol’s always had nice clothes – but then again she earns a lot.
5 بالإضافة، وفوق هذا
against 1 opposed to or disagreeing with an idea, plan, system etc: Most people are against fox-hunting.
1 ضدّ
2 fighting or competing with someone or something: Sampras is playing against Becker in the final. | the battle against inflation
2 في مُواجهة، ضِدّ
3 against the law/the rules not allowed by the law or the rules: It is against the law to sell alcohol to children.
3 مُخالِف للقانون أو القواعد
4 against sb’s wishes/advice/orders etc if you do something against someone’s wishes etc, you do it even though they tell you not to do it: She got married to him against her parents’ wishes.
4 ضد رغبات شخص أو نصيحته أو أوامره
5 touching a surface: The cat’s fur felt soft against her face. | Sheldon leaned lazily back against the wall. → see colour picture on page 808
5 مُلامِس لسطح
6 have sth against sb/sth to dislike or disapprove of someone or something: I have nothing against people making money, but they ought to pay taxes on it.
6 يُبدي اعتراضًا أو يحمل كراهية لِـ
7 in the opposite direction to the movement or flow of something: sailing against the wind
7 ضد التيار
8 protecting you from harm or damage: a cream to protect against sunburn
8 للوِقاية من ضَرَر
age 1 [C,U] the number of years that someone has lived or that something has existed: games for children of all ages | Patrick is about my age. (=he is about the same age as me) | at the age of 12/50 etc Jamie won his first tournament at the age of 15. | 4/15 etc years of age formal (=4, 15 etc years old) | for his/her age (=compared with other people the same age): Judy’s very tall for her age.
1 عُمْر، سِنّ - في سنِّ كذا - يبلغ من العمر - بالنسبة لِسِنِّه/لِسِنِّها
2 under age not old enough to be legally allowed to do something: I can’t buy you a drink, you’re under age.
2 قاصِر، دون السنِّ القانونيَّة
3 [U] when something is old: a letter that was brown with age
3 القِدَم
4 [C] a particular period of history: the computer age | the history of painting through the ages
4 عصر، حِقْبة تاريخيَّة
5 come of age to reach the age at which you are legally considered to be an adult
5 يبلغ السِّنَّ القانونيَّة
6 age group the people who are a particular age, considered as a group: a book for children in the 8-12 age group → see also AGES, OLD AGE
6 مجموعة عمريَّة
age to become older and weaker, or make someone seem older and weaker: He has aged a lot since his wife died — ageing BrE aging AmE adjective: an aging rock star
يتقدَّم في السِّنِّ - مُتقدِّم في السِّنّ
aged aged 5/15 etc 5, 15 etc years old: a class for children aged 12 and over
بالغ من العمر، عُمْره
aged adjective "1 very old: his aged parents
1 كبير في السنّ، مُتقدِّم في السنّ، مُسِنّ
2 the aged old people: the cost of caring for the sick and aged
2 المُسنّون"
ageless never seeming old or old-fashioned: ageless fashions
لا يَشيخُ، لا يَتَقادَمُ
agency 1 a business that arranges services for people: I got this job through an employment agency.
1 وكالة، توكيل
2 an international organization or government department that does a particular job: the UN agency responsible for helping refugees
2 هيئة دولية أو مصلحة حكوميَّة
agenda 1 a list of the subjects to be discussed at a meeting: on the agenda The next item on the agenda is finances.
1 جدول أعمال
2 be on the agenda if something is on the agenda, there is a plan to do something about it: sth is high on the agenda (=people think something is very important and plan to deal with it soon): Health care reforms are high on the President’s agenda.
2 موضوع مطروح للمناقشة - من أهم بنود جدول الأعمال
agent 1 a person or company whose job is to deal with someone else’s business for them: Our agent in Rome handles all our Italian contracts.
1 وكيل
2 someone who works for a government and tries to get secret information about another country or organization: a secret agent
2 عميل
age-old hundreds of years old: age-old customs and traditions
عُمره/عُمْرها مئات السنين
ages informal a long time: for ages I haven’t seen Lorna for ages.
أمد، زمن طويل - لوقت طويل
aggravate 1 to make a bad situation worse: The doctors say her condition is aggravated by stress.
1 يزيد الأمر سوءًا، يُفاقِم
2 to annoy someone: He really aggravates me sometimes — aggravating adjective — aggravation /ˌægrəˈveɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
2 يُضايِق - مُسبِّب للضّيق، مُشدِّد - ضيق، تشديد
aggregate a total — aggregate adjective
الكُلّ، المَجموع - مُتَجَمِّع، إجمالي
aggression angry or threatening behaviour or feelings that often result in fighting: The bombing was an unprovoked act of aggression.
العُدوان
aggressive 1 behaving in an angry or threatening way, as if you want to fight or attack someone: After a few drinks he became very aggressive.
1 عُدواني
2 very determined to succeed: aggressive sales techniques — aggressively adverbaggressiveness noun [U]
2 مُصمِّم على الفوز - بطريقة عدائيَّة - العُدوانيَّة
aggressor a person or country that begins a fight or war with another person or country
المُعْتدي
aggrieved feeling angry or unhappy because you think you have been unfairly treated
غاضِب أو تَعِس بسبب الظلم
aghast suddenly feeling or looking shocked: She stared at him aghast.
مَشْدوه، مَذْهول
agile 1 able to move quickly and easily: as agile as a monkey
1 خَفيف الحَركة
2 able to think quickly and intelligently: old people who are still mentally agile — agility /əˈdʒɪlɪ(ə)ti/ noun [U]
2 سَريع التَّفكير والذَّكاء - سُرْعة الحَركة أو التَّفكير
agitate to protest in order to achieve social or political changes: workers agitating for higher pay — agitator noun [C]
يَحتجُّ بهَدَف إحْداث تغيير سياسيّ أو اجتماعيّ - ثائِر
agitated very anxious, nervous, or upset: You really shouldn’t get so agitated — agitation /ˌædʒɪ(ə)ˈteɪʃən/ noun [U]
قَلِق، مُضطرِب - الاضطراب
agnostic someone who believes that it is not possible to know whether God exists → compare ATHEISTagnostic adjective — agnosticism /-tɪ(ə)sɪzəm/ noun [U]
مُعتنِق مذهب اللا أدريَّة - لا أدرِيّ - مذهب اللا أدريَّة
ago used to say how far back in the past something happened: 10 years/a moment/a long time ago Jeff left an hour ago. | We went there a long time ago.
منذ - منذ عشر سنوات/لحظة/وقت طويل
agonize (also -ise BrE) to think and worry for a long time about a decision that you have to make: + about/over Jane had been agonizing all day about what to wear.
يتألَّم، يتعذَّب - يَعول الهمّ
agonizing (also -sing BrE) extremely painful or difficult: an agonizing decision — agonizingly adverb
مُؤلِم جدًّا - بألم مُبرِّح
agony very severe pain or suffering: in agony The poor man was in agony.
الألم المُبرِّح - شاعر بآلام مُبرِّحة
agree 1 [I,T] to have the same opinion about something: + with I agree with Karen. It’s much too expensive. | + that Everyone agreed that the new rules were stupid. | + about/on My first husband and I never agreed about anything. → opposite DISAGREE
1 يتفقُ مع، يُجمِع على، يَتَّفق على
2 [I,T] to make a decision together after discussing something: agree to do sth They agreed to share the cost of the party. | + on We’re still trying to agree on a date for the wedding. | + that It was agreed that Mr Rollins should sign the contract on May 1st.
2 يتَّفقون على قرار - يتَّفقون على شيء - يوافِق على أن
3 [I,T] to say yes when someone suggests a plan or asks you to do something: agree to do sth She agreed to stay at home with Charles. | + to The boss would never agree to such a plan.
3 يقول نعم - يُوافِق على شيء - يُوافِق على عمل شيء
4 [I] if two pieces of information agree, they say the same thing: + with Your story doesn’t agree with what the police have said.
4 يَتطابَق - يتَّفقُ مع
agree with sb/sth phr verb [T]
1 to believe that something is right: agree with sth I don’t agree with hitting children.
1 يتَّفق مع شخص - يوافق على شيء
2 not agree with sb to make someone ill: Some dairy products don’t agree with me.
2 لا يناسب
agreeable 1 pleasant or enjoyable: very agreeable weather
1 مُحبَّب إلى النَّفْس
2 be agreeable to sth formal to be willing to do something or to let it be done: Are you sure Johnson is agreeable to the idea? — agreeably adverb: I was agreeably surprised.
2 راغِب في عمل شيء - بطريقة مُحبَّبة
agreed 1 an agreed price, method, arrangement etc is one that people have discussed and accepted
1 مُتَّفق عليه
2 be agreed if people are agreed, they have decided together what to do: Are we all agreed on the date for our next meeting?
2 مُتَّفقون تمامًا
agreement 1 [C] an arrangement or promise to do something, made by two or more people, countries, organizations etc: a trade agreement | come to/reach an agreement Lawyers on both sides finally reached an agreement today.
1 اتِّفاق - يَتوصَّل إلى اتِّفاق
2 [U] when two or more people have the same opinion as each other: in agreement Not all scientists are in agreement with this theory. → opposite DISAGREEMENT
2 تَطابُق، موافقة - على اتفاق
agriculture the work of growing crops and keeping animals on farms for food, and the methods that are used — agricultural /ˌægrɪˈkʌltʃərəl◂/ adjective
الزراعة - زراعي
aground if a ship runs aground, it gets stuck in water that is not very deep
جانِحًا، مُرتطِمًا بالأرض
ah used when you feel surprise, sympathy, dislike, pleasure etc: Ah, what a lovely baby!
آه (صيحة تَنُمُّ عن الدَّهشة، السُّرور .. إلخ)
aha used when you suddenly understand or realize something: Aha! So that’s where you’ve been hiding!
آه (للدَّهشة أو السُّخرية)
ahead 1 in front of someone or something: Joe ran ahead to see what was happening. | + of Do you see that red car ahead of us? | up ahead Just up ahead on the right is my old school.
1 في المقدِّمة، أمام
2 in or into the future: look/plan ahead In this type of business it’s important to plan ahead.
2 في المستقبل - ينظر/يخطِّط للمستقبل
3 before someone arrives or finishes: + of There were four people ahead of me at the doctor’s.
3 قبل شخص، أمامه في التَّرتيب
4 go ahead spoken used to tell someone they can do something: Go ahead – help yourself to a drink.
4 ابدأ العمل، تَصَرَّفْ
5 making more progress than other people or things: + of Jane is well ahead of the rest of her class.
5 مُتقدِّم على
6 more successful than another player or team in a game, competition etc
6 متفوِّق
7 to be successful in your job or in what you are doing
7 ناجح في العمل
8 ahead of schedule/time before the time that was planned or arranged: The building was completed ahead of schedule.
8 قبل الموعد المحدد
aid 1 [U] money, food, or services that are given by an organization to help people: The UN is sending aid to the earthquake victims. | overseas aid
1 معونة
2 with the aid of using something to help you do something: bacteria viewed with the aid of a microscope
2 بمساعدة
3 in aid of in order to collect money for a group of people who need help
3 لصالح
4 [C] a thing that helps you do something: notebooks and study aids
4 مُعينات، وسائل
5 come/go to the aid of sb to help someone: She went to the aid of an injured man.
5 يسرع لإغاثة شخص
aid verb [T] "1 to help or give support to someone
1 يُعين، يُؤيِّد
2 aid and abet law to help someone do something illegal
2 يُحرِّض على ارتِكاب الجَريمة ويُشارِك فيها"
aide also aid AmE someone whose job is to help someone in a more important position, especially a politician: a White House aide to President Nixon
المُساعِد
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; a very serious disease that stops your body from defending itself against infection
مرض الإيدز
ailing weak or ill, and not getting stronger or better: the country’s ailing economy | his ailing mother
عَليل، مُتوعِّك
ailment an illness that is not very serious: people suffering from minor ailments
وَعْكة
aim 1 [I] to plan or intend to achieve something: + for/at We’re aiming for a gold medal in the Olympics. | aim to do sth If you’re aiming to become a doctor, you’ll have to study hard.
1 يَنْوي - يَهدِف إلى
2 be aimed at sb if something is aimed at someone, it is made or done so that certain people will like it or be influenced by it: a TV commercial aimed at teenagers | Was that criticism aimed at me?
2 مُوجَّه إلى شخص أو فئة
3 [I,T] to point a weapon at someone or something that you want to hit: + at The gun was aimed at his head.
3 يُصوِّب سِلاحه نحو
4 be aimed at doing sth to be intended to achieve something: a program aimed at creating more jobs
4 يهدِف إلى تحقيق غرض معين
aim noun "1 [C] a purpose that you are hoping to achieve: The main aim of the course is to improve your spoken English. | I flew to California with the aim of finding a job.
1 غَرَض، هَدَف
2 take aim to point a weapon at someone or something: + at He took aim at the pigeon and fired.
2 يُسَدِّد إلى، يُصوِّب نحو
3 [U] someone’s ability to hit something by throwing or shooting something at it: Mark’s aim wasn’t very good.
3 التَّصويب"
aimless without a clear purpose or reason — aimlessly adverb: The boys had been wandering around aimlessly.
بدون هَدَف - بطريقة عَشْوائيَّة
ain’t spoken a short form of ‘am not’, ‘is not’, ‘are not’, ‘has not’, or ‘have not’ that many people think is not correct: Ain’t that the truth!
اختِصار لِـ: ‘am not’, ‘is not’, ‘are not’, ‘has not’, ‘have not’
air 1 [U] the mixture of gases which we breathe and which surrounds the Earth: fresh air (=clean air): Let’s go outside and get some fresh air.
1 الهواء - الهواء النقي
2 the air the space above the ground or around things: David threw the ball up into the air.
2 الفَضاء المُحيط
3 by air travelling by plane: Most people travel to the islands by air.
3 السَّفر بالطّائِرة
4 air travel/safety etc involving planes or connected with flying: the world’s worst air disaster
4 كل ما يتعلَّق بالطيران/السلامة الجويَّة
5 [singular] a general appearance or feeling: + of There was an air of mystery about her.
5 شعور، مظهر
6 be on/off the air to be broadcasting or not broadcasting on the radio or on television
6 على الهواء/الميكروفون مُغلق
7 it’s up in the air spoken used to say that something has not been decided yet, and no one is certain about what will happen → see also thin air (THIN1), AIRS
7 في مَهبّ الريح
airbag a bag in a car that fills with air to protect people in an accident
كيس هَواء: بالسيارات، لحماية الراكب عند وقوع حادِث
airborne flying or floating in the air
مَحْمول بالهَواء، في الهَواء
air conditioner a machine that makes the air in a room, car etc stay COOL
جِهاز تَكْييف الهَواء
air conditioning a system that makes the air in a room, building etc stay cool — air conditioned adjective
تَكْييف الهواء - مُكيَّف الهَواء
aircraft aircraft a plane or any vehicle that can fly
طائِرة
aircraft carrier a type of ship that has a large flat surface that planes fly from
حامِلة طائِرات
airfare the price of a plane trip
أسْعار الرِّحلات الجويَّة
airfield a place that military planes or small planes fly from
مَطار حربيّ
air force the military organization of a country that uses planes when fighting a war
القُوّات الجَويَّة
airhead informal an insulting word for someone who seems stupid
غبي
air hostess BrE a woman who looks after the passengers in a plane
مُضيفة جويَّة
airily in a way that shows you do not care very much about something: ‘‘Oh, just do whatever you want,’’ she said airily.
باسْتِخفاف، بدون اكتراث
airing cupboard BrE a warm cupboard where sheets and clean clothes are kept
دولاب لتهوية الملابس
airless without fresh air
سيِّئ التهوية
airlift when people or things are taken to a place by plane, because it is too difficult or dangerous to get there by road — airlift verb [T] Thirty villagers were airlifted to safety.
جسر جَوّي، نَقل جوي - ينقل جوًّا
airline a company that provides a regular service to carry passengers to different places by plane
شركة طيران، خط جوي
airliner a large plane for passengers
طائرة ركّاب
airmail the system of sending letters, packages etc by plane: Did you send Grandma’s present by airmail?
البريد الجوي
airman airmen someone who has a low rank in a country’s AIR FORCE
ذو رتبة صغيرة في السِّلاح الجوي
airplane AmE a vehicle that flies by using wings and one or more engines; AEROPLANE BrE → see colour picture on page 1333
طائرة
airport a place that you arrive at or leave from when travelling by plane → see colour picture on page 1333
ميناء جوي
air raid an attack by enemy planes
غارة جويَّة
airs a way of behaving and talking that someone has because they want to seem more important than they really are: put on airs Monica has been putting on airs ever since she moved to Beverly Hills.
خُيَلاء، زَهْو - يَتَكلَّف العظمة
airship an old type of aircraft consisting of a large balloon filled with gas and an engine below
مُنْطاد
airspace the sky above a particular country, which is controlled by that country
المَجال الجَوّي
air strike an attack by military planes against an enemy
هُجوم جَوّيّ
airstrip a long narrow piece of land that planes can fly to and from
مَدْرَج طائرات، مَهْبِط طائرات
airtight completely closed so that air cannot get in or out: airtight containers
سَدود للهواء، كَتيم للهواء
air time the amount of time that a radio or television station allows for a particular song, advertisement etc to be broadcast
الوقت المُحدَّد للإذاعة على الهواء
airy an airy room, building etc has a lot of space and fresh air
جيد التهوية
airy-fairy BrE informal airy-fairy ideas are not at all clear or practical
مُبهَم، غير عملي
aisle a long space where you can walk between rows of seats in a theatre, church, bus, plane etc
مَمرّ، مَمْشى (بين المقاعد)
ajar a door or window that is ajar is not completely closed
مُوارَب
aka the written abbreviation of ‘also known as’; used when giving someone’s real name together with the name they are known by: John Phillips, a.k.a. The Mississippi Mauler
الاختصار الكتابي لِـ ‘also known as’، أي: المَعْروف بِـ
akin formal akin to sth similar to something: His music is much more akin to jazz than rock.
قَريب من، شَبيه بِـ
à la carte French if food in a restaurant is ب la carte, each dish has its own separate price
لكل طبق بقائمة الطعام سعره
alacrity with alacrity literary quickly and eagerly
بِهمَّة ونشاط
alarm 1 [U] a feeling of fear or anxiety because something dangerous might happen: Calm down! There’s no cause for alarm.
1 انزعاج
2 [C] something such as a bell, loud noise, or light that warns people of danger: a fire alarm | a car alarm (=one protecting your car)
2 إنذار، تنبيه
3 [C] informal an alarm clock
3 مُنَبِّه، ساعة مُنَبِّهة
4 raise/sound the alarm to warn everyone about something bad or dangerous that is happening: They first sounded the alarm about the problem of nuclear waste in 1955.
4 يُطلق صَيْحات التَّحذير
5 false alarm when people think something dangerous is going to happen, but this is a mistake
5 إنذار كاذِب
alarm verb [T] to make someone feel very worried or anxious — alarmed adjective: There’s no need to look so alarmed.
يُزعِج - مُنزعِج
alarm clock a clock that makes a noise at a particular time to wake you up
مُنبِّه، ساعة مُنَبِّهة
alarming very frightening or worrying: an alarming increase in violent crime
مُخيف، مُزعِج
alarmist making people worried about dangers that do not exist: alarmist reports about communist spies — alarmist noun [C]
مُثير للقلق - الشَّخْص المُثير للقَلَق
alas literary used when you are very sad about something
وا أسفاه، يا للحسرة
albatross a very large sea bird
قَطْرَس، قادوس (طائر بحري)
albeit formal although
مع أنّ، لو أنّ
albino a person or animal born with very white skin, white hair, and pink eyes
أَمْهَق، مُغرِب
album 1 a group of songs recorded by a particular performer or group on a record, CD or TAPE: Do you have the Clash’s first album?
1 ألبوم أغانٍ مُسجَّلة
2 a book in which you put photographs, stamps etc
2 ألبوم صُوَر أو طَوابِع
alcohol 1 drinks such as beer, wine, WHISKY etc that can make you drunk: We do not serve alcohol to people under 21.
1 مَشْروبات كُحوليَّة
2 a colourless liquid contained in drinks that make you drunk
2 كحول
alcoholic 1 containing alcohol: an alcoholic drink → opposite NON-ALCOHOLIC
1 كحولي
2 unable to stop the habit of drinking too much alcohol: She divorced her alcoholic husband.
2 سِكِّير، مُدمِن
alcoholic noun [C] someone who cannot stop the habit of drinking too much alcohol: His father was an alcoholic.
مُدمِن المُسْكِرات
alcoholism the medical condition of being an alcoholic
إدْمان الخَمْر
alcove a small place in a wall of a room that is built further back than the rest of the wall
كَوَّة
ale a type of beer
جِعَة
alert 1 always watching and ready to notice anything strange, unusual, dangerous etc: + to Cyclists must always be alert to the dangers of overtaking parked cars.
1 مُنتبِه، مُتيقِّظ
2 able to think quickly and clearly: I knew that I had to remain wide awake and alert.
2 قادِر على التفكير بسُرعة و وُضوح
alert noun "1 be on the alert to be ready to notice and deal with a problem: Police are on the alert for trouble.
1 يكون مُنتبِهًا
2 [C] a warning to be ready for possible danger: a flood alert
2 إنْذار، تَحْذير"
A level an examination in a particular subject taken in England and Wales, usually at the age of 18
امتِحان المستوى «أ» يُجرى لسنّ 18
algae a plant without stems or leaves that lives in or near water
طَحالِب
algebra a type of mathematics that uses letters and signs to show numbers, amounts etc — algebraic /ˌældʒɪ(ə)ˈbreɪ-ɪk◂/ adjective: algebraic formulae
الجَبْر- جَبْري
alias used to talk about someone’s real name together with another name they use: the spy Margaret Zelle, alias Mata Hari
الشَّهير بِـ
alibi proof that someone was not where a crime happened and is therefore not guilty of the crime
دليل وجود الشَّخص في مَكان آخَر وَقْت وقوع الجريمة
alien 1 very different and strange: + to Her way of life is totally alien to me.
1 غريب
2 relating to creatures from other worlds: alien life-forms
2 مُنتمٍ لكائِنات من عوالِم أخرى
alien noun [C] 1 formal a foreigner who is not a citizen of the country where he or she is living
1 الأجنبي
2 a creature that comes from another world: a film about aliens from Mars
2 كائن من عالم آخر
alienate 1 to make someone stop supporting you
1 يَصرِف عن، يُنفِّر
2 to make someone feel they no longer belong to your group: We don’t want to alienate kids who already have problems at school — alienation /ˌeɪliəˈneɪʃən/ noun [U] a feeling of alienation from society
2 يُبعِد، يُقصي - الاغتراب
alight 1 burning: set sth alight (=make something burn): Several cars were set alight by rioters.
1 مُشتعِل، يُشعِل النار في
2 someone whose face or eyes are alight is happy or excited
2 مُشرِق
align 1 align yourself with sb to support another political group or country because you have the same aims: Five Democrats have aligned themselves with the Republicans on this issue. | be aligned with sb a country politically aligned with the West
1 يَسير على نفس الخطّ - سائِر على نفس الخطّ
2 to arrange something so that it is in the same line as something else — alignment noun [C,U]
2 يَصُفّ، يُنَظِّم في صَفّ - تراصُف، صَفّ، محاذاة، اصطِفاف
alike almost exactly the same; similar: All the new cars look alike to me.
شَبيه، مُماثِل
alimony money that someone has to pay regularly to their former wife or husband after a DIVORCE
النَّفقة
alive 1 living and not dead: They didn’t expect to find anyone alive after the explosion.
1 حيّ, على قيد الحياة
2 continuing to exist: keep sth alive ancient traditions that are kept alive in country villages
2 باقٍ - يُبقيه فعالًا أو نَشيطًا
3 if a place is alive, there is a lot of movement, activity, or excitement there: + with The stadium was alive with excitement. | come alive The streets come alive after ten o’clock.
3 زاخِر بالحَياة - يَمتلئ بالحَركة
4 be alive and well to be healthy or successful: The British novel is still alive and well in the 1990s.
4 في صِحَّة جيدة وناجِح
all 1 the whole of an amount or period of time: Have we spent all the money? | I’ve been waiting all day for him to call. | He was wearing a black leather jacket. That’s all I can remember. (=it is the only thing I remember) | + of All of this land belongs to me. | all the time (=continuously or very often): Bill talks about work all the time.
1 كُل، جَميع - كل الوَقْت
2 every person or thing in a group of people or things: Did you answer all twenty questions. | We all wanted to go home. | + of Listen, all of you, I have an important announcement.
2 كل شَخْص أو كل شَيْء
3 very many different types of things, people, or places: You can buy all kinds of things in the bazaar.
3 العَديد من النّاس أو الأشْياء
4 (not) at all used to say that something is not even slightly true, or to ask if something is even slightly true: The place hasn’t changed at all. | Was anyone at all interested in my idea?
4 (كلّا) على الإطْلاق
5 for all ... in spite of something: For all his faults, he was a good father.
5 بالرَّغم من
6 all told including every person or thing: There were seventeen of us, all told. → see also after all (AFTER1), all the same (SAME), in all (IN1)
6 شامِل جَميع الأشْخاص أو الأشْياء
Allah the Muslim name for God
الله
all-around AmE good at doing many different things, especially in sports; ALL-ROUND BrE: the best all-around player
بارع في نواحٍ مُتعدِّدة
allay formal allay sb’s worries/fears/suspicions etc to make someone feel less worried, frightened etc: I did my best to allay her fears.
يُقلِّل، يخفِّف
all clear the all clear permission to begin doing something: We have to wait for the all clear from the safety committee before we can start.
إشارة زَوال الخَطر
allegation a statement that someone has done something bad or illegal, which is not supported by proof: allegations that the police had tortured prisoners
ادِّعاء، زَعْم
allege to say that something is true without showing proof: Baldwin is alleged to have killed two people.
يدَّعي، يَزْعُم
alleged supposed to be true, but not proved: the group’s alleged connections with organized crime — allegedly /əˈledʒɪ(ə)dli/ adverb
مَزْعوم - بادِّعاء
allegiance loyalty or support given to a leader, country, belief etc: allegiance to the flag
وَلاء، إخْلاص
allegory a story, poem, painting etc in which a moral lesson is taught by showing goodness, evil, hope etc as people, places, or events — allegorical /ˌælɪ(ə)ˈgɒrɪkəl‖-ˈgɔːr-/ adjective
قصة رمزيَّة، قِصَّة مجازية - رَمزيّ، مَجازيّ
allergic 1 having an allergy: + to Are you allergic to anything?
1 حَسّاس لِـ
2 caused by an allergy: an allergic reaction to the bee sting
2 ناتج عن الحَساسيَّة
allergy a condition that makes you ill when you eat, touch, or breathe a particular thing: + to an allergy to peanuts
الحساسية
alleviate formal to make something less bad or severe: Aspirin should alleviate the pain. | The road was built to alleviate traffic problems.
يُخفِّف من حِدَّة
alley also al·ley·way /ˈæliweɪ/ noun [C] a narrow street between buildings
طُرْقة، زُقاق
alliance an agreement between countries or groups of people to work together or support each other: + between the alliance between students and factory workers in 1968 | + with Britain’s alliance with its NATO partners
حِلْف، تَحالُف
allied 1 Allied belonging to the countries that fought together against Germany in the First or Second World War: attacks by Allied armies
1 ينتمي إلى الْحُلَفاء في الحرب العالمية الثانية
2 be allied to/with sth to be joined or connected with something: a science that is closely allied to sociology
2 مُتحالِف مع، مُرتبِط بِـ
alligator a large animal like a CROCODILE that lives in the US and China
التِّمساح الأمريكي
alliteration the use of a series of words that begin with the same sound in order to make a special effect, for example in ‘Round the rocks runs the river’
التَّجانُس الاستِهلالي
allocate to decide to allow a particular amount of money, time etc to be used for a particular purpose: allocate sth for sth The hospital has allocated $500,000 for AIDS research.
يُخصِّص مالًا أو وقتًا لِـ
allocation 1 [C] an amount of something that is allocated
1 مِقدارُ الشيء المُخصَّص
2 [U] the decision to allocate something: the allocation of state funds to the university
2 التَّخصيص
allot tted, -tting to give something to someone as their share. or to allow an amount of time for something: Each person was allotted two tickets.
يُخَصِّص، يُحدِّد
allotment 1 [C,U] when an amount of something is given to someone as their share: the allotment of funds
1 تَحديد، تَخْصيص
2 [C] a small area of land that people in Britain can rent for growing vegetables
2 قطعة أرض
all out go all out to try with a lot of effort and determination: We’ll be going all out to win — all-out adjective: an all-out effort
يحاول بعزمٍ وتَصْميم - كُلُّهُ عَزم وتَصميم
allow 1 to give someone permission to do something or have something: be allowed Smoking is not allowed in the library. | allow sb sth We’re allowed four weeks holiday a year. | allow sb to do sth My parents would never allow me to stay out late. | allow sb in/out/up etc You’re not allowed in here.
1 يَسْمَح بِـ، يَأْذَن لِـ
2 to make it possible for something to happen or for someone to do something, especially by not trying to stop it: allow sb/sth to do sth We mustn’t allow the situation to get any worse.
2 يُصرِّح بِـ
3 to plan that a particular amount of time, money etc will be needed for a particular purpose: Allow 14 days for delivery. | allow yourself sth Allow yourself two hours to get to the airportallowable /əˈlaʊ(ə)bəl/ adjective
3 يُراعي - مَسْموح به
allow for sth phr verb [T] to include the possible effects of something in your plans so that you can deal with them: Even allowing for delays, we should finish early.
يأخذ في الْحُسبان، يعملُ حِسابًا لِـ
allowance 1 [C] money that you are given regularly or for a special reason: His father gives him a small monthly allowance. | a travel allowance
1 بَدَل، مَصروف
2 make allowances for to consider someone’s behaviour or work in a sympathetic way because they have a problem or disadvantage
2 يَلْتَمِس العُذْر لِـ
alloy a metal made by mixing two or more different metals
سَبيكة
all right spoken
1 good enough, but not excellent: ‘‘How’s the food?’’ ‘‘It’s all right, but I’ve had better.’’
1 حَسَن، مَعْقول
2 not hurt, not upset, or not having problems: Kate was looking very pale – I hope she’s all right.
2 لا بأس بِـ
3 that’s all right a) used to reply when someone thanks you: ‘‘Thanks for your help!’’ ‘‘That’s all right.’’ b) used to tell someone you are not angry when they say they are sorry: ‘‘Sorry I’m late!’’ ‘‘That’s all right!’’
3 (أ) لا شُكْر على واجب (ب) لا عليك!
4 suitable: We need to fix a time for our meeting. Would Thursday afternoon be all right?
4 مُناسِب
5 is it all right if ...? used to ask for someone’s permission to do something: Is it all right if I close the window?
5 هل يُضايقُك إذا ...؟
6 be doing/going all right to be successful in your job or life: ‘‘How’s your new restaurant?’’ ‘‘Oh, it’s doing all right, thanks.’’
6 يَنْجَح في عمله أو في حياته
all right interjection "used to say ‘‘yes’’ when someone asks you to do something or suggests something: ‘‘Let’s go now.’’ ‘‘All right.’’
نَعم، حسنًا، فَليَكُنْ"
all-round BrE good at doing many different things, especially in sports; ALL-AROUND AmE: an all-round athlete —all-rounder /. ˈ../ noun [C]
بارِع في نواحٍ متعدِّدة - البارع في نواحٍ متعدِّدة
allude allude to sb/sth phr verb [T] formal to mention something or someone in an indirect way
يُشير إلى، يُنَوِّه
allure an exciting quality that attracts people: the allure of travel — allure verb [T]
إغْراء، إغْواء - يُغري، يغوي
alluring very attractive: an alluring smile
جَذّاب، فاتِن
allusion formal when you mention something or someone in an indirect way: His poetry is full of historical allusions.
إشارَة، تَنْويه
ally 1 a country that helps another country, especially in war: the US and its European allies
1 حَليف
2 a person who supports you in a difficult situation
2 نَصير، مُسانِد
ally ally yourself to/with to join with another person, organization, or country and support them
يَتَحالَف مع
almighty 1 having the power to do anything: Almighty God | the Almighty (=God)
1 قَويّ، جَبّار - الله القادِر
2 very big or loud: The box hit the ground with an almighty crash.
2 شَديد
almond a flat white nut with a slightly sweet taste
اللَّوز
almost nearly but not completely: Are we almost there? | Almost all children like to read. | I’m sorry, I almost forgot to call you.
تَقْريبًا
alms old-fashioned money, food etc given to poor people
الإحْسان، الصَّدقة
aloft literary high up in the air: They held the banner aloft for everyone to see.
عاليًا، مُرْتَفِعًا
alone 1 not with other people: Do you like living alone? | all alone (=completely alone): I was all alone in a strange city. | alone with/together (=when there is no one else except the two of you): Suddenly they found themselves alone together in the same room.
1 بمفْرده - وَحيد تمامًا - بمفرده مع، بمفردهما
2 she/you alone only her, you etc: He alone can do the job.
2 هي فقط، أنت فقط
3 leave/let sb alone to stop annoying someone
3 دَعْه وشأنه، لا تُضايقه
4 leave/let sth alone to stop touching or changing something: Leave that clock alone or you’ll break it.
4 يَتركُ شيئًا ولا يلْمِسه
along 1 from one place on a line, road, river etc to another place on it: We took a walk along the river. | She looked anxiously along the line of faces.
1 على امْتِداد
2 in a line next to or on something long: They’ve put up a fence along the road. | photographs arranged along the shelf
2 في صَفٍّ طويل
3 at a particular place on a line, road, river etc: The house is somewhere along this road.
3 في نقطة معينة على الخطِّ أو الطَّريق
alongside close to and along the edge of something: a boat tied up alongside the dock
بِجانِب، بِحِذاء
aloof 1 deliberately staying away from other people or not talking to them, especially because you think you are better than they are: She seemed cold and aloof.
1 مُتَرَفِّع عن النّاس
2 if you are aloof from something, especially a difficult situation, you avoid becoming involved in it
2 مُبْتَعِدٌ عن
aloud 1 in a voice that people can hear: Will you please read the poem aloud? | He cried aloud with pain.
1 بصوتٍ عال
2 think aloud to say your thoughts as they come into your mind
2 يُفَكِّر بصوتٍ عال
alphabet a set of letters that are used when writing a language: the Greek alphabet
ألفباء اللُّغة، حروف الهجاء
alphabetical arranged according to the letters of the alphabet: The names are listed in alphabetical order. —alphabetically /-kli/ adverb
ألفبائي، مرتَّب هجائيًّا - ألفبائيًّا، هجائيًّا
alpine belonging to or relating to the Alps or other high mountains: alpine flowers
أَلبيّ، متعلِّق بالمرْتَفعات أو جبال الألب
already 1 before now or before a particular time: By the time he arrived, the room was already crowded.
1 من قبل
2 used to say that something has been done before and does not need to be done again: We’ve been there already. | ‘‘Would you like some lunch?’’ ‘‘No, thank you, I’ve already eaten.’’
2 عُمِلَ من قبل ولا داعِي لتَكراره
3 sooner than expected: I’ve forgotten the number already. | Is he leaving already?
3 في موعد مبكِّر عمّا كان متوقَّعًا
alright another spelling of ALL RIGHT that some people consider to be incorrect
هجاء آخر لِـ ALL RIGHT يَعتبره البعض خاطئًا
also in addition to something you have mentioned: We specialize in shoes, but we also sell handbags.
أيضًا
altar a kind of holy table, especially used in a church for religious ceremonies
المَذْبَح في الكنيسة
alter to change or make something or someone change: When she went back to her hometown, she found it had hardly altered. | They had to alter their plans.
يُغيِّر، يَتغيَّر
alteration a change in something, or the process of changing it: Alterations to clothes can be expensive.
تَغيير، تَبْديل
altercation formal a noisy argument
مُشاحَنة، جدال عنيف
alternate 1 happening in a regular way, first one thing, then the other thing, then the first one again: alternate rain and sunshine
1 مُتبادِل، مُتناوِب
2 alternate days/weeks/Mondays etc every second day, week etc: My ex-husband has the children alternate weekends.
2 يوم بعد يوم، أسبوع بعد أسبوع
3 AmE available to be used instead of something or someone else; ALTERNATIAVEalternately adverb
3 بديل - بالتَّبادل، بالتَّناوب
alternative 1 an alternative plan, idea etc can be used instead of another one: The main road is blocked, so drivers should choose an alternative route.
1 بَديل
2 different from what is usual or accepted: an alternative lifestyle | alternative medicine
2 مُخالِف للعُرْف أو المَقْبول
alternatively used to suggest an alternative to your first suggestion: I could come to your house, or alternatively we could meet in town.
كحلٍّ بديل
although 1 in spite of the fact that something is true: Although it was raining we decided to go for a walk.
1 مع أنّ
2 but: We only spent $800, although that doesn’t include the hotel bill.
2 لكنّ
altitude the height of something above sea level: high/low altitude Breathing becomes more difficult at high altitudes.
الارْتِفاع عن سطح البحر - مُرتفِع/مُنْخَفِض عن سطح البحر
alto a female singer with a low voice, or a male singer with a high voice
ألتو (أعلى صوت رجالي، وأخفَض صوت نسائي)
altogether 1 completely: Bradley seems to have disappeared altogether. | I’m not altogether sure what this word means. | an altogether different type of problem
1 تمامًا، كُليَّةً
2 considering everything or including the whole amount: There were five of us altogether. | It did rain a lot, but altogether I’d say it was a good trip.
2 آخذًا كل شيء في الاعتبار، بالنَّظر إلى الأمر من جميع الوجوه
altruistic actions or aims that are altruistic show that you care more about other people’s needs and happiness than about your own — altruism /ˈæltruɪzəm/ noun [U]
مَنْ يُنْكِر ذاتَه من أجل الغير - إنكار الذّات
aluminium al·u·min·i·um BrE, a·lumi·num /əˈluːmɪ(ə)nəm/, AmEnoun [U] a silver-white metal that is light and easy to bend
الألومنيوم
always 1 at all times, or every time: Always lock your car.
1 دائِمًا
2 for ever, or for as long as you can remember: We’re always ready to help you. | He said he’d always love her. | I’ve always wanted to go to China.
2 إلى الأبد، بقدر ما تعي الذّاكرة
3 happening continuously, especially in an annoying way: The stupid car is always breaking down!
3 بصفة مستمرَّة
4 you could always ... spoken used to make a polite suggestion: You could always try calling her.
4 على الدَّوام
am the first person singular present tense of the verb BE
صيغة المضارع من الفعل BE للمتكلم المفرد (أنا)
am, am used in times from MIDNIGHT until just before NOON: I start work at 9:00 a.m. → compare PM
ق. ظ، قبل الظُّهر
amalgamate to join together or join two organizations together to become a bigger organization: The two companies are amalgamating to form a huge multi-national corporation. —amalgamation /əˌmæl-gəˈmeɪʃən/ noun [C,U]
يَنْدمج، يُدْمج - الانْدِماج، الإدماج
amass to gradually get a lot of money or information: merchants who had been amassing wealth and property
يَكْنِز، يُكَدِّس
amateur doing something because you enjoy it and not as a job: an amateur boxer | amateur football
هاوٍ
amateur noun [C] 1 someone who does something because they enjoy it and not as a job → compare PROFESSIONAL2.
1 الهاوي
2 someone who does not have experience or skill in doing something: It looked as if the building had been decorated by a bunch of amateurs.
2 الشَّخص الذي تنقُصه الخِبرةُ والمهارَة
amateurish not very skilfully done: his amateurish attempts at painting
قليل المهارة
amaze to make someone feel very surprised: Kay amazed her friends by saying she was getting married.
يُدْهِش، يُذْهِل
amazed very surprised: + at We were amazed at how quickly the kids learned the song. | + (that) I’m amazed that you remember him.
مَدْهوش، مَذْهول
amazement when you feel very surprised: in amazement I stared at him in amazement.
الدَّهشة، الذُّهول
amazing making someone feel very surprised: What an amazing story! — amazingly adverb: an amazingly generous offer
مُدْهِش، مُذْهِل - بدرجة مُدهِشة
ambassador an important official that a government sends to another country to manage its relations with that country: the Mexican ambassador to Canada — ambassadorial /æmˌbæsəˈdɔːriəl/ adjective
سفير - مُتعلِّق أو خاصٌّ بالسُّفراء
amber 1 a hard yellowish-brown clear substance used for making jewellery: an amber necklace
1 كَهْرَمان
2 a yellowish-brown colour: The traffic lights turned to amber — amber adjective
2 لَونُ الكهرمان: أصفر مُحمرّ - كهرماني
ambidextrous able to use either hand equally skilfully
قادر على استخدام كلتا يديه بنفس الكفاءة
ambience also ambiance AmE literary the way a place makes you feel: the restaurant’s friendly ambience
الجو المحيط
ambiguity when what someone has said or written can have more than one possible meaning: There were several ambiguities in the letter.
اللَّبس، ازدِواج المعنى
ambiguous if what someone says or writes is ambiguous, it can have more than one possible meaning
ذو معنيين، مُلتبِس
ambition 1 [C] something that you have been wanting to achieve for a long time: Her ambition is to climb Mount Everest
1 ما نَصبو إليه، مَطْمَح
2 [U] a strong determination to become successful or powerful: Ambition drove Macbeth to kill the king and seize power.
2 الطُّموح
ambitious 1 determined to be successful or powerful: He is young and very ambitious.
1 طَموح
2 an ambitious plan aims to achieve something very great but very difficult: the most ambitious engineering project of modern times
2 خُطَّة طَموح
ambivalent not sure whether you like something or whether you want it: + about I think Carla’s ambivalent about getting married — ambivalence noun [U]
مُتردِّد، غير واثِق - التَّردُّد
amble to walk slowly in a relaxed way: He ambled down the street, smoking a cigarette.
يَسير الهُوَينى، يمشي ببطء
ambulance a special vehicle for taking ill or injured people to hospital
سيارة إسعاف
ambush a sudden attack by people who have been waiting and hiding: Two soldiers were killed in an ambush near the border.
كَمين، فَخّ
ambush verb [T] "to attack someone from a place where you have been hiding
يَكْمُن، يترصَّد"
ameliorate formal to make something better
يُحَسِّن
amen used at the end of a Christian or Jewish prayer
آمين
amenable willing to listen or do something: + to I’m sure they’ll be amenable to your suggestions.
مُستعدٌّ للاستِماع والعمل، سهلُ الانْقِياد
amend to make small changes or improvements to something that has been written: The law has been amended several times.
يُعَدِّل، يُصَلِّح
amendment 1 [C,U] a change made in the words of a law or document: + to an amendment to the new Finance Bill
1 التَّعديل
2 [C] one of the laws in the US Constitution: the Fifth Amendment
2 قانون في الدستور الأمريكيّ
amends make amends to do something to show that you are sorry for the harm you have caused: I tried to make amends by inviting him to lunch.
يُعوِّض، يُقدِّمُ تَرضيةً
amenity something that is available for you to use or visit in a place, which makes living there enjoyable and pleasant: The hotel’s amenities include a pool and two bars.
وسائِل الرّاحة
American 1 from or connected with the United States: American cars | American foreign policy
1 أمريكيّ
2 North American/South American from or connected with one of the countries in North America or South America
2 من أمريكا الشّمالية/من أمريكا الجنوبية
American noun [C] someone from the United States
المُواطِن الأمريكيّ
American football BrE an American game in which two teams wearing helmets and special protective clothes carry, kick, or throw an OVAL ; FOOTBALL AmE → see colour picture on page 1164
كرة القدم الأمريكيَّة
American Indian NATIVE AMERICAN
الأمريكيُّ الأصليّ، الهنديّ الأمريكيّ
Americanism an American word or phrase, especially one that someone uses when speaking or writing in British English
الكلمات أو التَّعبيرات الأمريكية
amethyst a purple stone used in jewellery
جَمَشْت: حجرٌ كريمٌ أرْجوانيّ
amiable friendly and pleasant: an amiable child —amiabl